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477. The Pluperfect is used (1) to denote an action or state completed in past time; or (2) sometimes to denote an action in indefinite time, but prior to some past time referred to:—
  1. (1) locī nātūra erat haec, “quem locum nostrī castrīs dēlēgerant(B. G. 2.18) , this was the nature of the ground which our men had chosen for a camp.
  2. Viridovīx summam imperī tenēbat eārum omnium cīvitātum quae dēfēcerant (id. 3.17), Viridovix held the chief command of all those tribes which had revolted.
  3. (2) “neque vērō cum aliquid mandāverat cōnfectum putābat(Cat. 3.16) , but when he had given a thing in charge he did not look on it as done.
  4. quae quandō adepta est id quod fuerat concupītum, tum fert alacritātem (Tusc. 4.15) , if it (desire) ever has gained what it had [previously] desired, then it produces joy.

For the Epistolary Pluperfect, see § 479.


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    • Anne Mahoney, Overview of Latin Syntax, Verbs
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