[*] 409. The Ablative is used to denote the means or instrument of an action:—
- “certantēs pūgnīs, calcibus, unguibus, morsū dēnique ” (Tusc. 5.77) , fighting with fists, heels, nails, and even teeth.
- “cum pūgnīs et calcibus concīsus esset ” (Verr. 3.56) , when he had been pummelled with their fists and heels.
- meīs labōribus interitū rem pūblicam līberāvī; (Sull. 33), by my toils I have saved the state from ruin.
- “multae istārum arborum meā manū sunt satae ” (Cat. M. 59) , many of those trees were set out with my own hands.
- “ vī victa vīs, vel potius oppressa virtūte audācia est ” (Mil. 30) , violence was overcome by violence, or rather, boldness was put down by courage.
- “Deus bonīs omnibus explēvit mundum ” (Tim. 3) , God has filled the world with all good things.
- “ aggere et crātibus fossās explent ” (B. G. 7.86) , they fill up the ditches with earth and fascines.
- tōtum montem hominibus complēvit (id. 1.24), he filled the whole mountain with men.
- “opīmus praedā ” (Verr. 2.1.132) , rich with spoils.
- vīta plēna et cōnferta voluptātibus (Sest.23), life filled and crowded with delights.
- “Forum Appī differtum nautīs ” (Hor. S. 1.5.4) , Forum Appii crammed with bargemen.
[*] Note.--In poetry the Genitive is often used with these words. Compleō and impleō sometimes take the genitive in prose (cf. § 356); so regularly plēnus and (with personal nouns) complētus and refertus (§ 349. a):—
- “omnia plēna lūctūs et maerōris fuērunt ” (Sest. 128) , everything was full of grief and mourning.
- “ ōllam dēnāriōrum implēre ” (Fam. 9.18) , to fill a pot with money. [Here evidently colloquial, otherwise rare in Cicero.]
- convīvium vīcīnōrum compleō; (Cat. M. 46, in the mouth of Cato), I fill up the banquet with my neighbors.
- “cum complētus mercātōrum carcer esset ” (Verr. 5.147) , when the prison was full of traders.