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390. An intransitive verb often takes the Accusative of a noun of kindred meaning, usually modified by an adjective or in some other manner.

This construction is called the Cognate Accusative or Accusative of Kindred Signification:

  1. tūtiōrem vītam vīvere (Verr. 2.118) , to live a safer life.
  2. tertiam iam aetātem hominum vīvēbat (Cat. M. 31) , he was now living the third generation of men.
  3. servitūtem servīre, to be in slavery.
  4. coīre societātem, to [go together and] form an alliance.

a. Verbs of taste, smell, and the like take a cognate accusative of the quality:—

  1. vīnum redolēns (Phil. 2.63) , smelling [of] wine.
  2. herbam mella sapiunt (Plin. H. N. 11.18) , the honey tastes [of] grass.
  3. olēre malitiam (Rosc. Com. 20) , to have the odor of malice.
  4. Cordubae nātīs poētīs, pingue quiddam sonantibus atque peregrīnum (Arch. 26) , to poets born at Cordova, whose speech had a somewhat thick and foreign accent.

b. The cognate accusative is often loosely used by the poets:—

  1. huic errōrī similem [errōrem] īnsānīre (Hor. S. 2.3.62) , to suffer a delusion like this.
  2. saltāre Cyclōpa (id. 1.5.63), to dance the Cyclops (represent in dancing).
  3. Bacchānālia vīvere (Iuv. 2.3) , to live in revellings.
  4. Amaryllida resonāre (Ecl. 1.5) , to reëcho [the name of] Amaryllis.
  5. intonuit laevum (Aen. 2.693) , it thundered on the left.
  6. dulce rīdentem, dulce loquentem (Hor. Od. 1.22.23) , sweetly smiling, sweetly prattling.
  7. acerba tuēns (Aen. 9.794) , looking fiercely. [Cf. Eng. “to look daggers.”]
  8. torvum clāmat (id. 7.399), he cries harshly.

c. A neuter pronoun or an adjective of indefinite meaning is very common as cognate accusative (cf. §§ 214. d, 397. a):—

  1. Empedoclēs multa alia peccat (N. D. 1.29) , Empedocles commits many other errors.
  2. ego illud adsentior Theophrastō; (De Or. 3.184), in this I agree with Theophrastus.
    multum ista fefellit opīniō; (Verr. 2.1.88), you were much deceived in this expectation (this expectation deceived you much).
  3. plūs valeō, I have more strength.
  4. plūrimum potest, he is strongest.
  5. quid ista laedunt (Leg. Agr. 2.32) , what harm do those things do me?
  6. hōc moneō, I give you this warning (cf. d. N.1).
  7. id laetor, I rejoice at this (cf. d. N.1).
  8. quid moror, why do I delay?
  9. quae hominēs arant, nāvigant, aedificant (Sall. Cat. 2.7), what men do in ploughing, sailing, and building.

d. So in many common phrases:—

  1. quid ille velit (B. G. 1.34) , if he should want anything of him (if he should want him in anything).
  2. numquid, Geta, aliud vīs (Ter. Ph. 151) , can I do anything more for you, Geta (there is nothing you want of me, is there)? [A common form of leave-taking.]
  3. quid est quod, etc., why is it that, etc.? [Cf. hōc erat quod (Aen. 2.664), was it for this that, etc.?]

Note 1.--In these cases substantives with a definite meaning would be in some other construction:—

  1. inhōc eōdempeccat, he errs in this same point.
  2. bonīsrēbuslaetārī, to rejoice at prosperity. [Also:in, , or ex .]
  3. testāmentōmonēre, to remind one of the will. [Later: genitive, § 351.]
  4. officī admonēre, to remind one of his duty. [Also: officiō .]

Note 2.--In some of these cases the connection of the accusative with the verb has so faded out that the words have become real adverbs: as, multum , plūs, plūrimum; plērumque, for the most part, generally; cēterum , cētera, for the rest, otherwise, but; prīmum, first; nihil, by no means, not at all; aliquid, somewhat; quid, why; facile, easily. So in the comparative of adverbs (§ 218). But the line cannot be sharply drawn, and some of the examples under b may be classed as adverbial.


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