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241. Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from noun-stems, are formed by means of the secondary feminine suffixes—

-ia (-iēs), -tia (-tiēs), -tās, -tūs, -tūdō

audāc-ia, boldness; audāx, bold.
pauper-iēs, poverty; pauper, poor.
trīsti-tia, sadness; trīstis, sad.
sēgni-tiēs, laziness; sēgnis, lazy.
boni-tās, goodness; bonus, good.
senec-tūs, age; senex, old.
māgni-tūdō, greatness; māgnus, great.

  1. In stems ending in o- or ā- the stem-vowel is lost before -ia (as superb-ia ) and appears as i before -tās, -tūs, -tia (as in boni-tās , above).
  2. Consonant stems often insert i before -tās: as, loquāx (stem loquāc-),loquāci-tās; buthones-tās,mâies-tās (as if from old adjectives in -es),ūber-tās, volup-tās . o after i is changed toe: as, pius (stem pio-),pie-tās; socius , socie-tās.
a. In like manner - and - (F.) form abstract nouns, but are associated with verbs and apparently added to verb-stems:—
  1. cupī-, desire, from cupere, to desire (as if from stem cupī-).
  2. dulcē-, sweetness (cf. dulcis, sweet), as if from a stem dulcē-, cf. dulcē-scō.
  3. lumbā-, lumbago (cf. lumbus, loin), as if from †lumbō, -āre.

Note.--Of these, -ia is inherited as secondary (cf. § 234. 2.11). -tia is formed by adding -ia to stems with a t-suffix: as, mīlitia, from mīles (stem mīlit-); molestia from molestus; clēmentia from clēmēns; whence by analogy, mali-tia , avāri-tia . -tās is inherited, but its component parts, - + ti-, are found as suffixes in the same sense: as, senecta from senex; sēmen-tis from sēmen. -tūs is - + ti-, cf. servitū- . - and - appear only with long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy; but - is do- + ōn-: as, cupidus , cupīdō; gravidus, gravēdō (cf. gravē-scō ); albidus , albēdō (cf. albēscō ); formidus, hot, formīdō (cf. formīdulōsus ), (hot flash?) fear; - is possibly co- + ōn-; cf. vorāx , vorāgō , but cf. Cethēgus . -tūdō is compounded of - with tu-stems, which acquire a long vowel from association with verb-stems in u- (cf. volūmen , from volvō ): as, cōnsuētū- , valētū- , habitū-dō; whence servitūdō (cf. servitūs , tūtis ).

b. Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices and groups, are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by means of the suffixes—

-ium, -tium

hospit-ium, hospitality, an inn; 1 hospes (gen. hospit-is ), a guest.
collēg-ium, colleagueship, a college; collēga, a colleague.
auspic-ium, soothsaying, an omen; auspex (gen. auspic-is ), a soothsayer.
gaud-ium, joy; gaudēre, to rejoice.
effug-ium, escape; effugere, to escape.
benefic-ium, a kindness; benefacere, to benefit; cf. beneficus .
dēsīder-ium, longing; dēsīderāre, to miss, from †-sīdēs, out
of place, of missing soldiers.
adverb-ium, adverb; ad verbum , [added] to a verb.
interlūn-ium, time of new moon; inter lūnās, between moons.
rēgifug-ium, flight of the kings; rēgis fuga, flight of a king.
servi-tium, slavery, the slave class; servus, a slave.

Vowel stems lose their vowel before -ium: as, collēg-ium, from collēga .

Note.-- -ium is the neuter of the adjective suffix -ius. It is an inherited primary suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary. -tium is formed like -tia, by adding -ium to stems with t: as, exit-ium, equit-ium (cf. exitus, equitēs); so, by analogy, calvitium , servitium (from calvus, servus).

c. Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means of the suffixes—

-nia, F.; -nium, -lium, -cinium, N.

pecū-nia, money (chattels); pecū, cattle.
contici-nium, the hush of night; conticēscere, to become still.
auxi-lium, help; augēre, to increase.
lātrō-cinium, robbery; latrō, robber (cf. latrōcinor, rob, implying an adjective † latrōcinus ).

For Diminutives and Patronymics, see §§ 243, 244.

1 The abstract meaning is put first.

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