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374. The Dative of the Agent is used with the Gerundive to denote the person on whom the necessity rests:—
  1. haec vōbīs prōvincia est dēfendenda (Manil. 14) , this province is for you to defend (to be defended by you).
  2. mihi est pūgnandum, I have to fight (i.e. the need of fighting is to me: cf. mihi est liber, I have a book, § 373. N.).

a. This is the regular way of expressing the agent with the Second or Passive Periphrastic Conjugation (§ 196).

Note 1.--The Ablative of the Agent with ab (§ 405) is sometimes used with the Second Periphrastic Conjugation when the Dative would be ambiguous or when a stronger expression is desired:—

  1. quibus est ā vōbīs cōnsulendum(Manil. 6) , for whom you must consult. [Here two datives, quibus and vōbīs , would have been ambiguous.]
  2. rem ab omnibus vōbīs prōvidendam (Rab. 4) , that the matter must be attended to by all of you. [The dative might mean for all of you.]

Note 2.--The Dative of the Agent is either a special use of the Dative of Possession or a development of the Dative of Reference (§ 376).

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