[*] 404. The Ablative (with or without a preposition) is used to express Cause:—1
- “ neglegentiā plectimur ” (Lael. 85) , we are chastised for negligence.
- “gubernātōris ars ūtilitāte nōn arte laudātur ” (Fin. 1.42) , the pilot s skill is praised for its service, not its skill.
- certīs dē causīs, for cogent reasons.
- “ ex vulnere aeger ” (Rep. 2.38) , disabled by (from) a wound.
- “mare ā sōle lucet ” (Acad. 2.105) , the sea gleams in the sun (from the sun).
- “doleō tē aliīs malīs labōrāre ” (Fam. 4.3) , I am sorry that you suffer with other ills. [Cf. “ ex aere aliēnō labōrāre” (B. C. 3.22) , to labor under debt (from another's money).]
- “exsultāre laetitiā, triumphāre gaudiō coepit ” (Clu. 14) , she began to exult in gladness, and triumph in joy.
- “exsiluī gaudiō ” (Fam. 16.16) , I jumped for joy. [Cf. “lacrimō gaudiō” (Ter. Ad. 409) , I weep for joy.]
- “ārdēre dolōre et īrā ” (Att. 2.19.5) , to be on fire with pain and anger.
- “nōn ob praedam aut spoliandī cupīdine ” (Tac. H. 1.63) , not for booty or through lust of plunder.
- “amīcitia ex sē et propter sē expetenda ” (Fin. 2.83) , friendship must be sought of and for itself.
[*] Note.--But these constructions are often confused: as, “—pārēre lēgibus propter metum” (Par. 34) , to obey the laws on account of fear. [Here metum is almost equivalent to “the terrors of the law,” and hence propter is used, though the ablative would be more natural.][*] c. The ablatives causā and grātiā, for the sake of, are used with a genitive preceding, or with a pronoun in agreement:—
- eā causā, on account of this; quā grātiā; (Ter. Eun. 99), for what purpose?
- meā causā, for my sake; meā grātiā; (Plaut.), for my sake.
- ex meā et reī pūblicae causā, for my own sake and the republic's.
- praedictiōnis causā; (N. D. 3.5), by way of prophecy.
- exemplī grātiā; (verbī grātiā), for example.
- suī pūrgāndī grātiā, for the sake of clearing themselves.