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112. 00.352 OINOCHOE (shape III: chous) from Vulci PLATE LXIV, above

Height 0.212, diameter 0.1725. Strena Helbigiana p. 111 and pl. 3 (Hartwig), whence Jane Harrison Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion p. 449; Richter A.R.V.S. fig. 105; van Hoorn Choes and Anthesteria fig. 116; the shape, Caskey G. p. 139. Ridged handle. About 430 B.C., by the Kraipale Painter, so called after this vase (ARV. p. 738, above, no. 1).

The maenad Kraipale sits on a rock, her lips parted, her feet crossed, an upright thyrsus in her left hand, a kantharos held out in her right. The satyr Sikinnos faces her with an oinochoe in his right hand and a thyrsus in his left. Another maenad approaches her from behind, holding a vessel from which steam or smoke rises.

Kraipale wears a peplos, bracelets, earrings. Her hair is done in the fashion known as λαμπάδιον (see Robert Die Masken der neueren attischen Komoedie p. 43, and CV. Oxford p. 37).

A white chaplet of the same sort as those in no. 113 (below, ii p. 95; Boston 01.8085) surrounds the head, running from the forehead to behind the bun: it is not visible in the photograph, nor is it shown in Frank Gearing's drawing published by Hartwig. The exact wear of the peplos is not easy to make out, but it seems to have a long overfall, overgirt. Hartwig says that one of the shoulder-pins can be seen, but this is not so. The garment of the other maenad is a chiton, but without the usual 'false sleeves'. It has a flounce at the neck (equivalent to the overfall of the peplos), is girt at the waist, and the material pulled down over the girdle. Earrings, frontlet, and a chaplet like Kraipale's. The satyr wears an ivy-wreath, and again a chaplet, not shown in the photograph or the drawing. His oinochoe, which is slightly foreshortened, is not a chous, but of shape I. A brown line runs round the shoulder of this oinochoe.

The nude parts of all three figures have relief-contour. The minor markings of the satyr's body are in brown lines. The stripe near the foot of the second maenad's chiton is also brown. An uneven light brown is perhaps used on the oinochoe and the kantharos (which are thought of as metal): in any case the inside of the kantharos is brown, and the upper side of the foot-plate except the edge. The rock, and the steam or smoke rising from the vessel, are in white lines which have faded and do not come out in the photograph: for these particulars and others, Gearing's drawing must still be consulted. The inscriptions are in white. ΚΡΑΙΠΑΛΗ and ΣΙΚΙΝΝΟΣ are clear. The third name is fragmentary and has been variously read. Sikinnos as a satyr-name occurs on three other vases, and Sikinnis is also found (Charlotte Fränkel Satyr- und Bakchennamen auf Vasenbildern p. 69; Leonard in Pauly-Wissowa s.v. Sikinos; AJA. 1939 p. 620). The names are taken from the sikinnis, the characteristic dance of the satyr-play. Kraipale does not appear elsewhere as a maenad's name, but Lambertz noted that a Roman slave-woman was called Crepale (see Fränkel op. cit. p. 61). Methe is a natural name for a maenad, a companion of Dionysos, but Kraipale may strike one as excessive. The word means crapula, the after-effects of deep drinking — sick headache and the rest. It was sometimes used as a coarser equivalent for 'intoxication', but crapula was the original and proper meaning, which it never lost. It is a nice question whether this or line 277 of the Acharnians is our earliest evidence for the word κραιπάλη. We date the vase 'about 430'. It might be as late as 425, and the Acharnians was produced in 425. The matter is not of moment, as there is no reason to suppose that the word was new in the third quarter of the fifth century.12

What is happening in the picture? According to Hartwig (Strena Helbigiana pp. 111-14), Kraipale holds out her kantharos for more wine, but the satyr hesitates to supply her, and the maenad brings a hot soothing potion instead. Hartwig had no difficulty in showing that such restoratives were known to the Greeks: and a passage in the Acharnians is in point (Aristoph. Ach. 276):

Φαλῆς Φαλῆς,
ἐὰν μεθ᾽ ἡμῶν ξυμπίῃς, ἐκ κραιπάλης
ἕωθεν εἰρήνης ῥοφήσει τρύβλιον.
” This explanation suits a certain languor in the figure of Kraipale, contrasting with the seriousness of the other two; and has been adopted by Miss Harrison (Prolegomena p. 450), by myself (in VA. p. 177), by Deubner (Attische Feste p. 247), and recently by Immerwahr (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 77 pp. 251-4). Deubner connected the scene with the festival of the Anthesteria: the artist has in mind the very end of the festivities that took place on the second day, the Choes: a common and homely episode in ordinary life is raised to a higher sphere, the revels of satyrs and maenads. Immerwahr has argued persuasively for this view. A difficulty is the shape of the vessel held by the second maenad. The vessels that most resemble it, of those known to us, seem to be thuribles, and if it is a thurible it should contain incense, not a tisane. On a pelike by the Alkimachos Painter in Dresden (Dresden ZV. 2535: ARV. p. 357 no. 25) Nike carries a torch in one hand and a vessel very like this in the other: it is doubtless one of those thuribles that she often holds. Hartwig thought of a thurible, but decided that a drinking-vessel was more likely. Wigand suggested a thurible, though with hesitation (Bonner Jahrbücher 122 p. 49 note 3). Miss Fränkel (op. cit. pp. 60-1) and Eitrem (Opferritus und Voropfer pp. 227-8) pronounced for a thurible. See the thuribles, of clay and bronze, collected by Wigand (op. cit. pp. 1-97) and Kourouniotis (in Classical Studies presented to Edward Capps pp. 204-16); see also BCH. 1946 p. 100 (J. M. Cook). A silver vessel very like ours was found at Kerch (A.B.C. pl. 38, 4, with S. Reinach's commentary, p. 70).

If the contents of the vessel are not intended for Kraipale, one might think of the fumigation of the room after a party. Miss Fränkel was reminded of the use of incense before and during the symposion: for this, one need only quote Xenophanes (fr. I, 7 Diehl) and as an illustration the symposion on a fourth-century bell-krater in Naples (FR. pl. 173).

My wife points out that Hartwig's interpretation might be saved by supposing the vessel to contain not a potion, but smouldering herbs the fumes from which might act as a restorative.

The name of the second maenad remains to be discussed. Hartwig read ΘΥΜΗ, and expanded it to [ΕΥ]ΘΥΜΙΗ, which is not Attic. Wünsch conjectured ΘΥΜΗ[ΔΙΑ] (BPW. 1900 p. 912), Edward Robinson read ΕΦΥΜΝ[ΙΑ] (Report 1900 p. 61), Eitrem took ΘΥΜΗ to be a complete proper name (referring to incense) and quoted the Θυμος of that desperate epigram on the Ladas of Myron. Immerwahr (op. cit. p. 252) has reexamined the vase, reads ΘΥΜΗ..., and accepts Wünsch's Θυμηδία.3

Dietrich von Bothmer reads Η rather than Ν, and when I last looked at the inscription I decided for Η. The first letter, very carelessly written, is either theta or phi. There is no trace of a letter before it. Wünsch's suggestion is probably the best.

Miss Fränkel, accepting ΕΦΥΜΝ[ΙΑ], detected a reference to the paean sung at the symposion. The 'refrain' was not of course confined to the paean, although it was an indispensable part of it. If Ephymnia is the name, one thinks more naturally of the Dionysiac εὐοῖ, than of ἰήιε παιάν.

The vase was in Edward Warren's collection when published by Hartwig in 1900. It was acquired in Italy: Hartwig said that the finding-place could not be established, and in ARV. I gave no provenience: but this is evidently the vase described, though without mention of the inscriptions, in Bullettino 1881 p. 242, and said to have been found about forty-eight metres from the tombs north of Cucumella at Vulci. Worth noticing that an oinochoe of the same shape and size, Louvre G 402 (BCH. 1895 p. 100; van Hoorn Choes fig. 500), which I have described as connected with the Kraipale vase and perhaps by the same hand (ARV. p. 738), was also found at Vulci, at Cucumella, though long before, in 1829. Much of the finest drawing from the period of the Peloponnesian War is on vases of this shape, choes; the provenience, when known, is usually Attica: but many reached Italy and Etruria.

I have hardly any doubt now that the Louvre chous, and the pair in Copenhagen said in ARV. p. 738 to 'recall' the artist, are by the Kraipale Painter himself.


CVA, Robinson Collection, 3, p. 19, no. 28 (D. M. Robinson and S. E. Freeman); EAA, IV, p. 402, fig. 475 (E. Paribeni); ARV2, pp. 1214 (no. 1), 1685, 1687; P. E. Arias, 1965, in Studi in onore di Luisa Banti, Rome, "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, p. 24; Felten 1971, pp. 39-41, 100-101, pls. 16, 3, 17, 3; J. R. Green, BSA 66 (1971), pp. 197, 199, 202; K. Schauenburg, RM 79 (1972), p. 319, note 14; idem, RM 81 (1974), p. 314; Lezzi-Hafter 1976, p. 19, note 102; I. McPhee, AntK 22 (1979), p. 39, note 14; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 172; A. Queyrel, BCH 108 (1984), p. 155, note 72; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 348; A. Kossatz-Deissmann, Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 5 (1991), pp. 168, 183, 191.


1 A vase of the Hellenistic period, a kantharos of West Slope ware from Corinth (Hesp. 16 p. 240), bears the inscription ΠΑΥΣΙΚΡΗΠΑ[ΛΟΥ], is sacred, therefore, to a hitherto unknown attendant of Dionysos, Pausikraipalos.

2 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 94: Andrew Gow points out to me that Hippocrates Περὶ ἀέρων 3 may conceivably be earlier than the Acharnians or our vase.

3 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 95: for the name Thymedia see also ARV.2 p. 1685.

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