108. 33.56 VOLUTE-KRATER from Italy PLATES LVIII-LXHeight 0.68, without the handles 0.59. Bull. MFA. 40 pp. 11-13 (Caskey). Warriors leaving home. On the neck: A, a youth (Theseus?) pursuing a woman: B, (women). About 450 B.C., by the Niobid Painter (Caskey in Bull. MFA. 40 p. 13; ARV. p. 419 no. 11). Warriors leaving home. There are three groups. The first and chief, (α), of seven or eight figures, occupies the front of the vase, with the area of the left handle; the second, (β), of four figures, the back of the vase; the third, (γ), of three figures, the area of the right handle. （α) A young warrior, bare-headed, holds his spear in his left hand and gives his right to a woman, who holds his helmet and a second spear. Between them, a woman holds phiale and oinochoe for the parting libation. On the left, a woman holds a wreath with the ends not yet joined. On the right, a fourth woman holds a piece of linen. These five figures, as will be seen from the general view of the vase, form the true decoration of the front of the vase; for the two or three remaining figures in the group, to left of them, are not seen when one looks at the vase exactly from the front. Stepping to the left, one sees that the woman holding the wreath stands by the chair of an old man who sits watching the scene, and that a fifth woman also watches, with her hand laid on the back of the chair. These three figures are thought of as in a porch, which is indicated by a single Doric column with part of the architrave above it. To left of them in the picture is an open door, with a glimpse of a woman in the house. This part of the vase is fragmentary, and it is not certain whether the house belongs to the first scene, as is rather more likely, or to the second. The libation before departure is a favourite theme in vase-painting of the end of the sixth century and of the fifth: see Furtwängler in FR. i pp. 188 and 262, and Wrede in AM. 41 pp. 260-2 and 313, with the earlier studies quoted by him on his p. 260 note 3. Wreaths are often held in such scenes: see Wrede ibid. pp. 262-4, Deubner in ARW. 30 (1933) pp. 89-90, Johansen Iliaden p. 64. A slighter picture of the same class as ours, on a pelike from the school of the Niobid Painter in the Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco (CV. pl. 18, 1, pl. 19, 1, and pl. 20, 1: ARV. p. 425 no. 15) is deemed by H. R. W. Smith to represent 'the homecoming of a warrior rather than his departure, if one may stress the wreath held by the woman: he has done ἄξια στεφάνον' (ibid. p. 38): but wreaths are in place at the departure as well as at the return. A good illustration of this is provided by a column-krater in the Hirsch collection (A, Pollak Coll. Woodyat pl. 3, 52: ARV. p. 391, Hephaistos Painter no. 13): a youth runs off, a pair of his spears in his left hand, his right hand raised in a gesture of farewell: on the right, Athena holds up a wreath; on the left, Nike holds out another. Wreaths are also held in arming-scenes, for example on a black-figured column-krater, from the Group of London B 76, in Berlin (Berlin inv. 3763: Johansen Iliaden fig. 16) and on the black-figured amphora by the Amasis Painter in New York (New York 06.1021.69: Sambon Coll. Canessa pl. 14 and p. 57). （β) (on the reverse of the vase): a young warrior, fully armed, holds his spear and shield and extends his right hand, with a phiale, towards a woman who holds an oinochoe; on each side of the pair is a woman with a wreath, not yet tied, in her hands. （γ) (at the right handle): a light-armed youth with two spears stands between a man in the prime of life and an old man, who holds a sprig. We return to the first scene (α) and look at it in detail. The youth wears chitoniskos, leather corslet, strengthened with bronze scales in front, and sword, but no greaves; a wrap hangs over his left arm and shoulder. The hair is bobbed, with a thin fillet. The woman who holds his second spear and his helmet looks at him and takes his hand lightly. She wears a chiton, and over it, in lieu of himation, a peplos, with long overfall, overgirt, open at the right side, and leaving the left shoulder free; necklace, earring, stephane decorated with saltires and surmounted by leaves in front. The peplos is the same garment as Athena wears on the vase from which the painter takes his name, the calyx-krater in the Louvre (Louvre G 341; FR. pl. 108, whence Pfuhl fig. 492 and Webster Der Niobidenmaler pll. 2-5; CV. d pl. 1; Enc. phot. iii p. 22; ARV. pp. 419-20 no. 20): except that it is let down from the left shoulder. The Corinthian helmet, which is held by the nasal, has catches on it for the insertion of plumes. These were recognized by H. R. W. Smith (CV. San Francisco p. 38), who quotes two examples: others are on the calyx-krater by the Geneva Painter in Geneva (FR. ii p. 314 fig. 105, whence, part, Pfuhl fig. 509; phots. Giraudon 4028-9: ARV. p. 430 no. 2: the helmet on the ground), on a volute-krater of the Geneva Group in the Louvre (Louvre G 482: Raoul-Rochette pl. 80: ARV. p. 430), and on a pelike, by one of the Mannerists, in Florence (St. e mat. 3 pp. 162-3; CV. pl. 34, 1-2: ARV. p. 398 no. 53); further, on two Etruscan mirrors which, as Eldridge saw, are by a single hand (AJA. 1917 p. 365 note 2): the Death of Ajax in Boston (Harv. St. 11 pl. 2, von Mach; JHS. 69 pl. 7, a; see also EVP. p. 140), and the Graiai in New York (Gerhard E.S., suppl., pl. 66; Richter Etruscan Art in the Museum fig. 133: see also JHS. 67 p. 9 and 69 pl. 7, b with p. 8). The woman with the phiale wears a peplos with overfall, pinned on both shoulders, a necklace, and a kerchief in the form of a thick band, set with crosses, and having leaves in front. She stands, like the youth, with both legs frontal. (Above the right shoulder of this woman, the letter Ν was incised on the vase at some time before the black background was painted in.) The phiale is ornamented with two rows of pear-shaped or gout-shaped bosses pointing down and up: on this type see Luschey Die Phiale pp. 41-60. The woman on the left, in the porch, wears a thick woollen chiton of the same type as Artemis's on the amphora by the Niobid Painter in the Seillière collection (El. 2 pl. 90, whence FR. iii p. 284; Webster pl. 8, a: ARV. p. 421 no. 40), Aithra's and Priam's on his volute-krater in Bologna (Bologna 268: Mon. 11 pl. 14; Webster pl. 6: ARV. 418 no. 1), Priam's on his calyx-krater in Ferrara (Ferrara T. 936: Aurigemma 1 p. 177 = 2 p. 235: ARV. p. 419 no. 16): the uppermost of its three divisions (each bordered below) is sometimes seen to be a flounce. Over this chiton, the woman on our vase wears a himation draped shawl-wise; necklace, small earring, head-band with leaves in front. The feet are missing, but must both have been frontal. The woman on the right of the warrior, in profile, wears chiton, himation, necklace, stephane with leaves in front; the ends of the hair are confined in a small bag. The front-hair is contoured with relief-line; so is the back-hair, and it has several wavy lines, indicating strands, within the contour. The purpose of the linen cloth in this woman's hands is not clear. In another picture of the libation before departure, on a Chicago bell-krater in the manner of the Niobid Painter (AJA. 1930 pp. 172-3; Webster pl. 19, a: ARV. p. 425 no. 9), a woman holds a piece of stuff, but it is narrower than here and of thicker material. In the picture of Achilles receiving his armour on a calyx-krater in Bologna, also in the manner of the Niobid Painter (Bologna 291: Eos 34 pl. 3, 5 and pl. 2, 4: ARV. p. 424 no. 3) the Nereid standing behind Achilles holds just such a piece of linen as is seen on our vase. Perhaps it is intended to wipe the sword or spear before handing to the warrior. On the arming cup by Douris in Vienna (Vienna 3694; FR. pl. 53, whence Hoppin i p. 267; Pfuhl fig. 455: ARV. p. 280 no. 6) a youth furbishes his spear with a couple of cloths; on the arming cup by the Brygos Painter in the Vatican (Mus. Greg. ii pl. 81, 2; Gerhard AV. pll. 269-70; phots. Alinari 35809-11: ARV. p. 249 no. 41) a youth furbishes his spear with a cloth, and a man his corslet; a similar cloth, but larger, hangs out of the fur bag held by the old man on the interior of the cup; other cloths hang out of the fur bags hanging on the wall in the exterior pictures. (The purpose of the longer piece of stuff which is being offered to the youth who is putting his sword on is uncertain: it is small for a wrap.) One might guess that the warrior on the Boston vase will use the cloth to wipe his face with — the campaigning season was summer — but that would hardly suit the Bologna vase, and the explanation already given is more probable. The wiping or burnishing of armour is mentioned by the poets: θωρήκων τε νεοσμήκτων Homer (Hom. Il. 13.342): νεοσμήκτῳ τε μαχαίρῃ Euphorion 132. One should mention, in conclusion, although they do not help, the larger pieces of stuff — chitoniskoi, I thought — sometimes held by warriors in arming scenes (Kl. p. 24 no. 12, p. 25 no. 29, p. 29 no. 79). The sword hanging to right of this figure may either belong to this group or to group γ. To return to the figures on the left of group α. The old man, dressed in himation and shoes, holds a crotched stick by the head. The little finger of his right hand has disappeared in a chip. His brow is wrinkled, his hair and beard white (in the drawing they look darker than the flesh, but are of course lighter). The woman behind him wears chiton, himation, necklace, head-band with leaves. The skull is bordered with relief-line. She rests her right hand on the back of the old man's chair, and her left hand on her right forearm; her head is slightly bent. She is the youngest of the women, and young sister rather than maid. The warrior's shield hangs on the wall, and under it, by a cord, an uncertain object, open at the end. According to H. R. W. Smith the same object is carried by the young man who accompanies Amphiaraos at his departure on a bell-krater by the Danae Painter in Syracuse (ML. 14 pl. 4 and p. 66: ARV. p. 666 no. 7). That, however, must be the same as appears, in the same circumstances, on a neck-amphora in the manner of Polygnotos formerly in the Gargiulo collection (Inghirami pl. 25; Raoul-Rochette pl. 71, 2, whence Roscher s.v. Telamon p. 235 = s.v. Teukros p. 422; Gargiulo Recueil ii pl. 33; Overbeck Gal. pl. 13, 7: ARV. p. 700 no. 79): Ajax is taking leave of his parents, and his squire Teukros, light-armed, stands beside him carrying the luggage on his back, a sort of bag or holdall strapped round his neck. On such figures of squires or attendants carrying baggage see Jacobsthal Mel. Reliefs pp. 86-8; see also Studniczka in Jb. 31 p. 176. It does not seem to me certain that the object on the Boston vase is the same as on the krater in Syracuse: if it is, it is a bag or holdall, not yet filled. The same thing, or the end of it, may be represented in the departure-scene on a neck-amphora by the Niobid Painter in Oxford (Oxford 280: Millingen PVA. pll. 55-6; Gardner pl. 12; hardly visible in CV. pl. 16, 3: ARV. p. 422 no. 46). The device on the shield is a chariot-wheel. This is one of the few charges used by the Niobid Painter and his companions. The rich and varied heraldry of archaic art declines in the early classic period, and the scores of brilliant devices soon shrink to a handful. In Aeschylus heraldry, like much else that is archaic, sets in splendour: but to a herald it is ominous that the pageantry of the Seven against Thebes culminates in a magnificent negation: “σῆμα δ᾽ οὐκ ἐπῆν κύκλῳ.
” Euripides has some heraldry in the Phoenissae, but it is poor and forced. Of course there is the shield of the Parthenos: but that is not heraldry. The slender Doric column represents a wooden porch or colonnade. A necking is shown above the flutes, then a spreading and very convex echinus, then shallow epistyle, reglets, frieze. The wooden building at the left extremity of the group is fragmentary: but we see, below, a base or sill, no doubt of stone, and, above, a simple architrave, a gable, and acroteria. The supports are not columns, but plain wooden posts. Between them we see the two panels of the open door. The jambs are not shown, are thought of as concealed by the posts. The cross-plank at the foot of each panel is ornamented with the usual rows of large nails. There were no doubt similar cross-pieces at the top and halfway up. There is also a row of nails at the edge of each panel. This is such an erection as appears on the Campanian bell-krater, with Orestes and Iphigenia, in the Louvre (Bulle Eine Skenographie p. 15; Pickard-Cambridge The Theatre of Dionysus in Athens fig. 58). A woman stands inside the door. The lower part of her chiton is preserved. Her feet are not shown. She must have been watching, and was probably standing frontal, with head turned to the right. Perhaps the wife of the old man, and mother or grandmother to the warrior. Figures of women, half-seen through the open door, sitting or standing, are not infrequent in vase-painting from the François vase onwards: three examples only: the pyxis London E 773, by a follower of Douris (FR. pl. 57, 1: ARV. p. 537 no. 41); a calyx-krater, from the Group of Polygnotos, in Tarquinia (Jb. 34 p. 133: ARV. p. 698 no. 59); the pyxis London 1920.12-21.1, by the Marlay Painter (JHS. 41 pl. 6, 1-2 and 4-5 and p. 144: ARV. p. 767 no. 15). Caskey took our figure for a statue, but this does not seem probable. （β) The young warrior, standing with both legs frontal, wears chitoniskos, leather corslet, helmet, and over his shoulders a wrap; holds spear and shield The helmet, of Attic type, has a snake on the inside of the raised cheek-piece, and a row of leaves on the upper edge of the combined frontlet and nasal. The shoulder-piece is ornamented with a quatrefoil. Part of the baldric is seen at the right shoulder. The shield-device is again a chariot-wheel. The phiale, with its omphalos, is drawn in three-quarter view. The woman standing with both legs frontal, facing the warrior, has an oinochoe in her hand. She wears a peplos, with overfall, overgirt, and pinned at the shoulders; a necklace, a head-cord. The contours of front-hair and bun are in relief-lines. The two other women, who hold wreaths, are dressed in chiton and himation; the left-hand one has a broad band round her head, with a pattern of crosses, and leaves in front. The contour of the hair is in relief-lines. The collar-bone and the sinew of the neck are in brown. The other woman has a stephane with embattled forepart. The outline of the skull is in relief. The column differs in small particulars from that on A: there are no reglets, and the frieze has a more Doric look. （γ) The legs of the youth are again frontal. He wears a chlamys and a baldric. What one sees at his left shoulder is the edge of a pilos or petasos slung round his neck. He holds a pair of spears in his left hand, and his right arm is akimbo. Brown lines for the collar-bone and on the neck. The skull of the man facing him is contoured with relief-line, and his ear, in relief-lines, shows through his hair. Brown lines for the serratus magnus. He wears a himation; so does the old man on the other side, but under it he has a thick woollen chiton, of the same material as those of the woman with the wreath in group α, and of Priam on the volute-krater by the Niobid Painter in Bologna and his calyx-krater in Ferrara (Mon. 11 pl. 14, Webster pl. 6; Aurigemma 1 p. 177 = 2 p. 235: ARV. pp. 418-19 nos. 1 and 16). His hair and beard are white. Both men are wreathed and have sticks, and the older holds a sprig in his left hand. These sprigs were in place at departures as well as in many other junctures, and are often represented in such scenes: three examples will suffice: the black-figured hydria, by the Painter of Louvre F 6, in London (London B 51: Rumpf Sakonides pl. 11), the stamnos by the Eucharides Painter in Würzburg (BSA. 18 pl. 15; Langlotz pl. 185: ARV. p. 155 no. 29), and the bell-krater, already cited, in Chicago (above, ii p. 78). After the splendid proto-volute-krater of Ergotimos, and the less successful efforts of Nikosthenes and others, the volute-krater reached its canonical form in the late sixth century and early fifth: good examples of this stage are a black-figured krater in Boston (Boston 90.153: Caskey G. p. 121) and the red-figured, decorated by the Berlin Painter, in the British Museum (London E 468: Berl. pll. 29-31: ARV. p. 138 no. 102); the krater decorated by Euphronios in Arezzo would have been as good an example, if the foot had been preserved. Our vase is still of the same type as in the earlier vases: all that has altered is the relation of the two parts of the foot: the upper member has shrunk at the expense of the lower. The proportions are somewhat different: the vase is taller and the body slopes less towards the base. The volute-krater Boston 00.347 (Pl. LXI), decorated by a follower of the Niobid Painter, is very like ours. The potters of the second quarter of the fifth century modified the shape by elaborating the mouldings of the neck and mouth, and exchanging the old foot for a double-ogee. The older variety persisted by the side of the new models till the middle of the century, then disappeared. Both new and old were used by the Altamura Painter, the Niobid Painter, and their school: it might have been expected that the earlier of their vases would be of the old type, the later of the new: but it is not so. The composition stresses the verticals. The treatment of the drapery varies with the garment: in the thin chitons, long, dense, equable, parallel lines; in the thick chitons, no folds; in the peploi, sparse folds, long straight lines with short straight lines at an acute angle to the lower end; in the himation, curved lines of freer course; eye-folds in some of the himatia and peploi. In the small picture on the front of the neck, a youth or man runs to right, a pair of spears held at his side in his right hand, his left hand extended to lay hold of a woman who flees, looking round. She is preceded by a companion, also fleeing and looking back. On the right, an old man stands with both legs frontal, a stick in his hand, looking away from the pursuit and towards a woman who runs towards it. A Doric column is seen between, and she is thought of as running out of her house. On the right, a sash is seen hanging. Not much remains of the figure to left of the pursuer: a woman runs towards an old man who stands facing her, holding a stick: she looks back towards the chief group. Behind him is a flaming altar, with the usual smears on the side, and a palm-tree behind it (partly restored); then a woman moving to left, in alarm, looking round. Then, only partly shown, a chair with cushion and footstool. The pursuer wears a chlamys, the men himatia; the old man on the right, shoes. The women, in order of mention, peplos with overfall, stephane, necklace; chiton with kolpos, and wrap worn shawl-wise, necklace, broad head-band with leaves; chiton, himation, head-band; chiton, himation, broad head-band; peplos with overfall, stephane. Brown inner markings on the body of the pursuer. This picture is very like the subsidiary pictures on two other volute-kraters by the Niobid Painter: on the front of the neck in Bologna (Bologna 269) (Mon. 10 pl. 54; Webster pl. 13: ARV. p. 418 no. 7); on the back of the neck in Naples (Naples 2421) (Gargiulo Recueil ii pl. 56; Schulz Amazonenvase; ARV. p. 419 no. 12). In the many pictures where a youth dressed in a chlamys and holding a pair of spears pursues a woman it is customary to leave the figures unidentified. Yet there is evidence. On a bell-krater by the Komaris Painter in the Louvre (Louvre G 423: CV. d pl. 23, 1 and 3: ARV. p. 718, above, no. 5) the youth is inscribed ΘΕΣΕΥΣ (see JHS. 47 p. 147); on a hydria from Sorrento, on the outskirts of the Polygnotan Group, in Worcester, Massachusetts (Worcester 1903.38: Phot. R.I. 2953, 1), ΟΕΣΕΥΣ. I am therefore inclined to call the youth on the Boston vase Theseus. The woman is hard to name. On a fragment of a lekane in Leningrad (CR. 1877 pl. 5, 6) the youth with chlamys and spears is inscribed ΘΗΣΕΥΣ The woman is also named: but unfortunately the painter made a slip and wrote ΘΕΤΙΣ by confusion with pictures of Thetis pursued by Peleus: so we must still wait. One of the reasons why I have placed a query after the identification as Theseus is that Peleus also, it seems, was sometimes represented in the same guise as Theseus, holding spears: on the stand of a nuptial lebes in the Robinson Collection at Baltimore (CV. ii pll. 50-1 c) a youth holding spears pursues a woman: at the end of the picture the painter has placed a dolphin: he would appear, therefore, to have intended this pair for Peleus and Thetis. There is, however, some looseness in the use of dolphins: in the Boreas and Oreithyia of the Niobid Painter on his hydria in Bowdoin College (ARV. p. 423 no. 54) the last woman on the right holds a dolphin; on a lekythos in Athens (Athens 12891) a woman holds a dolphin in one hand, a thyrsus in the other. These may all be slips: but they make one hesitate. The picture on the reverse of the neck is fragmentary: the middle is missing. On the left of the gap, a woman standing to left, with a sceptre which is ornamented barber's-pole-wise; facing her a woman with a phiale and a sprig; then a third, frontal, head to left, both forearms raised. On the right of the gap, a woman standing to left, with a sprig; then another, frontal, with sceptre and sprig; then a Doric column, with indication of the frieze, and a cushioned seat, half seen; then a woman standing to left, her right forearm extended. The women all wear chiton and himation. The first woman on the left has a stephane, the next a head-band; the left-hand figure on the right a head-band with leaves, the two others stephanai. There may have been an altar in the missing part. A good deal of the maeander on the mouth of the vase and below the picture, and of the palmette-ornament on the neck, is restored. In all four pictures the contours are in relief-lines. The only touch of red is for the head-fillet of the warrior on A. The vase must have been painted about 450: it belongs to the later period of the Niobid Painter, the same period as the calyx-krater in the Louvre from which he has been given his name; and is one of his finest works: austere, yet not without feeling, within the limits of heroic bearing. To the list of works by the Niobid Painter in ARV. pp. 418-24 and 960 add fragments of a volute-krater, from Old Smyrna, in Izmir (on the neck: A, a winged youth — Zephyros? — pursuing a woman; B, a youth — Theseus? — pursuing a woman), a fragment of a bell-krater in Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 16616 (Hesp. 17 pl. 68, 3: Apollo: [Talcott]: early), and fragments of a hydria in Oxford, Oxford 1947.312 (youth pursuing woman), a fragment in the Louvre, from a hydria rather than a pelike (head of a woman to left; above, a border of laurel or olive), and another fragment in the Louvre (head and shoulders of a youth to right). The stamnos-fragment Washington 136402, from Orvieto, seems to be his (shanks and feet of the right-hand figure on A, a male, dressed in a himation, standing to left). No. 65 (New York 41.162.98) is now published in CV. Gallatin pl. 56, 1, and Bull. Metr. 37 p. 58, no. 71 in CV. Munich pl. 87, 2, pl. 88, 1-3 and pl. 91, 1-4. Of the vases in the manner of the painter (ARV. pp. 424-6 and 960), no. 1 is published in Nachr. Gött. 1939 pl. 8 and in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 87 (1943) p. 75 fig. 4, no. 15 in CV. San Francisco pl. 18, 1, pl. 19, 1, and pl. 20, 1, no. 16 ibid. pl. 18, 2 and pl. 19, 2.
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