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127. 95.31 CUP from Tarquinia? PLATE LXXI, 4

Diameter 0.21. The foot is alien. Formerly in the Baxter collection, Florence, later in the collection of Adolphe van Branteghem (no. 67). The provenience is given as 'Corneto' (Tarquinia) in the sale catalogue of the Branteghem collection. Fröhner Coll. van Branteghem pl. 19=Hartwig pl. 22, 1, whence Perrot 10.553 and Hoppin 1 p. 225; drawings and lithograph dated 1881, in the German Institute at Rome, M. 38. I, Zephyros and Hyakinthos. About 490-485 B.C., by Douris (VA. p. 98; Att. V. p. 202 no. 31; ARV.1 p. 290 no. 172; ARV.2 p. 443 no. 225).

The inscription runs ΔΟΡΙΣΕΓΡΑΦ[Σ]ΕΝ: ΧΑΙΡΕ[ΣΤΡΑΤΟΣΚΑΛΟΣ]. The old drawing gives more letters, but no more are now visible. The same formula, the signature separated by two interpoints from the kalos-name Chairestratos, occurs on Louvre G 118, Leipsic T 509, Louvre G 120, and a new cup in the Basle market.1

Ours is a small cup of Type B, decorated inside only, in wretched preservation. Within a palmette border, a winged youth flies, clasping a naked boy. His left hand is on the boy's shoulder, and the boy's right hand holds the back of the other's head. Not far from the boy's back is a design of palmettes. The eye of the winged youth, and his whole face except the chin, are destroyed, and the present state gives a false impression. Parts of the floral, especially those nearest the boy, are repainted, over ancient traces. Relief-contours. Red for the inscription, and for a flower which sets off from the tendril near the boy's head and is visible in the drawing but not in the photograph.

Two other small cups have the same subject inside. One is a fragment in Boston, Boston 13.94, from Cervetri. Here the boy wears a himation and holds a lyre, and the attitude of the winged youth is altogether more violent. There is a floral motive near the boy's feet, but a larger one, corresponding to that on our cup, is at the back not of the boy but of the winged youth. The fragmentary inscription is . . . ΤΟΣΚΑΛΟΣ, and the name is in all probability Chairestratos.2 The cup is almost contemporary with ours, may be a little earlier: it is close to Douris, and might be by the painter himself.

The other cup with this subject, Berlin 2305, is in the manner of Douris, but very late.3 The boy holds a lyre as in the Boston fragment. The floral element is reduced to a simple flower.

How is the picture on our cup to be poised? The position of the handles (indicated in Hartwig's drawing) is no guide: but the inscription is symmetrical with respect to the handles, and, on the analogy of other inscriptions like it, should be in the upper part of the tondo. Poising the tondo by means of the inscription would yield an arrangement in which the position of the boy was not far from horizontal, but legs up and head down. This would mean a very empty space in the upper left-hand quarter; which could be mitigated by placing the boy — and the floral motive which runs parallel to him — quite horizontal. The winged youth would be thought of as having caught up the boy and flown away with him, and now to be sinking with him on to a bed of flowers or fern. We have spoken of a 'floral motive', but real plants are intended.

Even so the composition does not seem very happy. It does not follow that the other two pictures are to be poised in the same way: both are difficult, but an upright position appears more natural.

Hartwig has already poised the cup as we are inclined to do; and he named the persons on the three cups: — Zephyros and Hyakinthos.4 Greifenhagen and Sichtermann have opposed this interpretation, and prefer to think of the winged youth as Eros, of the boy as a mortal. The action of the winged youth in the Boston fragment is surprising for Eros: Sichtermann speaks of 'confusion' in the mind of the artist, and I am always disinclined to do that in such cases: but it must be admitted that the action would be rather strange for Zephyros also, and that on several vases from the first half of the fifth century Eros is seen pursuing a boy. In truth the case for Zephyros and Hyakinthos is not very strong, and the names must be followed by a question-mark.

Floral borders are rare in cups by Douris: the four other occurrences are on elaborate masterpieces: Vienna 3694, Paris, Cab. Méd. 575 + 648, Vienna 3695, and (outside) Berlin 2283.5 In our small cup the border has a special significance: the wreath echoes the flowers in the picture.

The cup must come near the end of the second period.

J. D. Beazley, 1948, Proc.BritAcad 33, p. 31, no. 2; Roton 1951, p. 85, illus.; EAA, III, pp. 869-870 (C. Caprino); Brommer 1960, p. 365, no. B 6; Wegner 1968b, pp. 18, 24, 30, 71, 93, 119, 224; E. Vermeule, AntK 12 (1969), p. 15; Para., p. 375, no. 225; Brommer 1973, p. 527, no. B 6; Schefold 1975, p. 33; Boardman & La Rocca 1978, pp. 100, 102-103, color illus.; Dover 1978, pp. 93, 218, no. R574; A. Mulas, 1978, Eros in Antiquity, Erotic Art Book Society, New York, p. 34, color illus.; Kaempf-Dimitriadou 1979, pp. 16, 61 (note 85), 81, no. 55; Shapiro 1981, p. 142, note 71, pl. 28, fig. 13; Schefold 1981, pp. 325 (fig. 473), 330-331, 376; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 118; Koch-Harnack 1983, pp. 235 (note 543), 261, no. 182; CVA, Basel, 2, p. 21, under pl. 7, no. 1 (V. Slehoferova); Koch-Harnack 1989, p. 76, fig. 57 (as 01.8029); N. Kaltsas, 1989, in Eros Grec: Amour des Dieux et des Hommes, Athènes: Editions du Ministère de la culture de Grèce, Direction des antiquités, p. 39, illus.; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 240; LIMC, V, 1, pp. 549 (no. 45), 550, V, 2, pl. 379, illus. (L. and F. Villard); W. A. P. Childs, Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 5 (1991), p. 39, note 29; D. Buitron-Oliver, ibid., p. 73, note 6.

1 ARV.1 pp. 282-90 nos. 34, 165, and 171; ARV.2 pp. 430-443 nos. 35, 216, 223, and 31.

2 ARV.1 p. 918 no. 27; ARV.2 p. 1570 no. 30.

3 Hartwig pl. 72, 1; Licht ii p. 153: ARV.1 p. 297 no. 31; ARV.2 p. 450 no. 31.

4 For the representations of Hyakinthos see RG. pp. 88-89, ARV.1 p. 982, EVP. pp. 49-50 and 142, and Sichtermann in Jb. 71 pp. 97-123. The earliest vase with Hyakinthos is an eye-cup by Oltos of which one fragment is in Erlangen (RG. pp. 88-89; ARV.1 p. 36 no. 14; now published in Bruhn Oltos fig. 8, and, rightly poised, by Sichtermann in Jb. 71 p. 104 fig. 8) and other fragments, joining the first, in the Louvre, Louvre C 11217 (ARV.2 p. 58 no. 45).

5 ARV.1 pp. 280-7 nos. 6, 26, 28, 19; ARV.2 pp. 427-30 nos. 3, 27, 26, 21.

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