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125. 00.338 CUP from Tarquinia PLATE LXX

Diameter 0.2395, height 0.09325. From the Bruschi collection at Tarquinia (Corneto). First mentioned by George Dennis in the second edition of Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria i p. 410. RM. 5 pp. 332-3 (Reisch); Hartwig pl. 21, whence Hoppin i p. 229, Pfuhl figs. 451-2, (I) Perrot 10 p. 528; I, Langlotz GV. pl. 9, 15; I, Dedalo 4 p. 741 (Giglioli); I, Harvard Studies 52 pl. 6 (Benita Holland); Chase Guide p. 68; the shape, Caskey G, p. 187 fig. 142. About 500 B.C., early work by Douris (VA. p. 97 no. 6; Att. V. p. 200 no. 13; ARV.1 p. 280 no. 8; ARV.2 p. 427 no. 4).

The cup is of Type B. The potter-work is by Python (Bloesch F.A.S. p. 100 no. 34). The underside has Python's characteristic form.

The long career of Douris may be roughly divided into four periods: (1) very early, and early; (2) early middle; (3) middle; (4) late. In periods 1 and 2 the favourite kalos-name is Chairestratos; in period 3, Hippodamas; in period 4, kalos-names are rare, but there are Polyphrasmon and Hiketes. Our cup is very early in the first period: of the signed vases, only the arming cup in Vienna is earlier;1 also very early, Louvre G 1222, and the pair of cups in Berlin, Berlin 2283 and Berlin 2284.3 In the later part of the Chairestratos phase the painter's style settles down, and his middle period may be said to begin: the cup with the Arms of Achilles in Vienna is already early middle.4

The decoration of the present cup is of the 'bare' type which Douris uses in his Chairestratos period, as opposed to the 'richer' type which he adopts in the period of Hippodamas. Bare decoration: figures only; no palmettes at the handles; and the simplest of all borders — a line round the tondo, a line under the pictures outside.

At this point we give the inscriptions. Inside, ΔΟΡΙΣΕΓΡΑΦΣΕΝ. Outside, on A, [ΧΑΙ]ΡΕΣΤΡΑΤΟΣΚΑΛΟΣ, on B, Χ[ΑΙΡ]ΕΣΤΡΑΤΟ[Σ]ΚΑΛΟΣ. In his earliest signatures Douris does not use the letter-form Λ̣, which appears on the cup with the Arms of Achilles, Vienna 3695, and thenceforth. Here we may also mention the two graffiti on the underside of the foot, visible in the photographs: one is an Etruscan alpha, the other a mark in the form of a Greek upsilon with a crossbar at the end of each arm.

Inside, a young athlete moves to left, his right arm extended, a discus held with his left hand and lying against the inside of the left forearm. The hair is rolled up and tied with a cord. Behind him, a pick, and, suspended, a pair of haltēres. Long legs and feet, long right arm with large hand, small middle, abrupt transition from frontal chest to profile hip, thin neck, the eye set low: compare the athletes on the Berlin cup Berlin 2283, which seems a little later.

Debated, whether any moment in the process of discus-throwing is represented, or whether this is simply an athlete, discus in hand, moving towards the field. More probably, I think, he is already in preliminary action, at the very beginning of the process, almost the same moment as in the statue of the standing discobolos.

Relief-contours. For the brown lines on the body the photograph fails us, and we must turn to the drawing published by Reisch and Hartwig, where they are rendered pretty accurately. Red for the head-fillet and the cord from which the haltēres hang.

Outside, battle. In each half, a well-planned symmetrical group of three. On A, a young warrior, sword in hand, strides towards a man who is down, but tries to rise, drawing his sword; a young companion, with drawn sword, comes to his help. On B, a youth with drawn sword attacks another who has turned tail and fallen on one knee, but strikes back with his spear; a third youth, with a spear, advances to defend him.

Hartwig has aptly compared and contrasted the pictures with a contemporary battle-piece, an early work of the Panaitios Painter, Boston 01.8021 (no. 75: Plate XXXIX). Another comparison might be with a fragmentary cup in Brunswick and Florence.5 The general nature of the drawing, to speak broadly, is the same: the figures on the other two cups are more supple and the movements even more vigorous: but our cup is also of fine quality. Unusual, and unexpected in Douris, the terror in the face of the fallen man; and the indication of middle age, the hair thinned at the temples.

There is heroic nudity, but not fully carried out as in the other two cups. We have, on the one party, light-armed troops, wearing chlamys and petasos only; on the other, warriors armed with the helmet and shield of the hoplite, but otherwise naked; two of them use spears, the third comes to close quarters with the sword; the light-armed use swords. On A, one party is in trouble; on B, the other.

The helmets are of Attic type and have hinged cheek-pieces, which are not let down. The shield-devices are three rings (one of which is damaged), and a bull's head caboshed. Four of the scabbards are seen to be ornamented with a snake. The fallen warrior on B has no sword. Four mouths are open; the mouth of the warrior on the left of A is closed; in the corresponding figure on B this part is damaged.

Relief-contours. Much of the brown inner marking is lost in the photographs. The black petasos on A is unusual. Red for the baldricks, the petasos-cords, and the inscriptions.

Outside, the surface is fretted in places; missing, the chin, neck, upper right arm of the left-hand warrior on B, with part of his chlamys.

Klein 1898, pp. 98-99, no. 5 (as Bruschi coll.); G. M. A. Richter, AJA 30 (1926), p. 34; Walston 1926, p. 35; G. Schneider, BABesch 10, no. 1 (1935), pp. 22, 26-27; idem, BABesch 10, no. 2, p. 8; Richter 1950, pp. 97-98, fig. 290; Sedlmayr & Messerer 1967, p. 40 (W. Züchner); Chase & Vermeule 1963, pp. 91, 96, 105-106, fig. 87a-c; Alscher 1963, p. 111, note 116; Wegner 1968b, pp. 24, 30, 60, 120, 216; Arnold 1969, p. 113, note 420; Richter 1970, p. 65, fig. G; Para., p. 374, no. 4; Schefold 1975, p. 202, note 322; Beck 1975, p. 34, no. IV/82, pl. 34, fig. 187; Boardman 1975, p. 138, illus.; D. J. R. Williams, JHS 97 (1977), p. 168; Folsom 1976, p. 122; K. Schauenburg, AM 92 (1977), p. 98, note 37; K. Schauenburg, Rivista di Archeologia 1 (1977), p. 17; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 116; Brijder 1984, p. 159, note 34 (T. Seki); Prag 1985, pp. 111 (note 95), 113 (note 175); Sweet 1987, cover illus.; D. C. Kurtz, Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 4 (1989), p. 121, note 26; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 235; Lissarrague 1990b, pp. 160 (no. 15), 162.

1 Vienna 3694: FR pl. 53, whence Hoppin i pp. 266-7; CV. pll. 9-10: ARV.1 p. 280 no. 6; ARV.2 p. 427 no. 3.

2 Hoppin i p. 258: ARV.1 p. 280 no. 6; ARV.2 p. 428 no. 10. Now cleaned.

3 AZ. 1883 pll. 1-2, whence Hoppin i pp. 211 and 213; detail, Pfuhl fig. 450: ARV.1 p. 281 nos. 19 and 20; ARV.2 p. 429 nos. 21 and 22.

4 Vienna 3695: FR. pl. 54, whence Hoppin i p. 268: CV. pll. 11-12 and pl. 13, 1-2: ARV.1 p. 282 no. 28; ARV.2 pp. 429-30 no. 26.

5 CV. Brunswick pl. 13: ARV.1 p. 917 no. 10; ARV.2 p. 1567 no. 1.

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