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74. 10.179 CUP from Orvieto PLATE XXXVIII, below

Formerly in the Bourguignon collection at Naples. Diameter 0.248, height 0.109. AZ. 1885 pl. 10 (P. J. Meier); detail, Buschor G.V. p. 163; VA. p. 82; Langlotz G.V. pl. 8; Pfuhl fig. 414; Rizzo Saggi preliminari su l'arte della moneta nella Sicilia antica p. 66; Buschor Griechische Vasen p. 148; Schoenebeck and Kraiker Hellas pl. 83, 1; Lane Greek Pottery pl. 72, a; the shape, Caskey G. p. 181 no. 136. I, satyr. About 500 B.C.: Group of the Panaitios Painter, and probably an early work of the artist himself (VA. p. 86 no. 19; Att. V. p. 167 no. 17; ARV. p. 212 no. 1).

The cup is of type B; a rather small cup, decorated inside only, but with a large picture (see ii p. 23). According to Bloesch the potter was Euphronios (F.A.S. p. 76 no. 25).

A pointed amphora lies on its side, and a satyr is trying to sit on it. Then he will balance himself and kick about. The position of the legs recalls the figures on the Epidromos cup (Boston 01.8018: Pl. XXXVIII, above). This is one of the grandest of satyrs. The unwieldy body contrasts with the eager hands and the intensity in the forward thrust of the magnificent head.

The contours are in relief-line. Much brown inner marking. The forehead is wrinkled; brown lines model the cheek, and there is a brown line between eye and eyebrow. Bushy brow, moustache, and beard. A repainted fracture runs through the right hand. The external oblique muscle at the right side is drawn as passing in front of the thigh instead of behind it: this strange rendering recurs, as Dietrich von Bothmer pointed out to me, on a later vase, the Nolan amphora by the Oionokles Painter in Berne (Berne 12215: Rev. arch. 1910, i, pp. 222-5; Bloesch AKS. pll. 32 and 35, 2); a third example is on an early cup by Makron in the Louvre (Louvre G 157: Pottier pl. 123: ARV. p. 305 no. 64) and a fourth on an archaic gem of banded agate in New York 35.11.11: Bull. Metr. Mus. 30 p. 256). Red for the imperial, the ivy-wreath, the ankle-cord, the inscriptions in the field. On ankle-cords see Wolters Faden und Knoten als Amulett (in ARW. 8, supplement).

A pointed amphora is not a very comfortable seat, but on a cup by Epiktetos in Florence (part, CV. pl. 5B4: ARV. p. 49 no. 60) a naked youth sits on a pointed amphora — perhaps balancing himself, but the left hand is missing and the motive not quite certain; on a cup by Onesimos in Florence (ARV. p. 220 no. 14) a woman sits on a pointed amphora and plays the flute, and so does a man on a cup by the Penthesilea Painter in Brunswick (Brunswick 668; CV. pl. 15, 5-6: ARV. p. 585 no. 37); in the Etruscan scarab Berlin 231 (Furtwängler A.G. pl. 19, 40) Herakles sits on a pointed amphora. A figure distinctly resembling ours is on the interior of an Etruscan red-figured cup in the Musée Rodin, Paris (Plaoutine in JHS. 57 pl. 1 and CV. pll. 28-30; EVP. pl. 4, 1-3, p. 3, and pp. 25-7): a satyr sits on the bottom of an inverted calyx-krater balancing himself and kicking out: the pictures on the exterior are copied from an Attic cup of about 470, and the inside picture probably had an Attic model too.

The inscriptions are, in red, ΛΕΑΓΡΟΣΚΑΛΟΣ, retrograde, on the left, ΑΘΕΝΟΔΟΤΟΣΚΑΛΟΣ on the right, and, in dark brown, ΚΑΛΟΣ, perhaps referring to the satyr, on the pointed amphora.

I take the cup to be a very early work of the Panaitios Painter, resembling both the boxer cup (Boston 01.8021: Pl. XXXIX), and the earlier Epidromos cup (Boston 01.8018: Pl. XXXVIII, above).

A small cup-fragment in Heidelberg (Heidelberg 52: Kraiker pl. 9) has part of a satyr's head which recalls ours in its grandeur: Kraiker attributes it to the Panaitios Painter, and it is certainly like him.

D. M. Robinson, AJA 32 (1928), pp. 36-37; G. M. A. Richter, 1956, Catalogue of Engraved Gems, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman, Rome, "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, p. 43, under no. 165; Marcadé 1962, p. 78, illus.; Schweitzer 1963, II, p. 143, note 92; ARV2, p. 327, no. 110 (Onesimos); Boardman 1964, pp. 108 (ill. 94), 110; Herbert 1964, p. 63; E. Vermeule, AJA 71 (1967), p. 311 (as 10.197); A. Greifenhagen, Die Griechische Vase (Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universität Rostock 16, 1967), p. 452; G. von Lücken, ibid., pp. 488, 676, pl. 55, 6; Cambitoglou 1968, p. 36, pl. 13, fig. 3; P. Zazoff, 1968, Etruskische Skarabäen, Mainz am Rhein, P. von Zabern, p. 56; R. D. Gempeler, AntK 12 (1969), p. 19; K. Schauenburg, Gymnasium 76 (1969), p. 50, note 56; Para., p. 359, no. 110; Seeberg 1971, p. 74; J. R. Mertens, HSCP 76 (1972), p. 277; Drougou 1975, p. 113, note 142; Folsom 1976, p. 119, pl. 22; Kraiker 1978, p. 18, under no. 52; Dover 1978, pp. 120, 217, no. R465; C. Houser 1979, p. 102, MFA 6, illus. (M. Anderson); Fischer-Graf 1980, p. 28; Gercke 1981, p. 115, under no. 57; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 108; A. Greifenhagen, Gnomon 55 (1983), p. 667; CVA, Basel, 2, p. 27, under pl. 10, no. 1 (V. Slehoferova); Brijder 1984, p. 157 (T. Seki); Boulter 1985, p. 19, pl. 19 (B. A. Sparkes); Beazley Addenda 2, p. 216; M. D. Stansbury-O'Donnell, AJA 94 (1990), p. 234; D. Williams, Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 5 (1991), p. 42.

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