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129. 00.499 CUP from Orvieto PLATE LXXIII

Diameter 0.31, height 0.12. Formerly in the possession of Dr. Thomas Wilson (see below), later in that of Professor F. B. Tarbell; presented by Mrs. Samuel Torrey Morse. AJA. 1900 pl. 1 and pp. 185, 188, 189 (Tarbell), whence Hoppin i p. 230, (A-B) Mem. Am. Ac. 6 pl. 16, 2 (Lawler), (I) Yavis Greek Altars p. 166; I, Harv. St. 52 pl. 7 (Benita Holland). I, Dionysos; A-B, maenads and satyrs. About 480 B.C., by Douris (VA. p. 98; Att. V. p. 205 no. 74; ARV.1 p. 285 no. 78; ARV.2 p. 435 no. 89).

The recent history of the cup is related by F. B. Tarbell in AJA. 1900 p. 183. 'The vase was for many years the property of Thomas Wilson, LL.D., Curator of the Division of Prehistoric Archaeology in the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C. It was found in 1886, between April 4 and 11, in the necropolis on the north-west slope of the rock on which Orvieto is situated. The discovery was made in the course of excavations conducted by Signor Riccardo Mancini, a well-known explorer of Orvieto, Dr. Wilson being himself present and assisting in the work. The tombs uncovered at the time had been disturbed and destroyed, and the decorated pottery found was all in fragments.' Tarbell refers to Notizie degli Scavi 1886 p. 120, where Mancini briefly records the excavation of a tomb consisting of two chambers, facing south, on the land of G. B. Onori and Don Emilio Puggini, in contrada Cannicella. From 1887 to 1899 the vase was exhibited in the Smithsonian Institution at Washington.

Tarbell notes that the cup was broken into five pieces, and mended, in antiquity. Twenty-one pairs of holes were drilled to receive metal clamps, and the holes joined by channels, 'somewhat as in the cup by the Brygos Painter in the Cabinet des Médailles'.1 The smallest of the five pieces was ruined in the accident, or lost, and was replaced by a fragment from an earlier red-figured cup.2 There are other examples of this reckless procedure: enough to cite the fragment by Douris used to mend a stamnos by the Copenhagen Painter in the Vatican, and a skyphos from Narce in the Louvre.3 Tarbell adds that subsequently to the repair the cup was broken again, 'probably by being thrown into the fire in connection with the rites of burial. This inference is based on the fact that certain pieces have had their red clay turned to gray in a way believed to be due to fire, while other pieces are unaffected.'

The cup is of Type B. The shape of the foot suggests that the potter was Python, although the underside is not 'lipped off' as in his other cups.

The cup is late in Douris's middle-Hippodamas-period. Inside, the usual Dourian border; outside, the usual Dourian handle-palmettes. The outer 'rim-clay' — the reserved line at the edge above the pictures — is rather thick and uneven, as it usually is in Douris.

Inside, Dionysos, dressed in long chiton and himation, and wreathed with ivy, stands at an altar, holding out a kantharos in his right hand. Behind, a folding-seat with a cover. Relief-contours both here and outside, and the hair-reserves bordered by a pair of relief-lines. The front hair of Dionysos is scolloped with pairs of arcs in relief, and the back-hair is edged by three relief-lines. The treatment of the folds on the upper part of the himation is formal, in groups of three wavy relief-lines; on the skirt, they are massed in three groups of six lines each. Brown diagonal lines for the folds, not visible in the photograph, on the 'neck-piece' of the chiton for the crisscross on the seat-cover, and for the cyma on the ledge of the altar below the volute-member. Red for the stalk of the wreath, the tags of the seat-cover, the daubs of dried blood on the side of the altar,4 and the inscription, ΔΟΡΙΣΕΓΡΑΦΣΕΝ.

The stem and foot of the kantharos are missing, and might perhaps be imagined after the kantharoi on the somewhat later cups by Douris in Cleveland and in Harvard.5 There are restorations: much of that part of the himation which falls from the shoulder; most of the slanting folds to right of it; part of the chiton above those folds; some of the vertical folds on the left of the himation; part of the skirt near the ankles. But these restorations do not account for the weakness of the figure, already noticed by Tarbell in the prime publication. This is 'sick-work': Douris was not himself.

The outside is better. A dance of maenads and satyrs: in each half, a trio and a pair, but combined into a quintet. The maenads wear chitons with wing-sleeves (see ii p. 40; Boston 01.8028), and five of them have himatia of 'Ionic' mode; the sixth has a leopard-skin instead. On A, the maenads bend forward or back, with one arm raised. One satyr seems to be emulating them, the other cuts his own figure, kicking one leg right back, thrusting out both arms with palms down, and pirouetting. His face is frontal; one ear is down, the other up. The underside of the raised foot is shown full length: Douris likes unusual views of feet, although he is not very good at them. The first satyr wears a fawnskin, and his head is tied in the middle of his bald forehead like Priam's on the skyphos by Makron.6 The other satyr has a full head of hair.

On the other half, the dancing maenads are upright and raise one arm. In the trio on the left, they lunge forward with one foot, and the raised arm has a threatening look, as if about to strike; the satyr makes off, his head turned back. In the pair on the right, the satyr rushes towards the maenad, who turns and raises her arm as if in defence. The attacks, and the resistance, are not serious, only features of the dance. The left-hand satyr holds a thyrsus. He is bald, the other has his hair.

In all six maenads the upper part of the chiton is evenly streaked with vertical relief-lines, for folds and furrows. The skirts have the old system of massed mid-folds falling from the waist, with transverse arcs in the spaces on either side. Four of the women wear a stephane, and in three at least of them the hair is done up in a krobylos. The fifth has a krobylos, but no stephane, only a cord; the sixth, in the middle of B, has shorter hair, with a cord only. The satyrs have simple head-fillets.

Missing, part of the head of the middle maenad on A, part of the beard and left shoulder of the right-hand satyr on B, and some pieces of the palmettes at the handles. The eye on the satyr has suffered: it was originally dot-and-circle like the others, and the present expression is misleading.

Brown for the inner markings on the satyrs' bodies, for hair on their chests, for the inside of the satyr's pelt on A. Red for the hair-cords, and for the inscription on A, ΗΙΠΠΟΛ̣ΑΜΛ̣ΣΚΑΛΟΣ̣. (for ΗΙΠΠΟΔΑΜΑΣΚΑΛΟΣ) The first sigma is four-stroked, but the lowermost stroke, as Miss Palmer tells me, seems to be due to the painter having accidentally trailed the brush to the right.

Richter 1926b, p. 41, fig. 117; E. Vermeule, AJA 70 (1966), p. 10, note 22; Mayer-Prokop 1967, p. 72; Wegner 1968b, pp. 25, 77ff., 123, 141, 153-154, 210, 216; Gauer 1968, p. 62, note 235; Schettino Nobile 1969, p. 62; Para., p. 375, no. 89; Buitron 1972, pp. 101, 103; Wandlungen, pp. 207, 214, note 10 (S. Karusu); Boardman 1975, p. 138, illus. head detail 1; P. M. Fraser, 1977, Rhodian Funerary Monuments, Oxford, New York, Clarendon Press, pp. 101-102, note 91; Houser 1979, p. 103, MFA 8, illus. (M. Anderson); Fischer-Graf 1980, p. 18; Kurtz & Sparkes 1982, p. 51, note 29 (D. von Bothmer); Blech 1982, p. 192, fig. 28j; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 117; G. Nachbaur, ÖJh 54 (1983) (Hauptblatt), p. 33, note 5; LIMC, III, 1, p. 495, no. 861, III, 2, pl. 405, illus. (C. Gasparri and A. Veneri); Korshak 1987, p. 54, no. 94; Schöne 1987, pp. 155, 302, no. 514; Lezzi-Hafter 1988, p. 41, note 46; F. Brommer, 1989, AA, p. 484, no. 7; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 238; L. Kahil, Hesperia 60 (1991), p. 519.

1 Paris, Cab. Méd. 576: ARV.1 p. 247 no. 15; ARV.2 p. 371 no. 14.

2 It is figured, upside down, in AJA. 1954 pl. 61, d: a chignon, and, hanging, a basket.

3 JHS. 71 pp. 129-32. Pottier pl. 156, G 567.

4 For the custom of daubing the side of the altar with blood see Nilsson Geschichte der griechischen Religion 1 p. 139; for the fire-pan on the altar see iii p. 71 (Boston 99.539) and Yavis Greek Altars p. 165.

5 Cleveland 508.15: AJA. 1954 pll. 41-42: ARV.2 p. 436 no. 111. Harvard 1925.30.129: CV. Hoppin pll. 9-10: ARV.1 p. 286 no. 91; ARV.2 pp. 436-7 no. 112.

6 See iii p. 34 (Boston 13.186).

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