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132. 00.343 CUP from Tarquinia PLATE LXXIV, 1 and PLATE LXXV

Diameter 0.328, height 0.121. From the Bruschi collection, Tarquinia. Hartwig pll. 74-75, whence (I) Pfuhl fig. 470; I, Vorberg Erotik des Altertums p. 83. I, satyrs and maenad. A-B, warriors leaving home. About 470 B.C., by Douris (VA. p. 99; Att. V. p. 207 no. 111; ARV.1 p. 288 no. 118; ARV.2 p. 438 no. 141).

The cup is of Type B. The potter-work is by Python, and the foot has his characteristic form. The outer rim-clay is uneven, as in no. 22.

The cup belongs to the Polyphrasmon period, and is a late work of Douris. The border inside is of the same type as in the last cup. The 'odd man' is north-north-west.

Inside, a very large picture, of four figures. A satyr grasps a maenad, who defends herself. On each side, a satyr capers. The exergue represents rough ground. In the field, six floating flowers, such as are not uncommon in late work of Douris. The maenad, who is very tall, wears a chiton, a fawnskin, and ear-rings. Her hair is rolled up behind by means of a fillet, which is indicated by a single relief-line. The hand on her left shoulder is of course her assailant's: a little awkward that the arm of the right-hand satyr should be extended in the same direction. Relief-contours. Brown for the circles dappling the fawnskin and for the lower edge of the middle satyr's false ribs. The hair-reserves throughout are edged with a relief-line, or a pair of relief-lines. The lower line of the left-hand satyr's chest was omitted by mistake. In the right-hand satyr it was fully drawn, but part of it has disappeared in a fracture. His eye has also suffered; and a repainted fracture passes through the nose, upper lip, and nape of the maenad.

The design is not wholly of Douris's invention. The interior of a much earlier vase, a black-figured stemless cup in Rhodes,1 which belongs to the Segment Class and is not later than the last quarter of the sixth century, has a composition which, though crudely carried out, resembles ours too closely for coincidence: four figures; in the middle a satyr bending and embracing a very tall maenad, who looks round; of the two flanking satyrs, the left-hand one dances in the same attitude as the corresponding figure on our cup. An old design, then, freshened by Douris.

Outside, one might have expected a Dionysiac subject, but instead we have warriors leaving home: in each half two trios, with much overlapping, even crowding, of figures. On the left of A, a warrior stands between a woman and a man; on the right, a warrior between a woman and a youth. The man, father perhaps, on the right of the first group, near the middle of the half, extending his arm in front of the warrior's shield, is an important figure in the composition. He wears a long chiton, a himation, shoes, and holds a stick. The warrior stands, leaning on his spear, with one leg frontal and the other crossed behind it in a favourite late archaic stance, and turning his head, gazes at the man. He wears chitoniskos, a wrap over both shoulders, an Attic helmet, greaves, and carries a plain shield. The woman facing him is dressed in a chiton with two kolpoi, and a saccos; her right hand holds an oinochoe, the left takes light hold of her garment near the shoulder. The second warrior, in the right-hand group, is clad like the first, and his shield too is plain. The woman facing him, with her head bent and her lips parted, wears chiton and himation, and on her head a stephane; the ends of her long hair are contained in a small bag. She holds a phiale. A youth in a himation looks on, holding his stick by the top. An alabastron is suspended to left of the man's head in the first group, and to right of the head, between the two groups, an aryballos: these help to stress the figure.

In such departure scenes, the two vessels for the libation — phiale and oinochoe — are usually held by the same woman; or else the woman holds the oinochoe, and the departing man the phiale. It is unusual for the two vessels to be divided between two women and two groups.

The six persons on the other half, in two groups of three each, are all men in himatia, with sticks. The left-hand one wears shoes. The right-hand one turns his head away from his companions, and his attitude and gesture connect this half of the cup with the other: the scene is the same. A pair of sandals hangs in the field to left of the third man's head, another, fragmentary, to right of it; a strigil, between the first man and the second; and, between the fifth and the sixth, an aryballos of the same type as on A. Here it is plain that the projection to left of the mouth is that form of handle or lug (serving to take a cord) which is common in actual aryballoi.2 The aryballoi on our cup, with their single handle, tall body, and broad flat bottom, are recognizably like the vase in Athens which was painted by Douris, and, as the signature states, fashioned by him as well.3 It is earlier than our cup, belongs to the Hippodamas period, but Douris's idea of an aryballos has not changed.

A third aryballos is represented to left of the left-hand man's arm, but the painter forgot to add the mouth, nor is there trace of it in the preliminary sketch.

The design of the handle-palmettes is the same as in the Hippodamas period, only somewhat more ornate: the middle palmette is capped by a symmetrical double-volute; the lateral palmettes are also capped by tendrils but the volutes are replaced by flowers; another tendril, ending in a flower, springs from the lower edge of the lateral palmettes; and there are buds in all the axils. A slight elaboration of the Hippodamas palmettes is regular in the Polyphrasmon period of the artist; the flower-terminals are rare, but recur in the Leipsic cup (Leipsic T 550).4

Relief-contours. Brown lines on the sleeve of one woman on A, and for minor markings on the bodies of the men. The eye of the left-hand woman on A is damaged, the mouth of the right-hand warrior, the beard of the fifth man on B.

G. M. A. Richter, AJA 30 (1926), p. 34; Herbert 1964, p. 66; Follmann 1968, pp. 16, 79-80; Wegner 1968b, pp. 154, 162-164, 183-184, 209-210, 226-228; Para., p. 375, no. 141; Boardman 1975, p. 138, head detail 5; K. Schauenburg, AA 1977, p. 200, note 28; Moon 1979, p. 190, under no. 107 (L. Berge); Beazley Addenda 1, p. 118; J. Schilbach, AM 97 (1982), p. 30; G. Nachbaur, ÖJh 54 (1983) (Hauptblatt), p. 44; CVA, Basel, 2, p. 21, under pl. 7, no. 1 (V. Slehoferova); Schöne 1987, pp. 136, 296, no. 452; Koch-Harnack 1989, pp. 86-87, fig. 71; Beazley 1989, p. 58; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 239.

1 Rhodes 12307: Cl. Rh. 4 p. 266; CV e pl. 15, 2: ABV. p. 213 no. 16.

2 See BSA. 29 pp. 187-216.

3 Athens 15375: Anz. 1928 p. 571; Delt. 1927-8 pll. 4-5, suppl. plate, and pp. 94 and 102; part, Richter and Milne fig. 106; Greifenhagen Eroten p. 59: ARV.1 p. 293 no. 210; ARV.2 p. 447 no. 274.

4 Hartwig pp. 661-2: ARV.1 p. 288 no. 116; ARV.2 p. 438 no. 139.

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