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69. 13.200 HYDRIA (of black-figure shape) from Gela? PLATE XXXIV

Height 0.458. MFA. Bull. 12 p. 6 (Caskey); VA. p. 51; Historia 4 p. 208 (Albizzati); Cloché Les classes pl. 26; Casson The Technique of Early Greek Sculpture fig. 82; Cook Zeus iii pl. 38; Blümel Griechische Bildhauer an der Arbeit p. 35; Fairbanks and Chase p. 47 fig. 45; the shape, Caskey G. p. 107. Danae. On the shoulder, Theseus and the Bull. About 490 B.C., by the Gallatin Painter (ARV. p. 163 no. 1: on previous references, VA. p. 51 and Att. V. p. 111, see below, ii p. 13).

The provenience is uncertain. The museum register gives 'Gela': but adds the word 'Spinelli?' with a query. If the vase really came from the Spinelli collection it is very unlikely to have been found at Gela, or indeed anywhere but at Suessula.

Danae and her child Perseus are to be put into a chest and cast into the sea. The old king of Argos, Akrisios, father of Danae, stands on the left, his right arm extended, the sceptre in his left hand. The carpenter is finishing the chest, using the bow-drill to pierce a hole in the side of the lid. Danae stands behind the chest, and on the right is the nurse, holding the infant Perseus. Danae is turned towards her child, but looks round at the king and makes a last gesture of protest; the nurse makes the same gesture, but more feebly. Akrisios is obdurate: meanwhile Perseus, comfortably ensconced between his nurse's warm mantle and her warm flank, watches the workman with great interest.

In the treatment of the subject the Boston hydria goes with two other vases of the same period, both in Leningrad: the stamnos by the Eucharides Painter (Mon. 1856 pl. 8, whence Cook Zeus iii p. 459; details, VA. p. 47: ARV. p. 155 no. 26), and the calyx-krater by the Triptolemos Painter (Gerhard Danae pl. 1, whence Overbeck KM. pl. 6, 3, J. M. Woodward Perseus pl. 17, Cook Zeus iii p. 457: ARV. p. 239 no. 1): in all three the carpenter is seen at work. The picture on the stamnos, in spite of many differences, is so like ours in the main that the two must be derived from one original.

Caskey, when he published the hydria (MFA. Bull. 12 p. 6), gave the name of Danae to the figure we have called the nurse; in the other woman, our Danae, he saw Eurydike, mother of Danae and wife of Akrisios. The figures corresponding to these two in the stamnos by the Eucharides Painter had been named Danae and Eurydike by Welcker (Annali 1856 p. 37), and this identification has been generally accepted. Cook alone took the other view (Zeus iii p. 458). There is something to be said on both sides: what decided us was the aspect of the woman holding the child on the Boston hydria: with her thin face, bony nose, and weak gesture, she looks old, worn, and humble. It does not follow automatically that the corresponding figure on the Leningrad stamnos is a nurse and not Danae: but it is very probable.

The most recent list of vases with the story of Danae and the Chest is given by Greifenhagen in CV. Bonn, p. 37. The Providence lekythos occurs twice in his list, for it is the vase once in Lewes House. Add a fragment, from the Acropolis of Athens, in the collection of Mr. Henri Seyrig: about 425 B.C.: part of Danae to right, and of Perseus to left holding out both arms. The Italiote skyphos Naples 3140 is omitted, perhaps on the ground that the boy might seem rather old to be Perseus (Mus. Borb. 2 pl. 30, 4; V. Pol. p. 73; Trendall Frühit. pl. 17, a and p. 39 no. 10).

Akrisios wears a himation. The workman has let his chitoniskos down to his waist. The women wear chiton and himation; Danae's himation is draped in the 'Ionic' fashion. Acrisios has a fillet round his head, Danae has her hair tied with a long cord. Both carpenter and nurse are wreathed, which is difficult to understand. Wreaths, fillet, and cord are in red. The figures in both pictures are contoured with relief-lines. The hair in front of Danae's ear is in relief-lines on a dark brown background. The wrinkles on the king's forehead do not come out in the photograph. The chest, as in the Eucharides Painter's stamnos and in the smaller version of the same subject on his cup in Ferrara (Ferrara T. 503: Aurigemma (1) p. 69 = (2) p. 73: ARV. p. 157 no. 63), is of the less common form in which the feet are made separately, instead of being prolongations of the sides as on the calyx-krater by the Triptolemos Painter. On the two types see Massow in AM. 41 pp. 6-10. The mid-panel is ornamented with a pair of roundels and a pair of stars, very likely thought of as inlaid: on such inlay see Massow pp. 20-3 and especially G. and A. Körte Gordion pp. 100-17. The carpenter is using a bow-drill to make a hole in the side of the lid; on the calyx-krater by the Triptolemos Painter, as Campana saw (Bull. 1845 p. 216), he is drilling a hole in the upper side of the chest itself; in the stamnos by the Eucharides Painter he is closing the lid to make sure that it fits. The horizontal line below the right hand of the carpenter is part of the drill-cord. His heel is duly indicated to left of the chest-leg, above the lion-paw foot. The second corner-weight of Danae's himation shows to right of the other chest-leg. The short horizontal stroke below the left forearm of Perseus is the lower line of the nurse's breast.

The carpenter appears, though not at work, on other vases besides the three mentioned. The figure to left of the chest on a bell-krater fragment of about 425 B.C. in Bonn (Bonn 1216.53: CV. pl. 31, 14) is probably the carpenter, and he certainly appears, about 460 B.C., on the Deepdene Painter's best vase, a stamnos in New York (New York 17.230.37: AJA. 1923 pp. 279-81; Richter and Hall pll. 85-6 and pl. 173, 82: ARV. p. 326 no. 1). According to Miss Richter (Richter and Hall p. 112) the two sides of the New York vase represent successive incidents in the legend of Danae: on A, the reception of the news that Danae is to be exposed, on B the moment before the exposure. It seems to me that there is one scene only, half on one side of the vase and half on the other: such division is common and only one example need be quoted, the Vienna pelike with the Death of Aegisthus (Vienna 3725; FR. pl. 72, whence Pfuhl fig. 370). Nor is it clear to me that the servant standing beside Eurydike is the nurse of Perseus rather than a handmaid waiting upon queen Eurydike. As to her gesture, holding her nose, it does not express disgust, but grief hard to master, as in the old father on an amphora by the Dikaios Painter in London (London E 254: CV. pl. 2, 2; Hoppin Euth and his Fellows pl. 10, second row, right: ARV. p. 28 no. 3); compare also the old man on the bell-krater by the Caivano Painter in Schwerin (Jb. 29 pl. 6; Trendall Paestan Pottery fig. 52).

Mr. Martin Robertson has kindly sent me a photograph of two fragments, perhaps from a stamnos, in the Villa Ariadne at Cnossos, presumably found in the neighbourhood: they may be part, as he says, of a 'Danae and Perseus'. The smaller sherd gives a piece of the handle-palmettes; the larger, feet and shanks of a woman in a peplos standing to right, and part of a handsome chest, seen in three-quarter view. If the subject was Danae and Perseus, it may have been treated somewhat as in the hydria by the Danae Painter in Boston (Boston 03.792: Mon. Piot 10 pl. 8, whence Jh. 12 p. 166; Richter Furn. fig. 223; the shape, Caskey G. p. 111; ARV. p. 666 no. 8). The Cnossos fragments recall the Phiale Painter, and may be his work.1

On the shoulder of the vase, Theseus binds the bull of Marathon. Its hind-legs and testicles are roped, and he is roping the fore-legs. Two companions are stationed, one on each side, to head the bull off, spear in the right hand, cloak, in a posture of defence, on the left arm. One kneels or crouches, the other prefers to sit. Similar figures with spears and cloaks appear in other pictures of the same subject: so on a fragmentary cup, of about the same period, by the Ashby Painter, in Florence, Villa Giulia, and Heidelberg (ARV. p. 299 no. 3). In the cup by the Kleophrades Painter in the Cabinet des Médailles (Kl. pl. 13 and p. 20: ARV. p. 128 no. 92) Athena herself heads the bull off with spear and, instead of a cloak, the aegis on her arm. In other versions the comrades brandish clubs: cup by the Euergides Painter in Oxford (Oxford 1929.465: CV. pl. 53, 1-2: ARV. p. 60 no. 2); cup by the Epeleios Painter in New York (New York 06.1021.168: Coll. M.E. pl. 11, 247: ARV. p. 111 no. 2, 'related', but it is by the painter himself). The picture of Theseus and the Bull that resembles ours most closely is on the neck of a contemporary volute-krater, by the Tyszkiewicz Painter, in Syracuse (N.Sc. 1891 p. 412: ARV. p. 185 no. 3).

In 1918 I attributed the drawing to the Painter of the Diogenes Amphora (VA. p. 52), but in 1925 I withdrew the attribution, noting the resemblance to the Painter of the Munich Amphora (Att. V. p. 111). In 1943 (ARV. p. 163) I grouped the vase with two others, an amphora then in the Gallatin collection, now in New York (New York 41.162.101: CV. Gallatin pl. 51, 1; A, Bull. Metr. 37 p. 55; A, AJA. 1944 p. 38) and a kalpis-hydria in the Vatican (Mus. Greg. ii pl. 12, 3; Pareti La Tomba Regolini-Galassi pl. 51, 393; phot. Anderson 42068), and called the artist the Gallatin Painter. I added that he was very like the Diogenes Painter and might prove to be after all the same in an earlier phase; at the same time I spoke again of the kinship with the Painter of the Munich Amphora and said that a line beginning with him ran through the Gallatin Painter and the Diogenes Painter right on to the Syleus Painter. I cannot yet go farther than this.

A fragment of a red-figured hydria, black-figure shape, in Mykonos, with Achilles and Polyxena at the fountain, should be added to the list of works by the Gallatin Painter; it also recalls, as is natural, the Diogenes Painter.

The Danae of our vase may be compared with the Athena on a fine column-krater by the Diogenes Painter in Leningrad (Otchët 1899 p. 27 fig. 39; VA. p. 53: ARV. p. 163, below, no. 1): the drawing there is more careful and more sapient, but the style hardly distinguishable.

In shape and proportions the vase does not differ much from late black-figured hydriai. The scheme of decoration too — framed pictures — is traditional. An unusual feature is that the broad band of pattern below the chief picture is replaced by a thin reserved band: the only other red-figured hydriai of black-figure shape in which this is done are those by the Painter of the Munich Amphora, Compiègne 1054 (CV. pl. 13, 6 and pl. 15, 2-3: ARV. p. 162 no. 10) and Berlin 2175 (Genick pl. 29; Lücken pl. 42: ARV. p. 162 no. 11). By the time of our vase, the new scheme of decoration with unframed pictures was already being applied to hydriai of the old shape (ii p. 10): the only hydriai of this type, with framed pictures, that are later than ours are a fragment by the Syleus Painter in the possession of Guglielmo de Ferrari (Rend. Pont. Acc. 10 p. 205: ARV. p. 166 no. 31), and London E 161 by the Syriskos Painter (CV. pl. 71, 1 and pl. 72, 3: ARV. p. 196 no. 20).

The shoulder is flat, the back-handle rounded not ridged, the side-handles well turned up, the base-fillet not pronounced; there is little if any incurve at the base. The sides of mouth and foot are reserved. The ends of the rotelle are red; there is a red line above the rays at the base, and a pair of them below the ground-line.

Tillyard 1923, p. 81; Mylonas 1940, p. 211; G. van Hoorn, BABesch 17, no. 1 (1942), p. 5, fig. 10; Metzger 1951 p. 336, note 2; T. P. Howe, AJA 57 (1953), p. 272, pl. 76, fig. 2; Brommer 1956, pp. 152 (no. B 21), 157 (no. B 3); Van der Heyden 1963, p. 64, fig. 125; Brommer 1960, pp. 194 (no. B 21), 205 (no. B 3); Schauenburg 1960, p. 8; Palmer 1962, pp. 62-63, fig. 48; ARV2, p. 247, no. 1; C. G. Boulter, Hesperia 32 (1963), p. 134, under no. 30; Robsjohn-Gibbings & Pullin 1963, p. 30, illus.; Hale 1965, p. 261 (middle), illus.; Neumann 1965, pp. 38-39 (fig. 17), 178 (note 123); EAA, VI, pp. 66, 69 (K. Schauenburg); Adam 1966, pp. 41, 62; Richter 1966, p. 127, fig. 611; H. Metzger, REG 81 (1968), p. 157; Philipp 1968, p. 111, no. 31; M. Robertson, AntK 13 (1970) pp. 14 (note 18), 15; S. Karusu, AntK 13 (1970), pp. 37, 41, fig. 3; Para., p. 350, no. 1; Henle 1973, pp. 87-88, fig. 42; Brommer 1973, pp. 255 (no. B 26), 273 (no. B 3); HHW 1974, pp. 458-459, color illus. (D. A. Petropoulos); Boardman 1975, pp. 113, 125 (fig. 192), 221, 229, 245; Ziomecki 1975, pp. 30, 63, 65, 72 (fig. 28), 107, 150 (no. 15); Fischer-Graf 1980, p. 23, note 240; LIMC, I, 1, pp. 450 (no. 2), 452, I, 2, pl. 342, illus. (J.-J. Maffre); J. H. Oakley, AJA 86 (1982), p. 113, note 7; J. H. Oakley, JHS 102 (1982), p. 221, pl. 10a; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 100; D. Aperghis, Archéologia, Nov. 1983, p. 63, illus.; E. Brümmer, JdI 100 (1985), pp. 41-42 (fig. 9c), 82 (note 354), 126-127, 162; Kilinski 1985, p. 34, under no. 5; A. Onassoglou, 1985, Die "talismanischen" Siegel, Berlin: Mann, p. 187, note 997; LIMC, III, 1, pp. 331 (no. 42, ref. to M. Tiberios publ. with attribution to Diogenes Ptr.), 336 (J.-J. Maffre); Schefold & Jung 1988, pp. 97-98 (fig. 113), 367; H. Born, Acta Praehistorica et Archaologica 21 (1989), pp. 118, 120 (fig. 3), 124; Padgett 1989, pp. 28, 114, note 118; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 202; L. Burn, 1990, Greek Myths, London: Published for the Trustees of the British Museum by British Museum Publications, p. 64, illus.; Oakley 1990, p. 23, note 134.

1 (From Addenda to Part II) P. 12. Danae. I take the opportunity of saying that I have always taken the bell-krater Athens N. 1134 (AM. 6 pl. 23, 1), with Lullies, to be Boeotian, and not Attic as I am made to say in Metzger Les représentations dans la céramique attique du ive siècle p. 336 — through a confusion, perhaps of numbers, for which I may be responsible.

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