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136. 10.193 CUP from Orvieto PLATE LXXl, 1-3

Diameter 0.235. From the Bourguignon collection, Naples. Hartwig pl. 26. I, reveller and boy. A-B, men and youths courting boys and a youth. About 500-495 B.C.

The cup is of Type B. The foot and one handle are missing.

Inside, an old man moves to right, leaning back, holding a lyre and singing. He wears a cloak, boots, and a wreath of large leaves. The back of the head is partly modern. He is preceded by a small boy, who looks round; a cloak hangs over his left arm and he holds a stick over his left shoulder. The stick is probably his master's. Another stick is seen on the left of the picture leaning. The left heel of the boy is present, and part of his right foot. Relief-contours. The beard is relief-contoured; the ends of the beard are in relief-lines, and so is the moustache. The backs of the boots are browned, where the hair has been left on the leather. The inscription on the exergue, ΑΘΕΝΟΔΟΤΟΣΚΑΛΟΣ, is in dark brown. Red for the wreath and for the inscription, to right of the mouth, ΣΠΑΝΙΟΝΙΕΝ, which must be what the reveller is singing. It does not seem to be nonsense, and several attempts have been made to explain it: my own will be found in AJA. 1927 pp. 348-9 no. 9 and 1929 p. 364 no. 8.

Outside, a courting scene: two groups in each half. On the right of A, a man, leaning on his stick, gives advice to a boy who stands facing him. Both wear the himation, and are seen partly from behind. Pieces of the himatia are modern, and the right arm of the boy, with part of his back. Behind the boy, and in the middle of the picture, a naked youth stands with both legs frontal, his head turned towards the pair, looking at them, and his body leaning a little in the same direction. His left arm hangs down at his side, with the back of the hand against the thigh, and his right forearm is passed behind his back with the thumb up and the fingers spread out, holding the left arm near the elbow. This position of the arms is seldom depicted. Hartwig noted that it occurred in the figure of a ball-player on an Attic grave-relief in Athens,1 where there is a special reason for the position, just as there is in the figure of Ajax on an Etruscan scarab in New York.2 (A third occurrence, in a picture of St. Jerome by Rubens, formerly in Sanssouci, where a putto is teasing the holy man's tame lion, is not helpful).3 On the left of the picture, a youth, his left hand resting on his hip and holding the top of his stick, offers a pomegranate to a boy. Both wear himatia; the boy's is drawn up tightly over the back of his head, but he pokes his right hand out at the neck; his left lifts the himation. The youth's dog, a Maltese, is behind him, under the handle. To left of his left arm, sponge, strigil, and flat-bottomed aryballos hang from a thong.

B. On the left of the other half, a man with a wrap over his shoulders, holds a hare by ears and hind-legs, offering it to a naked youth, who takes it by one fore-leg. Beside the youth is a marten (γαλῆ), an animal which is not infrequently mentioned in literature but not often represented.4 The head of the hare (except the ears) is modern, the youth's right forearm, and a little of his left hand. On the right of the picture a youth stands with one leg frontal, leaning on the stick propped under his left armpit and holding a hare behind him, by the ears, in his right hand. He is not yet handing it over to the boy who stands facing him, in much the same attitude as the boy in the left-hand group on A, but with a more bashful appearance. His himation is draped over the back of the head; the youth's is thrown carelessly over right shoulder and left arm. His right hand is modern, also the hare's ears with the top of its head.

There may have been an animal or something else under the handle to left of this half, but the piece is missing.

Relief-contours, except for the lips. 'There is much use of brown lines for the minor details of the bodies; but the furrows on the frontal feet, and the horizontal creases above them, are in relief-lines. The boy on B, the youth on A, and the boy in the left- hand group, are fair-haired. A scumbling of brown is used for the fur of the hares; brown lines for the coat of the dog and the tail of the marten, brown dots for the holes of the sponge. Red for the head-fillets, the dog's collar, and the inscriptions, ΗΟΠΑΙΣ on A, ΗΟ[ΠΑ]ΙΣ on B. The restorations are clear from Hartwig's drawing.

The ages of the persons are distinguished. There are two men, with beards, one of whom, he on the right of A, seems a more serious character than the other. The two courting youths have whiskers. The youth in the left-hand group on B is full-grown or nearly, but has no whisker. The naked youth on A is younger. Younger still, the two boys wrapped in their himatia. The youngest is the boy receiving advice in the right-hand group on A.

The drawing is laboured and affected, but original and not inexpressive. It has something in common with the earliest phase of Douris.5 Of courting scenes, the least remote from ours is on the fragmentary cup Athens, Agora P 2574.6

P. Kretschmer, 1894, Die Griechische Vaseninschriften, ihrer Sprache nach Untersucht, Gütersloh, C. Bertelsmann, p. 90 (as Bourguignon coll.); Klein 1898, p. 91, no. 4 (as Bourguignon coll.); Beazley 1947, p. 139; ARV2, pp. 1567 (no. 12), 1698; H. R. Immerwahr, GRBS 8 (1967), p. 260; Para., p. 506; K. Schefold, AntK 17 (1974), p. 139 (note 19, incorrectly as 10.113); M. Robertson, in Stele (Fest. Nikolaos Kontoleon, Athens, 1978), pp. 125-126, 128-129; Koch-Harnack 1983, pp. 76, 247, no. 13; Maas & Snyder 1989, p. 123; E. Csapo and M. C. Miller, Hesperia 60 (1991), p. 382, no. 10.

1 BCH. 1883 pl. 19; Conze pl. 203 no. 1046.

2 EVP. p. 139 and pl. 32, 7.

3 Burlington Magazine Dec. 1953 p. 393.

4 For other pictures of it see ii p. 2 (Boston 10.221). See also Llewellyn Brown The Etruscan Lion p. 176. On a white-ground alabastron in New York (New York 21.139.27: two archers) one of the two animals is a leopard-cub, the other may be a marten. I cannot believe that the animal on the Poulopoulos relief in Athens is a marten (Schipper in Archaeology 5, 1952, pp. 25-29).

5 So already Att. V. p. 210 and ARV.1 p. 917.

6 Hesp. 15 pl. 31, 40 and pl. 32, 40. Perhaps the animal in the right-hand group is a marten?

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