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109. 00.347 VOLUTE-KRATER from near Licata (territory of Gela) PLATE LXI

Height 0.525, breadth 0.3915. One figure from A, VA. p. 150; A, AJA. 1922 p. 416 (Barker); A, Walter Miller Daedalus and Thespis iii fig. 43, 12; A, The Christian Science Monitor July 12, 1948; the shape, Caskey G. p. 123. A, Apollo. B, priestess and women. About 450 B.C., by the Painter of the Berlin Hydria (VA. p. 151 no. 1; Att. V. p. 344 no. 2; ARV. p. 428 no. 1).

In shape, the vase resembles the larger and more important volute-krater by the Niobid Painter (no. 108). The drawing is by one of his followers, the Painter of the Berlin Hydria.

Three figures on each side. A: on the right, Apollo, wreathed with laurel, dressed in a himation, holds out a phiale in his right hand; his bow is in his left, and the laurel-staff leans lightly on his left forearm. Artemis stands in the middle, frontal, but looking towards him, an oinochoe in her right hand and in her left his lyre. She wears a chiton and over it a short peplos-like himation, with overfall, open down the right side, fastened with two pins on the right shoulder but leaving the left shoulder and breast free: it is the same garment as is worn by the woman holding the helmet on the front of the volute-krater by the Niobid Painter (ii p. 77). The necklace has a bead in the middle. The hair is bound with a thin cord passing thrice round the head. On the left of the picture, Leto holds a wreath. She wears a chiton of thicker material, girt twice so as to form two kolpoi; a himation, shawl-wise; a veil; a stephane with leaves in front; a necklace. A Doric column, with some slight indication of the frieze, indicates a building, probably the porch of a temple; and a pair of bull's horns, fixed on the wall, a sanctuary: perhaps Delphi, or Delos.

Relief-lines contour the faces, bodies, and some parts of the clothes. Brown inner markings in the figure of Apollo; a crinkled brown line follows the edge of his himation; the sterno-mastoid of Leto is in brown. The phiale is of the same type as in the volute-krater by the Niobid Painter (ii p. 78), but it has only one row of 'pear-drops'. The lyre has eight strings instead of seven, and there is a slip in the tongue-pattern above the picture, between the head of Apollo and the horns.

There are other examples, as is natural, of one deity holding, for the moment, the property of another. On a pelike by the Hephaistos Painter in Leningrad (Gaz. arch. 1876 pl. 32: ARV. p. 391 no. 25) Artemis holds Apollo's lyre. On a calyx-krater, by the Kekrops Painter, in the collection of Prince Philip of Hesse (ARV. p. 53 no. 1), Artemis holds a torch in one hand and Apollo's lyre in the other. On a lekythos by the Alkimachos Painter in Boston (Boston 95.39: ARV. p. 358 no. 47) Hermes holds the sceptre of Zeus, whose hands are otherwise engaged.

Apollo is a favourite theme with the Niobid Painter, the Altamura Painter, and their followers. The tone of their Apollonian pictures has been well described by Pfeiff (Apollon pp. 105-6).

Artemis is usually given her bow in these pictures. It is curious that Apollo should be shorter than the two goddesses.

B. The reverse is much less careful, and there are no relief-lines for the contours. Three women. The middle one stands frontal, with head to left, holding phiale and sceptre, at an altar. The second, on the left, holds an oinochoe and a sprig; the third, on the right, extends her hands in prayer. It is the priestess and her attendants. All three wear chiton and himation. The priestess has a stephane, embattled in front; a cord passes twice round the head of the second; the third has a broad head-band.

The topside of the mouth is reserved, and so are the backs of the handle-flanges. The upper section of the foot has a reserved edge. The rays at the base are a rather old-fashioned feature in the volute-krater, but they occur on some of those by the Altamura Painter, on the Blenheim Painter's, and on those by the Niobid Painter in Bologna, Palermo, and the Louvre (ARV. pp. 418-19 nos. 1, 2, and 15).

J. D. Beazley, AJA 61 (1957), p. 111; ARV2, p. 616, no. 1; E. Simon, AJA 67 (1963), p. 58, note 75; Mayer-Prokop 1967, p. 55; Follmann 1968, p. 56; Antike Plastik, 12 (1973), p. 100, note 12 (E. Bielefeld); Kraiker 1978, p. 49, under no. 178; LIMC, II, 1, p. 264, no. 651b, II, 2, pl. 236, illus. (M. Daumas); S. Bonomi, AA 1985, pp. 40 (fig. 15), 41-42, 46 (note 65); F. Brommer, JdI 101 (1986), p. 46, no. 20; CVA, Basel, 3, p. 34, under no. BS 476 (V. Slehoferova); O. Palagia, BSA 84 (1989), p. 325, note 6; Maas & Snyder 1989, p. 234, note 129; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 269.

Exhibited: Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 1988-1991 (Padgett 1988, pp. 46-47, no. 21, 2 illus.); Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, 1991-.

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