114. 01.8037 AMPHORA from Orvieto PLATE LXV, 3-4 and PLATE LXVIHeight 0.5536, diameter 0.35. From the Bourguignon collection, Naples. AJA. 1896 pp. 40-41 (R. D. Norton); A, Richter Furn. fig. 122; Scheurleer Grieksche Ceramiek pl. 26, whence Rumpf MZ. pl. 16, 1-2; Trendall Handbook to the Nicholson Museum 1 p. 125 = 2 p. 287; A, Fairbanks and Chase p. 66 fig. 72; Jb. 76 pp. 64-65 (Schauenburg); the shape, Caskey G. p. 61. A, red-figure, Achilles and Ajax playing a board-game; B, black-figure, the same. About 525-520 B.C. A by the Andokides Painter (VA. p. 3 no. 1; Att. V. p. 7 no. 1; ARV.1 p. 2 no. 5; ARV.2 p. 4 no. 7), B by the Lysippides Painter (ABS. p. 40; ABV p. 254 no. 2). Norton had already associated the vase with 'Andokides'. Our plate 66 shows the pictures without the extensive restorations. Part of the mouth of the vase is also modern, but the form of it is assured. I begin by quoting some paragraphs from Attic Black-figure Vase-painters (p. 254): “'In ABS. pp. 25 and 38-41 I put together a number of black-figured vases and called the painter (after a kalos-name on one of them) the Lysippides Painter. Among his works are the black-figure pictures on six bilingual amphorae — amphorae in which one picture is black-figure, while the other is red-figure — and the black-figure part of a bilingual cup. And the red-figure portions of those seven vases? They in their turn are by one artist. Is that artist the Lysippides Painter? In ABS. I said that he might well be, but I would not decide. Later (in ARV. and elsewhere) I made up my mind that he was: I have now come to the conclusion that he is not. 'The bilingual cup in Palermo (CV. pll. 1-2) is one of the vases that bear the potter-signature of Andokides. Among the other works of the man who painted the red-figure part of it are three amphorae — two of them red-figure, the third 'white-figure' — with the same signature. Hence I gave him the conventional name of 'Andokides Painter'. He also painted the red-figure parts of the six bilingual amphorae mentioned above. So then: instead of attributing these six amphorae (as I did in ARV.1) to the Andokides Painter, I now say that A — the red-figure part — is by the Andokides Painter, and B — the black-figure part — by the Lysippides Painter, reviving the name.'” The Boston amphora is of Type A. The shapes of nine amphorae fashioned by Andokides have been analysed by Bloesch (JHS. 71 pp. 29-31). He does not deal with the two amphorae in Boston, our nos. 114 and 115: they do not greatly differ in shape from the nine, and should be by the same potter as they. A few words about one small particular: in both Boston vases the profile of the foot-disk — the upper member of the foot — is black; and so it is in the majority of the Andokides Painter's amphorae (nos. 1, 5-8, and 10 of my list in ARV.1, also in two new amphorae (see p. 6); in nos. 2, 9, 11 it is reserved (in nos. 3 and 4 the foot is missing). In the early amphorae of Type A it is usually black; in those of the generation after the Andokides Painter it is usually reserved — in the Leagros Group nearly always, and in red-figure contemporary with the Leagros Group. Reserving calls attention to the member: the artist desires strong punctuation at that place on the vase. We cannot say how Andokides would have described this shape of vase if he wished to distinguish it from other roughly similar shapes, but we can be sure of one word that might be applied to it: for on an Attic black-figured amphora of Type A in the Lucerne market, from the same period as ours,1 with a representation of Athena in a wheeling chariot, one of the inscriptions, which are not graffiti but painted in the field of the picture itself, is ΚΑΛΟΣΗΟΚΑΔΟΣ. No doubt the word κάδος had a wider significance, but to use it of an amphora type A would not have been wrong. See Amyx: in Hesperia 27 pp. 186-90. At least four or five painters collaborated with the potter Andokides. Three of them were named in ARV.1 (p. 1): (1) the Andokides Painter; (2) Psiax; (3) Epiktetos. The Lysippides Painter (4) must now be added; and (5) the artist who decorated the earliest vase with the signature, the small chariot-amphora formerly in the Fitzwilliam collection and now in that of Mr. Christos Bastis, Bronxville.2 It is possible, of course, that either (5) or (4) or (1) was Andokides himself; and so we have spoken of four or five painters. The subject of both pictures is one of those that are not recorded, or are barely alluded to, in extant literature and are known to us from works of art only, in this case chiefly vases, but also archaic bronze reliefs, fragments of an archaic marble group, an Etruscan scarab, and Etruscan mirrors. The earliest and finest of the representations is on the amphora by Exekias in the Vatican.3 The subject is a great favourite on later black-figure vases; there are not many red-figure examples, but three of them give a more circumstantial version than any of the black-figure. The ingenious hero Palamedes (this we do know from the poets) invented various games to while away the long hours at Aulis; one day at Troy the two chief champions of the Greeks, Achilles and Ajax, on duty outside the gate, became so absorbed in their board-game that before they looked up the Trojans were upon them. Blinkenberg saw that the story must have been told in a lost epic, and Robert suggested that this may have been the Palamedeia.4 The game is pessoi/, and doubtless the form of it known as πέντε γραμμαί or ἐπὶ πέντε γραμμαῖς, akin to backgammon in that it combined skill with chance. Dice were first thrown, and the cast entitled the player to make certain moves: the skill consisted in making the best possible use of the cast, whether it was high or low. The black-figure picture on the Boston vase is like a weak version of Exekias' picture. The two heroes sit at the gaming-table and one of them is making his move. But before proceeding we ought to decide which is Achilles and which is Ajax. On the Vatican amphora the names are inscribed: Achilles is on our left, Ajax is on our right; and so also on a small black-figured neck-amphora in a private collection in New York, on a black-figured calyx-krater in a Swiss private collection, on a black-figured lekythos in Boston, on a red-figure fragment in Bryn Mawr;5 probably also, from the description, on a lost fragment of a black-figured vase.6 Add that on a white lekythos and three red-figured vases, although there are no inscriptions, the hero on the left is beardless and must be Achilles.7 On the other hand, in three inscribed vases — a London neck-amphora, a black-figured neck-amphora in Munich, a red-figured cup-fragment in the Cabinet des Médailles — , and in both Etruscan mirrors, Achilles is on the right.8 Numerically, therefore, there is not very much to choose: but the authority of Exekias is great; and, all things considered, there can hardly be any doubt that the inventor of the group, whoever he was, placed Achilles on the left. We shall call the left-hand hero Achilles, and the other Ajax. The two heroes sit on simple block-seats at a gaming-table which is also a rectangular block, but is topped by a slab (with a torus moulding) forming a board. Eleven 'pieces' or 'pess-men' are ranged on the board at almost equal intervals, and Achilles takes hold of the third piece. The number of pieces represented in the pictures varies: here one cannot help thinking of the five lines, πέντε γραμμαί, on each half of the board, and the 'sacred line', ἱερὰ γραμμή, between them. The table and what is on it are shown in profile. If we wish to know what it would look like when seen from above, we may turn, first, to the later of the two Etruscan mirrors with the subject; secondly, to a small clay model of a gaming-table in Copenhagen, Attic from the second quarter of the sixth century;9 thirdly, to actual stone gaming-tables found at Epidauros, at Corinth, and in Delos. On the mirror, the board has only seven lines; in the clay model, five plus four; in the actual tables the numbers are as follows:
- Epidauros 1 (AM. 23 p. 2): five plus five.
- Epidauros 2 (AM. 23 p. 3 and p. 4 fig. 4): five plus five.
- Epidauros 3 (AM. 23 p. 4 figs. 5-6): five on one half, the other lost.
- Corinth (AJA. 1933 p. 563 fig. 8): five on one half, the other lost.
- Delos (Deonna Délos 18 p. 333 fig. 423): eleven.
- Delos (Deonna Délos 18 p. 333 fig. 424): five on one half, the other lost.
- (1) the pieces (or pesses)
- (2) the game
- (3) the table or board on which the game was played
- (4) the place where the game was played.
- (1) the cue
- (2) the game
- (3) the table
- (4) the billiard-room.
” Here Διὸς μεγάλου θᾶκοι πεσσοί τε must be παρὰ προσδοκίαν for Διὸς ψῆφος, which, as the lexicographers tell us, was the spot at Athens where according to Attic tradition the voting had taken place on the rival claims of Athena and Poseidon for the possession of the land: ὁ τόπος ἐν ᾧ Ἀθηνᾶ καὶ Ποσειδῶν ἐκρίθησαν (see the passage in Kock i pp. 13-l4). The same simple object — a rectangular block with flat oblong top — , whether natural and fixed, or rectangular and portable, might serve either as gaming-table or as voting-table; and in pictures of the voting on the disposal of Achilles' armour, for instance in the cup by Douris in Vienna,13 the table on which the ψῆφοι are cast has the same form as the table on which, in our Boston picture and others, the game of πεσσοί is played. To return to our Boston vase. Ajax has his right hand near the board, ready to play when his turn comes. Both heroes wear chitoniskoi, and are armed, with corslet, cushes, greaves; as in Exekias, they wear short cloaks over their armour, and each holds a pair of spears in his left hand. Behind them, their shields lean against something, with their helmets perched on top; behind them, or beside them at arm's reach. Both sit with the hither leg drawn back; Ajax is farther from the table than Achilles, although he sits farther forward on his θᾶκος: perhaps he is the more excited of the two. Much of Achilles' shield, which is seen in profile, is missing, and one cannot be sure whether it was round — an Argive shield — or as is more likely, of 'Boeotian' type like Ajax's. The device is a pair of panthers, done in white, now faded, with some incised detail: there was probably another charge between them in the missing part. The shield of Ajax is seen in full front view: it is the famous shield, and the artist makes more of it. The device is a rosette between two lions. The rosette is in incised lines, with a white dot at the heart and a red dot on each petal. The lions — regardant, the forepart down, the hindquarters up, one foreleg raised — are in white (again faded), with details very lightly incised. The scollops are bordered with a nebuly pattern, a favourite of the artist's. The rims of both shields are red. The helmets are of Corinthian type. Achilles' helmet is well preserved. An incised line marks the eyebrow. A thin fillet, in red, is passed round the helmet, coronal-wise. The crest sits on a tall standard, and is edged with red. The helmet of Ajax was similar, but all that remains is part of the cheekpiece and of the crest. Achilles' chitoniskos is of thick material, with a pattern of lozenges, each charged with a circle: so too in the corresponding figure on the painter's neck-amphora in London.14 The lower border is nebuly, between two thin strips of white dots. Ajax's chitoniskos is of thinner stuff, has a crinkled edge, and is divided by crinkled lines into areas black and red: a summary indication of radiating folds. The corslets are unusual. They seem to be of bronze and not of leather as in the Exekias vase. Compare the corslet of the young warrior on the stamnos by the Berlin Painter in Munich (Munich 2406).15 The corslet of Achilles has a pair of spirals, edged with red, on the chest. Ajax has a row of leather flaps, πτέρυγες, sewn to the lining of his. Above the waist in both is what looks like a sash: in Achilles, nebuly; in Ajax, decorated with curls. The cloaks are of the same sort as in Exekias, but the pattern-work is poorer. The border is nebuly, and nebuly bands divide the rest into triangular compartments, each charged with a star or trefoil: white heart and petals, red interdots. Most of the thin stripes edging the nebuly bands are studded with white dots. The greaves have a red border; the cushes are conventionally rendered, by spirals like those on the corslet. Achilles has no sword; the sword of Ajax is worn very short under his left arm. The hilt is white. At waist-level the cloak by error is made to fall on the hither side of the sword. The figures are lined with incision almost throughout, and so is the shield of Ajax. Both incision and red are used in the standard double-floral band above the picture. The treatment of the subject on the London amphora B 19316 is very similar. Not quite so close, the painter's third version, on the neck-amphora London B 211. The layout of the red-figure picture is the same, but more symmetrical. The chief differences in detail are in the position of hands and spears; the helmets, too, are on the heads, and both shields are in profile; and the artist is more interested in his work. The gaming-table is more elaborate than in the black-figure picture: the top is neatly finished off with volutes and oculi, and bounded below by a band of egg-pattern between two thin dot-bands. There are eight game-pieces, shown as red dots. The seats are red, with a thick reserved border. Achilles is about to make his move, but does not touch the piece. With two fingers and the end of his thumb he holds a small thin thing, done in red — a shaving, perhaps, or a splinter. Presumably he will propel the piece with this instead of lifting or pushing it with his fingers. This does not occur in any other picture of the subject and is not easily explained: precaution against cheating by moving two pieces at once? or what? The right hand of Ajax is also unusual: he extends two long fingers and the thumb: that is, he indicates what he has scored with the dice. In Exekias, Ajax utters the word τρία; here, he expresses it with his fingers. On the red-figured fragment in Bryn Mawr, described above (iii p. 3; on vase description for Boston 01.8037), Ajax also says three with his hand. On the black-figured lekythos at Boston, Achilles says τέτταρα φέρω, Ajax δύο φέρω, but the fingers are not extended. The spears are sloped point downwards, instead of upwards as in the Vatican vase and nearly always elsewhere. Militarily this is all right — the fully ready position — ; but awkward for one's friends. It recurs on the neck-amphora by the Lysippides Painter in London, B 211.17 The chitoniskoi are black, with red spots. Achilles' chitoniskos is marked off from the background by an incised line. The corslets are of bronze. The thick cloaks are edged below with a zigzag line, summarily indicating folds. Folds are rendered more precisely in the piece of drapery running downward from the hither elbow in both figures. In Achilles, this piece is seen to continue on the chest, above the crook of the elbow; in Ajax, the painter seems to have omitted to fill in the corresponding part. I do not see what this drapery can be but part of the cloak, although I must say that it does not look like it. The cloak of Achilles is the more elaborate of the two. Three embattled lines run across the body of the garment, which is strewn with small patterns — spots, stars, crosses with dots in the angles, trios of addorsed arcs, and in the upper part, esses and pairs of maeander-hooks. The border in front is an embattled band, enhanced with dots and edged by dot-bands. The border of Ajax's cloak is indented instead of embattled, and the only patterns on the rest of it are spots, and crosses with dots, the painter's stock adornments for clothes, adopted from black-figure. For the patterns of the two borders compare the bilingual amphorae in London and Munich. There is no thigh-armour. The greaves are edged with dots which indicate the attachment of the lining, whether by stitches or by small nails: actual archaic greaves are regularly edged with little holes. The thin dotted band round the ankles probably represents a pad against chafing, or the lower edge of such a pad, or the edge of the lining allowed to project. The knees of the greaves are decorated with the pair of brown lines which is the painter's vague formula for a knee. The inner side of each greave is ornamented with a long curl in black, and the outer side with the same curl, giving way, in the upper half, to a spiral. The proper place for a spiral is the inner side of a greave, since it is a stylization of the muscle of the calf: and that is where we find it in the many actual archaic greaves which have been preserved:18 but vase-painters are not very scrupulous in this point; on the Louvre amphora Louvre G 1, by the Andokides Painter, the spirals are in the right place, and so they are on his Faina vase; in the Palermo bilingual cup the red-figure warriors have the spiral on the inside of the leg, but two of the black-figure warriors have it on the outside; and in the London neck-amphora by the Lysippides Painter, London B 211, one hero has it on the inside, the other on the outside.19 The Corinthian helmets are alike except for the crest. There is a small palmette where the lower edge changes direction, and another at the outer corner of the eyehole. Ajax's crest-holder is attached to his helmet; Achilles' holder to a little wheel supported by a standard.20 The skulls of the heroes were drawn in the incised sketch. The contours of hair and beards are incised. The hair is black, the beards are red. The little curls on the forehead give place, at the temples, to a smooth edge. A red head-fillet is seen below each helmet. The long locks on the shoulders have a lank wet look as usual in our painter. Hardly anything remains of the charges on the shields: in one a paw, in the other the tail, of a lion or panther: the devices must have been more or less like those in the black-figured picture, two felines with another charge between. The drawing of the picture-borders is the same back and front, and they were no doubt executed by one artist, the Lysippides Painter rather than his colleague. A red line on the outer edge of the mouth; on the neck; above the upper border; above the base-rays; on the edge of the foot-disk; a pair of red lines below the pictures. The base-fillet and the backs of the handle-flanges are red. The black palmette at each handle is of the same simple type as in Leipsic, Louvre F 204, Bologna, and Faina. In London, and Munich, the palmette has double spirals above.21 The technique of the red-figure picture is pre-canonical. Not only is there more red and more incision than in the developed red-figure technique, but first, the relief-line work is imperfect, and secondly the contour-band is scarcely used. So too in the other works of the Andokides Painter,22 and in some at least of the very early red-figure vases by other artists (see iii p. 9; Boston 03.790). In the developed technique, for instance in Euphronios or Euthymides, the first step in the painting is to outline the figure with a thick brush. The black pigment is a quick drier; and when the background comes to be filled in, this 'contour-band' does not merge with it, but remains distinguishable. It is naturally more obvious in those unfinished vases where the background was never filled in, but it is plain enough in nearly all vases. In the Andokides Painter the background is uniform and there is no contour-band to be seen. He did not begin that way, but by drawing the outline with a very thin brush. In Achilles there is no relief-contour between the tip of the nose and the beard (including nostril and mouth), and none for the right hand or the feet. In Ajax, none for face, right thumb, right elbow, knee of greave, feet. Within the figures, the ears, the marks on the knees, and the lines near the lower edge of the corslet are without relief. Over other details one hesitates: the relief-line instrument may be used, but perhaps with the pigment diluted, so that a full relief-line is not produced. I am sorry not to be more explicit: one can nearly always be certain what is relief-line and what is not: here it is not so easy, and the notes I have taken at various times do not all agree. The graffito under the foot of the vase is A\/. Hackl (Münchener arch. Studien p. 36) takes this to be the same as on the bilingual amphorae Louvre F 204, London B 193, and Munich 2301, but it is different. No doubt Etruscan. I used to think of this as an early work of the Andokides Painter, but see now that it belongs to his middle period. The style is less mincing than in his early amphorae Louvre G 1 and Berlin 2159.
Kunst der Oudheid, 2, p. 328, pl. 73 (figs. 284-285); Brommer 1960, pp. 252 (no. A 3), 254 (no. B 1); Carpenter 1962, p. 89, fig. 22; Palmer 1962, pp. 87-88, fig. 76; A. W. Byvanck, BABesch 38 (1963), p. 86; ARV2, p. 1617; H. Marwitz, ÖJh 46 (1961-63) (Hauptblatt), pp. 82, 93; K. Schauenburg, JdI 80 (1965), pp. 93, 96; Knauer 1965, pp. 9, 12, figs. 11-12; J. G. Szilágyi, Bulletin du Musée Hongrois des Beaux-Arts 28 (1966), pp. 18 (note 11, no. 7), 21-22, 28; Richter 1966, p. 46, figs. 259-260; CVA, 1970, Munich, 7, p. 14 (E. Kunze-Götte); Para., pp. 113 (no. 2), 320 (no. 7); G. Becatti, StMisc 19 (1971-1972), p. 8; P. Colafranceschi Cecchetti, ibid., p. 30, pls. 60 (fig. 173), 61 (fig. 177), 62 (fig. 178); I. K. Raubitschek, AJA 77 (1973), p. 243; S. Karusu, AM 88 (1973), p. 60, note 19; E. R. Knauer, 1973, 125 BWPr, p. 22, notes 17-18; Brommer 1973, pp. 335 (no. A 11), 338 (no. B 1); Mommsen 1975, p. 78, note 379; Boardman 1975, pp. 17, 19 (fig. 2, 1-2), 217-218, 232, 242; CVA, 1976, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 4, p. 19, under no. 98.8.13 (M. B. Moore and D. von Bothmer); C. De Palma, ArchCl 29 (1977), p. 56; J. Boardman, AJA 82 (1978), p. 19, note 43; Schefold 1978, pp. 247-249 (fig. 333), 281, 317; Pinney & Ridgway 1979, p. 292, under no. 149, note 4 (J. McCallum); Vermeule 1979, pp. 80-81 (fig. 35), 231 (note 73); Moore 1980, p. 420; LIMC, 1981, I, 1, pp. 97 (no. 392), 101 (no. 421), 102-103, 199, I, 2, pl. 96, illus. (A. Kossatz-Deissmann); Kroll 1982, p. 71, note 30; S. Woodford, 1982, JHS 102, pp. 173, 181, nos. A 3 and B 3; Böhr 1982, p. 64, note 190; Beazley Addenda 1, pp. 32 (with incorrect ref. to Boardman, Athenian Black Figure vases, fig. 161.1, 2, ref. to B. Cohen, Attic Bilingual Vases, pl. 7, 2-3), 71; Moon 1983, p. 145, note 100 (G. F. Pinney); H. R. Immerwahr, AA 1986, p. 200, note 15; D. von Bothmer, Gnomon 60 (1988), p. 181; Beazley 1989, pp. 18-19; Beazley Addenda 2, pp. 65, 149; Burow 1989, p. 33; B. Cohen, Hesperia 60 (1991), p. 490, note 112. Exhibited: Fogg Art Museum, March 1-April 5, 1972 (Buitron 1972, pp. 36-37, no. 14, 3 illus.).