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367. Many verbs signifying to favor, help, please, trust, and their contraries; also to believe, persuade, command, obey, serve, resist, envy, threaten, pardon, and spare,1 take the Dative:—
  1. cūr mihi invidēs, why do you envy me?
  2. mihi parcit atque īgnōscit, he spares and pardons me.
  3. īgnōsce patriō dolōrī (Liv. 3.48) , excuse a father's grief.
  4. subvenī patriae, opitulāre conlēgae (Fam. 10.10.2) , come to the aid of your country, help your colleague.
  5. mihi nōn displicet (Clu. 144) , it does not displease me.
  6. nōn omnibus serviō; (Att. 13.49), I am not a servant to every man.
  7. nōn parcam operae (Fam. 13.27) , I will spare no pains.
  8. sīc mihi persuāsī; (Cat. M. 78), so I have persuaded myself.
    mihi Fabius dēbēbit īgnōscere minus êius fāmae parcere vidēbor quam anteā cōnsuluī; (Tull. 3), Fabius will have to pardon me if I seem to spare his reputation less than I have heretofore regarded it.
    huic legiōnī Caesar cōnfīdēbat maximē; (B. G. 1.40.15), in this legion Cæsar trusted most.

In these verbs the Latin retains an original intransitive meaning. Thus: invidēre, to envy, is literally to look askance at; servīre is to be a slave to; suādēre is to make a thing pleasant (sweet) to.

a. Some verbs apparently of the same meanings take the Accusative.

Such are iuvō , adiuvō, help; laedō, injure; iubeō, order; dēficiō, fail; dēlectō, please:

  1. hīc pulvis oculum meum laedit, this dust hurts my eye. [Cf. multa oculīs nocent, many things are injurious to the eyes.]

Note 1.-- Fīdō and cōnfīdō take also the Ablative (§ 431): as,multum nātūrā locī “cōnfīdēbant(B. G. 3.9) , they had great confidence in the strength of their position.

Note 2.--Some common phrases regularly take the dative precisely like verbs of similar meaning. Such are—praestō esse, be on hand (cf. adesse ); mōrem gerere, humor (cf. mōrigerārī ); grātum facere, do a favor (cf. grātificārī ); dictō audiēns esse, be obedient (cf. oboedīre ); “cui fidem habēbat(B. G. 1.19) , in whom he had confidence (cf. cōnfīdēbat ).

So also many phrases where no corresponding verb exists. Such are—bene (male, pulchrē, aegrē, etc.) esse, be well (ill, etc.) off; iniūriam facere, do injustice to; diem dīcere, bring to trial (name a day for, etc.); agere grātiās, express one's thanks; habēre grātiam, feel thankful; referre grātiam, repay a favor; opus esse, be necessary; damnum dare, inflict an injury; acceptum (expēnsum) ferre (esse), credit (charge); honōrem habēre, to pay honor to.

b. Some verbs are used transitively with the Accusative or intransitively with the Dative without perceptible difference of meaning.

Such are adūlor , aemulor , dēspērō , praestōlor , medeor :—

  1. adūlātus est Antōniō (Nep. Att. 8) , he flattered Antony.
  2. adūlārī Nerōnem (Tac. Ann. 16.19) , to flatter Nero.
  3. pācem nōn dēspērās (Att. 8.15.3) , you do not despair of peace.
  4. salūtī dēspērāre vetuit (Clu. 68) , he forbade him to despair of safety.

c. Some verbs are used transitively with the Accusative or intransitively with the Dative with a difference of meaning:—2

  1. partī cīvium cōnsulunt (Off. 1.85) , they consult for a part of the citizens.
  2. cum cōnsuluissem (Fam. 11.29) , when I had consulted you.
  3. metuēns puerīs (Plaut. Am. 1113), anxious for the children.
  4. nec metuunt deōs (Ter. Hec. 772) , they fear not even the gods. [So also timeō .]
  5. prōspicite patriae (Cat. 4.3) , have regard for the state.
  6. prōspicere sēdem senectūtī; (Liv. 4.49.14), to provide a habitation for old age. [So also prōvideō .]

d. A few verbal nouns (as īnsidiae, ambush; obtemperātiō, obedience) rarely take the dative like the corresponding verbs:—

    īnsidiae cōnsulī (Sall. Cat. 32), the plot against the consul (cf. īnsidior ).
  1. obtemperātiō lēgibus (Legg. 1.42) , obedience to the laws (cf. obtemperō ).
  2. sibi ipsī respōnsiō; (De Or. 3.207), an answer to himself (cf. respondeō ).

Note.--In these cases the dative depends immediately upon the verbal force of the noun and not on any complex idea (cf. § 366. a, b).

1 These include, among others, the following: adversor , cēdō , crēdō, faveō , fīdō , fgnōscō, imperō , indulgeō , invideō , īrāscor , minitor , noceō , parcō , pāreō , placeō , resistō , serviō , studeō , suādeō ( persuādeō ), suscēnseō, temperō ( obtemperō ).

2 See the Lexicon under caveō, conveniō , cupiō , īnsistō , maneō , praevertō , recipiō , renūntiō , solvō , succēdō

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