170. 03.821 NECK-AMPHORA from Suessul PLATE CII and SUPPL. PLATE 27Height 0.50, diameter 0.246. From the Spinelli collection. A, RM. 47 pl. 15, 1 (Speier); AJA. 1936 p. 515 (D. M. Robinson). A, Hippodame, Asteria, Iaso, and Eurynoe. B, a youth (Theseus?) pursuing a woman. About 400 B.C., by the Kadmos Painter (Buschor in FR. iii p. 146; Att. V. p. 452 no. 2; ARV.1 p. 805 no. 19; ARV.2 p. 1186 no. 29). The handles are twisted. The shape of the vase is the same as in the large neck-amphora, with twisted handles, which first appears over a hundred years earlier, in works by Euphronios and his closest companions,1 and is adopted by the Berlin Painter, then by the Niobid Painter, then by Polygnotos and his group, and so down to our vase. There are of course modifications in detail. In our vase the body is narrower, and fuller towards the base; the foot is narrower and more compressed, with the upper member of it curving gradually into the lower. There is a strong fillet between neck and shoulder. There is a tooled groove, not only above and below the base-fillet, which is concave, but on the upper side of the upper member of the foot, near the edge; and between the two members. These are to be distinguished from the reserved line on the edge of each member. The egg-pattern on the upper member of the mouth, and round the base of the handles, is traditional. So is a double floral pattern on the neck. Here the neck-floral is particularly handsome, and in the taste of the late fifth century — the last quarter or so — and of the early fourth: ess-tendrils in the middle, slender lily-like flowers. Other neck-amphorae have similar decoration on the neck, of course with minor variations: Aison's vase in Chantilly,2 and the small neck-amphorae by the Shuvalov Painter.3 Exactly the same floral as ours, but single, recurs on one side of a calyx-krater by the Kadmos Painter in Bologna.4 All these vases, except Aison's, have 'sepals', if one may so call them, in one form or another, at the base of the flowers; and so have the calyx-krater by the Dinos Painter in Bologna,5 the gigantomachy calyx in Naples,6 the Italiote volute-krater, by the Dionysiac Painter, in Naples,7 and, earlier, two vases by the Eretria Painter, the onos in Athens,8 and fragments of an oinochoe in Oxford.9 The traditional tongue-pattern on the shoulder has been modified: these are the long, large leaves, carefully rounded at the end, of the later fifth century. In the border below the pictures, one notices the tendency, strong in the fourth century, to make the uppermost horizontal of the maeander coincide with the framing line. The 'odd man', a thin chequer-square, is under the left handle. The top-side of the mouth is black. On the front of the vase there are three groups or rather pairs, interwoven. The chief person is ΙΠΠΟΔΑΜΗ, Hippodame, the woman who sits to right, with her right hand raised and her left on her thigh. ΕΡΩΣ, Eros, stands beside her, frontal, the weight chiefly on the right leg, head to left, a platter on his right hand with a fig and two bunches of grapes on it, and a large bunch of grapes in his left hand. Hippodame wears chiton and himation; her long hair falls loose down her back and is crowned. Eros is wreathed, and has the dank hair, as if oiled, which becomes common in the late fifth century for men as well as youths. The next most important person is ΑΣΤΕΡΙΑ, Asteria, who sits on the right of the picture, facing Hippodame. She too wears chiton and himation, but ear-rings too; her hair is lifted by a sling and has leaves stuck in it, or a wreath, in front. Her girdle is seen, and the cord keeping the right sleeve in place. Her right hand toys with her himation at the right shoulder; her left hand passes under, and grasps, the part of the himation that hangs over the left shoulder. A lyre lies on the ground near her. ΙΑΣΩ, Iaso, moves towards her, holding up a mirror; her right leg frontal, and bent at the knee. She wears a peplos, with overfall, open down the right side. Her hair is dressed like Asteria's, except that the sling is of a different pattern. In both women a small curl escapes in front of the ear. Behind Hippodame, on the left of the picture, ΕΥΡΥΝΟΗ, Eurynoe, stands to right, bending, with the left foot raised and set on a rock or hillock. ΠΟΘΟΣ, Pothos, is busy with her sandal. Eurynoe is dressed like Iaso. Her right arm is akimbo, her left forearm rests on her knee. Pothos has the same hair and wreath as Eros, and both have the new light wings of the late fifth century with the quills well separated and curving up at the ends. The peploi and himatia have thick black borders. Hilly ground is indicated by white lines; the plants are reserved. A small palm-tree is seen behind Hippodame, and a wreath hangs above Asteria. The picture is bounded on the left by a slender column supporting a tripod, and on the right by a sapling, perhaps a young olive. Small tripods like this are frequent in the Kadmos Painter, and often at least they are what they seem to be, a light indication of sacred ground.10 The faces, and good part, I think, of the rest, have relief-contour, but my notes on this point are scanty. The terrain-lines and the inscriptions are white. We must still try to interpret the picture, and shall return to it. First we describe the reverse of the vase. A youth, wearing chlamys and wreath, his petasos slung round his neck, a pair of spears in his left hand, pursues a woman, who flees, looking round, and holding the end of her peplos at the right shoulder. Her hair is in a saccos. On the other side of the youth a woman also dressed in a peplos, but bare-headed, flees, looking round and raising her hand. The hair is lifted from the neck and tied close to the back of the head. A sash is seen hanging, above the youth's right arm. The drawing is slight: there is little relief-contour: for the faces, but not much else. This is a stock pursuit-scene, one of hundreds; and it cannot be said to have any connexion with the picture on the front of the vase. The youth may be Theseus.11 We return to the chief picture. The women's names are not new to us. Many heroines were called Hippodame or at least Hippodameia: the best known is the bride of Pelops; but there is also the bride of Perithoos — otherwise known as Deidameia. There were several Asteriai, the most venerable the daughter of the Titan Koios and sister of Leto, who was turned into the island first called Asterie and later Delos. Iaso was daughter of Asklepios. The name of Eurynoe is less familiar: but Pape culls from Alexander Polyhistor a Eurynoe who was wife to the king of Chytroi in Cyprus (F.H.G. iii p. 236, 94), date unknown; and another Eurynoe figures on the Adonis hydria by the Meidias Painter in Florence, where she sits with a pet bird perched on her finger, talking to it.12 All this is not very helpful, and some may be inclined to say that these are just high-sounding names picked by the artist at random. It may be so: but it should perhaps be remembered that we do not know everything about Greek mythology. A suggestion may be worth making: Hippodame is Hippodameia, and the artist represents her, waited on by Eros and surrounded by her friends, because she was one of the famous brides of antiquity: for much the same reason that the Eretria Painter chose to represent Alcestis, and Harmonia, on his name-piece in Athens.13 Hippodameia was the bride of Pelops, and the Kadmos Painter, for a time at any rate, had certain Peloponnesian sympathies: shown by the Dorian inscriptions on his hydriai in Berlin: — ΕΡΜΑΣ, ΑΘΑΝΑ on Berlin 2633, ΘΗΒΑ, ΔΑΜΑΤΗΡ, ΚΟΡΑ, ΠΟΣΕΙΔΑΝ, ΕΡΜΑΣ and above all ΑΡΤΑΜΙΣ and ΑΠΕΛΛΩΝ on Berlin 2634.14 Pelops and Hippodameia rarely appear on Attic vases, in fact only twice: on the neck-amphora in Arezzo, which is of the same type as ours and not much earlier,15 and on the fourth-century bell-krater by the Oinomaos Painter in Naples.16 I do not know how far this goes to explain the choice of the name Hippodame; it does not, of course, explain the choice of names for her companions. The Boston vase has graffiti in the hollow of the foot: they are discussed in AJA. 1941 p. 598 no. 12. Σπάθη would seem here, on the analogy of other graffiti, to be the name of a vase-shape; but might also have its usual meaning. Two spathai are priced at two drachmai. The remaining graffito recurs on two bell-kraters, one by the Kadmos Painter, the other by the Pothos Painter his companion.17
A. W. Byvanck, BABesch 19 (1944), p. 18; Metzger 1951, p. 415, note 10; D. A. Amyx, Hesperia 27 (1958), p. 299; Para., p. 460, no. 29; A. Lezzi-Hafter, AntK 14 (1971), p. 88, note 43; Brommer 1973, p. 539 (under B 3); Lezzi-Hafter 1976, p. 26, note 109d; Betancourt 1977, p. 150; A. Johnston, BICS 25 (1978), p. 84, note 20; Kaempf-Dimitriadou 1979, p. 68, note 242; Johnston 1979, pp. 15, 22, 25, 33-34, 36, 47, 50, 98 (Type 12B, no. 11), 163 (Type 18F, no. 1), 196, 230; Fischer-Graf 1980, p. 35, note 368; Schefold & Jung 1988, pp. 22, 339 (note 31); Maas & Snyder 1989, p. 90; LIMC, V, 1, pp. 435 (no. 1), 439, V, 2, pl. 309, illus. (M. Pipili).