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113. 01.8085 OINOCHOE (shape III: chous) from Athens PLATE LXIV, below

Height 0.216; diameter 0.181. The handle is modern. VA. p. 178 fig. 110 (from a drawing by Frank Gearing), whence Pfuhl fig. 565, Städel-Jahrbuch 2 pl. 7, d (Schaal), and (redrawn) Dugas La céramique grecque p. 120; van Hoorn Choes and Anthesteria fig. 501. Satyrs attacking a sleeping maenad. About 420 B.C.

The maenad has placed a cushion on the hill-side, laid her garment under her with the end between her knees, and fallen asleep, still holding her thyrsus. Two satyrs steal up, but one of them seems at the last moment to lose heart: so on a later vase with the same subject, a fourth-century Attic pelike in London (London 1901.7-10.5: below, ii p. 97), while two satyrs, encouraged by Eros, lay hands on the sleeper, their two companions turn away in alarm. One cannot help thinking of small birds hopping up to fetch crumbs. Satyrs are both forward and timorous, and the alternation must have been a popular motive in satyric drama.

The terrain, with plants, is indicated by incised lines. The figures are contoured with relief-lines. Some of the inner markings on the bodies are in brown. The hair is brown. The bracelet of the maenad is a relief-line. The left-hand satyr wears an ivy-wreath, and over it a head-fillet which was originally gilt. (The two lines forming a triangle with it in the illustration represent fractures only.) The other satyr also wears a fillet, which is damaged but may have been of the same nature.

The border above the picture is a band of cyma surmounted by a narrower strip of simple egg-pattern. This double pattern occurs in the same place on other full-sized choes, by various painters, between 430 and 410: Tübingen E 120 (Watzinger pl. 32); RISD 25.090 (CV. pl. 23, 2: the cyma here above); Athens, Vlasto collection, by the Eretria Painter (ARV. p. 725 no. 10; van Hoorn Choes fig. 38); Athens 1736 (CC. 1307), imitation of the Eretria Painter (ARV. 731, middle); Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 15034, manner of the Meidias Painter (ARV. p. 837 no. 29 bis: van Hoorn Choes fig. 183); Vatican (Mus. Greg. ii pl. 5, 1; FR. pl. 170, 3; phot. Alinari 35736: cock-fight).

I do not know of any other vases by the same hand. In ARV. (p. 794) I spoke of the drawing as influenced by the Dinos Painter, but the influence is not strong. There is some resemblance to the Meidias Painter also: for instance, the fine, mannered late-fifth-century hands are more like Meidian. The vase that comes nearest to ours is perhaps a chous in New York (New York 37.11.21: Bull. Metr. Mus. 34 p. 239; van Hoorn Choes fig. 173: komos).

There are a good many vases with this subject, strung out between the third quarter of the sixth century and the second quarter of the fourth. A list follows. The archaic are the best, and among these the cups by the Panaitios Painter excel. The Boston vase is one of three fine choes, painted between 430 and 420 B.C. Previous lists in Heydemann Vasensammlungen... in Neapel p. 707; Annali 1878 pp. 92-4 (Furtwängler: = KS. i pp. 220-2); Hartwig pp. 450-4; Städel-Jahrbuch 2 pp. 21 ff. (Schaal); RM. 38-9 pp. 102-3 (Mercklin); VA. p. 178; V. Pol. p. 25; see CV. Oxford, p. 34.

  • 1. Samos, fragments of a bf. amphora by the Amasis Painter (AM. 56 pl. 3). In the group of satyr and nymph represented on the krater shown standing on the ground, all that remains is the legs of the nymph and one leg of the satyr with his tail: but it is very likely that the nymph was asleep. About 540-530 B.C.
  • 2. Berlin 2241, lekythos in Six's technique, by the Diosphos Painter (Haspels ABL. p. 236 no. 90). A maenad lies sleeping on a hillock, on her back, her right leg drawn up; she still holds her thyrsus; a satyr bends and embraces her. About 480 B.C.
  • 3. Oxford 1935.42, bf. lekythos by the Diosphos Painter (Haspels ABL. p. 234 no. 53). A maenad has been sleeping on the ground under a tree and is assaulted by three satyrs. She opens her eyes. This vase, though black-figure, is later than the five red-figure that follow; and so is the Berlin lekythos just described.
  • 4. Berlin V.I. 3232, rf. cup by the Epidromos Painter (ARV. p. 84 no. 2). The satyr-picture is now published in Vorberg Gl[ossarium eroticum] p. 50: the maenad, naked, her hair in a saccos, lies on a rock (?), to left, her garment under her, her head, turned to right and down, resting on her left hand; the satyr creeps up to her and takes her by the right elbow and the left buttock. A pair of crotala hangs above.
  • 5. Leningrad (ex Botkin), rf. cup signed by the potter Kachrylion (ARV. p. 84, above, α). In the picture on A, the maenad is awake, but remains in the posture of sleep, except that she raises her right leg. She lies on a rock, to left, her head turned to right and down, with her left arm behind it. She wears a very short chiton. The satyr embraces her, almost kneeling in front of her. This is the right-hand part of the picture; in the middle a satyr squats frontal, head to left; on the left, a satyr clasps a maenad who holds a pair of crotala. Crude style.
  • 6. Rouen 25, rf. hydria, early work of the Kleophrades Painter (ARV. p. 126 no. 61).
  • 7. Baltimore, rf. cup by the Panaitios Painter (ARV. p. 214 no. 12).
  • 8. Florence 3917, rf. cup by the Panaitios Painter (ARV. p. 214 no. 13).
  • 9. Louvre S 1339, fragment of a rf. cup by the Panaitios Painter (ARV. p. 214 no. 14). Now published in Hesp. suppl. viii pl. 1, 3. Three other fragments in the Louvre belong, and show that the subject on the other half of the outside was similar. The first of the three, Louvre S 1328, was attributed to the Panaitios Painter in Att. V. (p. 167 no. 22), but omitted in ARV.: it gives, inside, the toes of a foot and a hand holding a bunch of grapes, outside, one leg of the left-hand figure on B, a male (a satyr) moving quickly to right. The second fragment has the knee of the same satyr and his elbow; and one arm, with krotala in the hand, of a maenad lying on a cushion on the ground, to right. The third fragment has the legs of this maenad, and those of another satyr, moving quickly to left.
  • 10. Boston 01.8072, rf. cup, early work of Makron (ARV. p. 303 no. 26). Now published in Vorberg Gl. pp. 47-8. On A, the maenad, dressed in a chiton, lying on a rock under a tree, to left, her right arm behind her head, the thyrsus in her left hand, sleeps, with lips parted; two satyrs attack her; the left-hand one lifts her right leg, the other grasps her right arm. On B, the maenad, again dressed in a chiton, lying on a rock to left, with her left thigh frontal and the shank and foot concealed by it, her thyrsus in her right hand, is attacked by two satyrs, wakes, and turns her head to the right. This is a very lively work.
  • 11. Goluchow, Prince Czartoryski, 119, rf. rhyton by the Brygos Painter (ARV. p. 254 no. 139).
  • 12. Louvre CA 2952, rf. cup by the Pistoxenos Painter. I, a boy singing and a man seated playing the lyre. On each half of the exterior, in the middle, a maenad, clothed, is sleeping on a rock; on A, a satyr approaches jauntily from the left, his left hand on his hip, and another steals up from the right, catching hold of the rock; on the right of B, a satyr already bends and lays hands on the maenad, while to the right another stands watching, with a wineskin over his left shoulder, and his right hand on the rock.
  • 13. Munich, Dr. Adolf Preyss, rf. cup in the manner of the Pistoxenos Painter (ARV. p. 577 no. 1). In the middle of A, a maenad, clothed, lies on the ground under a tree, to left, sleeping, her head to right, her right hand on her right knee, her thyrsus under her right arm, her left arm resting on a pointed amphora; a satyr prances up on the left, and on the right another satyr, with face in three-quarter view, sets his right foot on the pointed amphora and takes hold of the maenad's left forearm with his right hand.
  • 14. Baltimore, Baltimore Society of the Archaeological Institute of America; and Florence: rf. cup, manner of the Pistoxenos Painter (ARV. p. 577 no. 2). The maenad's eye was restored as open, but is closed.
  • 15. Louvre G 251, rf. cup. Inside, naked youth running to left, looking round, his arms in his cloak. Outside, on each half, a maenad, clothed, lying asleep, to left, and, on the left, a satyr rushing to attack her; on A, the maenad's face is frontal. Same period as the last three cups, and not very remote in style. Brief mention in Hartwig pp. 452 and 677-8.
  • 16. Villa Giulia 50436, rf. cup. Inside, a cup-bearer approaching a bell-krater. In a zone round this, satyrs attacking sleeping maenads. Outside, satyrs and maenads. Much rubbed. Still early classic.
  • 17. Louvre G 206, small rf. neck-amphora by the Alkimachos Painter (ARV. p. 357 no. 19).
  • 18. London E 555, rf. oinochoe (shape V), by the Mannheim Painter (ARV. p. 661 no. 1).
  • 19. Villa Giulia, rf. oinochoe (shape V), by the Mannheim Painter, replica of the last (ARV. p. 661 no. 2).
  • 20. Oxford 534, rf. oinochoe (shape III), akin to the Eretria Painter (ARV. p. 732).
  • 21. Frankfort, Dr. Schaeffer, rf. oinochoe (shape III). Städel-Jahrbuch 2 p. 19 and pl. 6 (Schaal); Schaal F. pl. 48.
  • 22. Boston 01.8085, rf. oinochoe (shape III). Ours.
  • 23. Delos, fragment of a rf. krater (bell- or calyx-, more probably bell-). Plassart Délos xi p. 61. A satyr embraces a maenad. Her head is missing, but from her attitude she would seem to be sleeping. Neighbourhood of the Dinos Painter.1
  • 24. Vienna 207, rf. stemless cup, by the Q Painter (ARV. p. 886 no. 27). Inside, a naked maenad sits on a rock to left, head turned to right, her left elbow on the rock, her chin resting on her left shoulder, her right arm on her thigh; on the left, a satyr approaches, laying his right hand on her right forearm, and raising his left arm. Here one might mention the group of Chorillos and Paidia on a contemporary cup, by the Jena Painter, in Würzburg (Würzburg 492: Langlotz pll. 162-3: ARV. p. 881 no. 39), although the maenad is not asleep.
  • 25. Würzburg 523, rf. calyx-krater by the Meleager Painter (ARV. p. 871 no. 6). In this degenerate work the group of satyr and sleeping maenad is used to fill a corner in a larger composition of Dionysos, maenads, and satyrs.
  • 26. Athens 1397 (CC. 1936), small rf. bell-krater. A woman with white flesh sits to left, leaning back, her right arm behind her head, her left resting on a tympanon; on the left, a satyr approaches, bending, arms extended, the left hand touching her breast. Fourth century.
  • 27. London 1901.7-10.5, rf. pelike by the Herakles Painter. JHS. 41 pl. 8, v. 5; Jb. 25 p. 137; Schefold U. pl. 4, 2 and figs. 14-15. See above, ii p. 95.
Only one Italiote vase with this subject is known:

  • 28. Naples Stg. 313, rf. oinochoe with spout (shape as London 1920.3-15.5, JHS. 41 pl. 8, v. 21, and Copenhagen inv. 513, CV. pl. 237, 2). Described by Heydemann. Near the Dolon Painter.
The following vase, no doubt Attic, is known from a brief description only:

  • 29. Paris market, cup. Described in Art antique... Paris, Hôtel Drouot, les 26 et 27 novembre 1934, no. 128. 'Coupe (cylix) archaïque. Au centre, Silène dansant; au pourtour Silène surprenant une nymphe endormie (restaurations). D.O. 21.'
An Attic bell-krater of the advanced fourth century in the collection of Mr. Francesco Fienga at Nocera de' Pagani is known to me from photographs kindly given me by Prof. Karl Lehmann. A naked maenad sits to left, looking round, her left elbow resting on her tympanon; the flesh is white. Four satyrs steal up and the nearest embraces her. Her eyes seem to be open, but it should be said that this figure is much repainted, and one cannot be quite sure from the photograph. On the reverse, three youths. An unusual feature is that the satyrs all wear white woollen countryman's hats of the kind described on ii p. 48. The same hat is worn by a satyr on a small bell-krater fragment, of much the same style as the Fienga vase, in Athens, from the Pnyx, Athens P 224; and by satyrs vintaging on earlier vases, such as the column-krater by the Orchard Painter in Bologna (Bologna 241: Mus. It. 2 pl. 1, 3; CV. pl. 28, 1-3: ARV. p. 347 no. 20).

In another Attic vase of the fourth century the intruders are not satyrs, but Pans:

  • Leningrad (St. 2161), rf. pelike. No. 412 in Schefold's list (in U. p. 46). I have no note. Stephani's description of the maenad recalls the bell-krater Athens 1397. The two Pans move away from the sleeper, looking back towards her, which reminds one of the scared satyr on the London pelike. Pan is also the attacker in a small clay mould, for making circular reliefs, found at Cherchel (Rev. arch. 19 (1892), i, pl. 11, whence Herbig Pan pl. 40, 1): he assaults a sleeping maenad but a satyr hauls him back by leg and tail.
In another representation the attacker is again a satyr, but the attacked is a boy, not a girl. The cut-out relief of a Locrian bronze mirror, in free fifth-century style, in Reggio, shows a long-haired boy sitting on a rock, and an elderly satyr who has stolen up to him taking him by the wrist with his right hand and raising his left arm, near the boy's head, with a gesture of admiration (Boll. d'Arte 1950 pp. 193-5). Iacopi, who publishes the mirror, aptly compares the figures on the Tragodia oinochoe in Oxford, no. 20 in our list. He is inclined to call the boy Dionysos, which does not appear to me likely: more probably the artist has varied a model which figured satyr and nymph by changing the girl into a boy to whom it would be rash to give a name. The boy's eyes are not closed, but the attitude expresses incomplete consciousness, as of one sleeping who has just opened his eyes and does not yet know where he is, much less what is taking place.

Bacchae obreptantibus satyris [Βάκχαις ἐφέρποντες Σάτυροι] was the subject of a famous painting by the fourth-century artist Nicomachos: Pliny does not state that the maenads were sleeping, but they may have been. On later representations of the subject, in painting and sculpture, see Helbig Untersuchungen über die campanische Wandmalerei pp. 238-9 and 251-2, and Winter Altertümer von Pergamon vii pp. 323-5.

According to Hyginus (Fab. clxix A) Amymone was asleep when she was attacked by the satyr: 'Amymone Danai filia missa est a patre aquam petitum ad sacrum faciendum, quae dum quaerit lassitudine obdormiuit; quam satyrus uiolare uoluit.'

When speaking of the Boston oinochoe in VA. p. 180, I referred to Titian's Jupiter and Antiope. I wonder now if that is really the subject of the picture in the Louvre? Titian himself, in 1574, described it as 'la nuda con il paese con el satiro'. He was very old, of course, and may have forgotten the subject: but what evidence is there that the satyr is Jupiter disguised, rather than a real satyr? The picture was long known not as Antiope but as the 'Venus del Pardo', from the Palazzo Pardo in Madrid, where it remained till 1624.2 According to Claude Phillips (The Later Work of Titian p. 92) 'the group of Antiope with Jupiter in the guise of a Satyr is clearly a reminiscence of a Nymph surprised by a Satyr — one of the engravings in the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili first published in 1499 but republished with the same illustrations in 1545'. There is not much resemblance between the cut in the Hypnerotomachia and the picture by Titian, but it is likely enough that the subject is the same in both. The presence of Cupid is surely not sufficient to prove that the attacker is a god and not a satyr; and the skin on which the sleeper lies suggests that she is a maenad or a nymph.

Another picture by Titian with the same sort of subject as the Louvre 'Antiope' was mentioned by Lomazzo in 1590: 'a picture of Venus asleep, with Satyrs uncovering her, and other Satyrs about her eating grapes, while Adonis in the distance is seen hunting. This piece he describes as having been left by Titian at his death to his son Pomponio. There is an adaptation of the composition on canvas ascribed to Titian in the Corsini Palace at Rome, but it is not original' (Crowe and Cavalcaselle The Life and Times of Titian ii p. 319).

CVA, Robinson Collection, 3, p. 19, no. 29 (D. M. Robinson and S. E. Freeman); F. Muthmann, AntK 11 (1968), p. 33, note 73; E. Vermeule, JdI 85 (1970), p. 108, note 33; F. Eckstein, Gymnasium 77 (1970), p. 140; J. R. Green, BSA 66 (1971), pp. 199, 202, 204, note 19; Charbonneaux et al. 1972, pp. 282-283 (fig. 325), 393 (F. Villard); U. Knigge, AM 90 (1975), pp. 131, 140, note 50; J. -L. Durand, F. Frontisi-Ducroux, RA 1982, p. 93, note 38; P. J. Connor, AA 1984, p. 389, note 19; CVA, Tübingen, 4, pp. 60 (under no. S./10 1343), 79 (under no. S./10 1609), 82 (under no. S./10 1605) (E. Böhr); Keuls 1985, pp. 305, 307, fig. 271; Images 1987, p. 75, fig. 3 (D. Metzler); Schöne 1987, pp. 140, 299, no. 480; D. von Bothmer, Gnomon 60 (1988), p. 182; K. Schauenburg, AA 1988, p. 643, note 59; Christiansen & Melander 1987, p. 332, note 5 (A. Lezzi-Hafter); Lezzi-Hafter 1988, p. 204; M. D. Stansbury O'Donnell, AJA 94 (1990), p. 234.

1 (From Addenda to Part II) P. 97. No. 23 is now published in Dugas Délos xxi pl. 54, 5, no. 24 in CV. Vienna pl. 26, 1-4, no. 27 in Metzger Les représentations dans la céramique attique du ive siècle pl. 10. The attribution to the Herakles Painter is Schefold's (in U. p. 158).

2 It was painted for King Philip II of Spain, and was given by King Philip IV to King Charles I of England. After the death of Charles Stuart it passed to the banker Jabach, and was acquired by Cardinal Mazarin. It was in the Prado before reaching the Louvre. Cardinal Mazarin also possessed the 'Jupiter and Antiope' by Correggio. Does this represent Jupiter and Antiope?

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