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432. Certain Adverbs and Adjectives are sometimes used as Prepositions:—

a. The adverbs prīdiē , postrīdiē , propius , proximē , less frequently the adjectives propior and proximus , may be followed by the Accusative:—

  1. prīdiē Nōnās Mâiās (Att. 2.11) , the day before the Nones of May (see § 631).
  2. postrīdiē lūdōs (Att. 16.4) , the day after the games.
  3. propius perīculum (Liv. 21.1) , nearer to danger.
  4. propior montem (Iug. 49) , nearer the hill.
  5. proximus mare ōceanum (B. G. 3.7) , nearest the ocean.

Note.-- Prīdiē and postrīdiē take also the Genitive (§ 359. b). Propior , propius , proximus , and proximē , take also the Dative, or the Ablative with ab :—

  1. propius Tiberī quam Thermopylīs (Nep. Hann. 8) , nearer to the Tiber than to Thermopylæ.
  2. Sugambrī quī sunt proximī Rhēnō (B. G. 6.35) , the Sugambri, who are nearest to the Rhine.
  3. proximus ā postrēmō (Or. 217) , next to the last.

b. Ūsque sometimes takes the Accusative, but ūsque ad is much more common:—

  1. terminōs ūsque Libyae (Iust. 1.1.5), to the bounds of Libya.
  2. ūsque ad castra hostium (B. G. 1.51) , to the enemy's camp.

c. The adverbs palam , procul , simul , may be used as prepositions and take the Ablative:—

  1. rem crēditōrī palam populō solvit (Liv. 6.14) , he paid the debt to his creditor in the presence of the people.
  2. haud procul castrīs in modum mūnicipī exstrūcta (Tac. H. 4.22) , not far from the camp, built up like a town.
  3. simul nōbīs habitat barbarus (Ov. Tr. 5.10.29), close among us dwells the barbarian.

Note.--But simul regularly takes cum; procul is usually followed by ab in classic writers; and the use of palam as a preposition is comparatively late.

d. The adverb clam is found in early Latin with the Accusative, also once with the Genitive and once in classical Latin with the Ablative:—

    clam mātrem suam (Pl. Mil. 112), unknown to his mother.
  1. clam patris (id. Merc. 43), without his father's knowledge.
  2. clam vōbīs (B. C. 2.32.8), without your knowledge.

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