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71. 10.196 CUP from Cumae SUPPL. PLATE 5, 1 and SUPPL. PLATE 6

Formerly in the Bourguignon collection at Naples. Diameter 0.23. Hartwig pl. 10. I, warriors; A, fight. B, youths and horses. By the Eleusis Painter (ARV. p. 210 no. 6); see also Gnomon 7 p. 328 (Langlotz).

Inside, a large picture (see ii p. 23) two warriors, one armed with spear and shield, the other an archer. Both crouch in the same attitude, with the right leg drawn back, and the left set forward. The feet, except the left foot of the archer, hardly touch the ground. The pair are to be thought of as stealing forward, exposing as little of themselves as possible, the archer with the arrow already on the string. It is not always easy to be sure whether such figures are moving or lodged. On a contemporary cup by the Colmar Painter in the British Museum (London 97.10-28.1: JHS. 41 pl. 3, ii, 1: ARV. p. 227 no. 9) some of the warriors may be lodged, but others are moving forward: the alternation is natural in such operations. On the cup by the same artist in New York (New York 14.105.9: Richter and Hall pl. 36, 7) the warriors seem to be lodged, but the athlete inside, though not much different in attitude, is in movement. In the forest-fighting on the cup by the Eucharides Painter in Cambridge (CV. ii R and S. pl. 7, I, pl. 8, 8, and pl. 9, 7) the helmeted youths are probably moving forward like their opponents.

The backs of both men are seen in three-quarter view from behind. The spearman wears a helmet (of Attic type, and the cheek-pieces in one with the rest), but neither corslet nor greaves, only a short garment tied round his waist. The archer is dressed in a sleeved and trousered costume, with a felt tiara; his quiver hangs at his side. The triangle bounded by the left thigh of the spearman, by the rim of his shield, and by a triangle of black background, is from the upper part of the quiver; a piece of the lid is visible lower down. The outline of the long eyes is closed in front. The spearman has brown lashes and a brown beard. His lips are parted, the archer's not.

A, battle. A naked warrior is wounded and falls. His left leg is shown in profile; the right thigh is seen from the front, with the shank doubled up behind it and almost concealed. The right foot is seen from behind: the heel remains (with two creases on it), one ankle, and part of the extended sole. The foot and the lower part of the shank rest on a rock, or at least are near a rock: the upper part of the figure is missing, and one cannot be certain whether it was shown as fallen or, as is more likely, still falling. On the right, a warrior advances to left. Here also the upper part of the figure is missing: one sees bare legs, a short garment tied round the waist, the end of the crest, and the lower edge of the shield held out in front. This spearman, as he must be, is followed by a young archer, who draws his bow. Like the spearman, he is shown in three-quarter view from behind. He wears the same costume as the archer on the interior. The garment is here seen to be a combination. His lips are slightly parted. He is supple and light on his feet. On the left of the picture another warrior advances to defend the wounded man. Only his feet are preserved, and the front of the left foot is hidden by the rock.

B is not connected in subject with A. Two horses are being led up to a pillar or post. One horse already stands quiet at the post, held by a youth (or man) who wears a thick woollen cloak of Thracian taste with bold 'blanket' patterns. He is seen from behind, his left leg in profile, his right in full back-view; the ankles are even more prominent than in the fallen figure on A. A second youth hastens up to left, looking round, holding his horse by the lead with both hands, the right hand raised above his head. The hindquarters of the horse are in back-view, the rest of it more or less in profile: an audacious attempt, in the manner of the later archaic period, to reproduce a twisted attitude. The animal had already started to turn towards the post when it changed its mind and decided to resist, which it does with tossed head, open mouth, and flourished tail. The contrast between the two animals reminds one of the quiet and the obstreperous cow in the frieze of the Parthenon. The back-views of horses likest ours are perhaps those on two black-figured lekythoi by the Marathon Painter, Syracuse 14569 (Haspels ABL. pl. 30, 1, with p. 222 no. 22) and Rhodes 5108 (see ibid. p. 90 and p. 222 no. 30), and another, by the Beldam Painter, in the collection of Mrs. William Moore, New York (Hartwig p. 110: Haspels ABL. p. 177, p. 190, p. 266 no. 10). Compare also the centaurs quoted by Hartwig (pp. 109-10: ARV. p. 165 no. 5, p. 351 no. 5, p. 709, below, no. 21; the lekythos he mentions is that in Syracuse).

The youth wears a spotted cloak, fastened at the pit of the neck, shoes, and a felt or skin cap of foreign type, tiara or the like, with flaps.

The contours are in relief-lines. Brown inner markings on some of the bodies but not all. There are a few brown interfolds in the garment of the spearman on A. Brown lines on the anus of the back-view horse on B and on the furrow of his scrotum. Red for bowstrings, baldric, leash, inscriptions. On I, ?[ΛΕΑΓΡ]ΟΣ, retr., on the right, and ΚΑΛΟΣ, retr., on the left. On the right of B, [Λ]ΕΑΓΡΟΣ. There may have been a καλός on the missing part.

The date of this vivid work is probably a little before 500. After various approximations (VA. p. 87; Att. V. p. 166 no. 3; CF. p. 33 on no. 9) I attributed it in ARV. (p. 210 no. 6) to the Eleusis Painter, named after two fragmentary white cups in Eleusis, one of which is particularly close to the Boston cup (Delt. 9 p. 16: ARV. p. 209 no. 5). The scene on B of our cup recalls the cup-fragments Louvre G 26 and Louvre G 26 bis (ARV. p. 210), which bear the kalos-name Leagros and are related to the Eleusis Painter in style. The larger fragment (Pottier pl. 90) shows one of the ways in which the incomplete pillar or post may have ended above. The other, Louvre G 26 bis, unpublished, has been augmented by Villard with a sherd giving the head of the haggard-eyed horse. Another Louvre fragment joins the larger fragment and gives more of the horse on the right.

The cup is of type B. The foot-plate is missing.

No. 2 in the list of vases by the Eleusis Painter (ARV. pp. 209-10, 925, and 955) is now published in CV. Vienna University, pl. 10, 1-4 and 7. The cup-fragment Athens, Agora 9052, associated with him in ARV. p. 210, may be early work by the painter himself.

E. Bielefeld, in J. Irmscher and W. Steffen, eds., 1959, Philologische Vorträge, gehalten auf einer gemeinsamen Tagung der polnischen und deutschen Philologen, Wroclaw, Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wydawn. Polskiej Akademii Nauk, p. 112, note 11; ARV2, p. 315, no. 6; Vos 1963, pp. 20, 22, 49, 72, 76, 78, 110, no. 233; E. Vermeule 1965, fig. 19C; E. Vermeule, AJA 71 (1967), p. 311; Para., p. 358, no. 6; Schefold 1978, pp. 218, 282, 316, fig. 295; G. F. Pinney, AJA 85 (1981), p. 153, note 31; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 106; E. Laufer, 1985, Kaineus: Studien zur Ikonographie, Roma: G. Bretschneider, p. 49, note 190, no. 2; Lezzi-Hafter 1988, p. 297, note 581 (as 20.196); Schefold & Jung 1989, p. 186; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 213; Lissarrague 1990b, pp. 282 (no. A499), 283 (no. A503), 302 (no. C48).

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