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75. 01.8021 CUP from Orvieto PLATE XXXIX, 75

Formerly in the Bourguignon collection at Naples. Diameter 0.235. Hartwig pl. 12, whence (I) Pfuhl fig. 407: I, Licht i p. 96; A, Jb. 53 p. 109 (Nierhaus); the shape, Caskey G. p. 205 no. 158. The restorations have now been removed. I, boxer. A-B, battle. About 500 B.C., by the Panaitios Painter, an early work (VA. p. 86 no. 6; Att. V. p. 167 no. 25; ARV. p. 212 no. 2).

I, a large picture (see ii p. 23): a boxer: the young athlete stands with his left leg frontal, looking down towards his left, holding in both hands one of the thongs with which he will bind his hands. He will now draw the thong smartly through his hands to remove the creases which it has acquired by hanging folded up: see CV. Oxford p. 5, right. The mouth and upper lip are not what one expects to find in the Panaitios Painter and not what one finds on the reverse of the cup. The reason is that this is a boxer and his nose and lip are swollen. Large head, short legs, slender limbs, the stance limber and loose, the transition from head to shoulder imperfect and attractive. Behind him, a pick; on the wall, a pair of haltēres. Parts of the maeander are modern, especially north-west and east. Relief contour, brown inner markings, red for the fillet, the thong, the hanger of the haltēres, and the inscriptions: — ΑΘΕΝΟΔΟΤΟΣ, and retr. ΚΑΛΟΣ; on the left, ΚΑΛΟΣ; on the right, ΚΑΛΟΣ, retr.

A-B, battle. On A, a young warrior runs his spear, underhand, into the groin or belly of another, who tries to draw his sword, but sinks back, mouth open, his helmet falling off. On the left, a third warrior moves away, looking round, with a twist of his body — this is not an orderly retreat; on the right, a fourth also makes off, and may have been looking back. On B, a young warrior, sword in hand, pursues another, who still has his spear, but has turned tail, is wounded, stumbles, and falls; a third warrior comes to his rescue, levelling his spear at the pursuer.

Heroic nudity: all wear helmets, and, except the falling youth on B, greaves: but otherwise they are naked, save that the rescuer has a short wrap tied hastily round his waist. The helmets, of 'chalcidizing' type, have a nasal, and cheek-pieces in one with the caul. The painter has been careless about the greaves: in half of them either the upper edge or the lower is omitted. The end of the victor's spear on A is not closed. The rescuer has his crest fixed into a hole at the crown of the helmet, instead of in the more usual manner like the rest. The shield-devices are an anchor with cable, a tripod (?), a horse (part of the hindlegs and tail remain), rings, a polyp.

The contours are again in relief-line. There is much brown inner marking, more than appears in Hartwig's drawing. Red is used for the baldrics, the blood, and the inscriptions: on A, ΗΟΠΑΙΣ [Κ]ΑΛΟΣ, on B, ΗΟΠΑΙΣ.

Of the many battle-scenes on Attic vases, two resemble ours rather closely. The three-figure picture on one half of the early cup by Douris in Boston (Boston 00.338: Hartwig pl. 21, whence Hoppin i p. 229 and Pfuhl figs. 451-2: ARV. p. 280 no. 8) is very like our B, although the fallen warrior is still able to strike back; and the fallen man on the other half draws his sword like the youth on A. On a kyathos in London, connected in style with the Panaitios Painter, the fleeing youth is even closer to ours than on the Douris cup (London E 808: FR. pl. 74, 2; CV. pl. 34, 4 and pl. 35, 4: ARV. p. 955, addendum to pp. 216-19). For the wound on A, νείατον εἰς κενεῶνα, see Nierhaus in Jb. 53 pp. 109-11, for the underhand thrust ibid. p. 107 and Lorimer in BSA. 42 p. 110; for the helmet about to fall off, above, ii p. 21.

The cup is of type B: according to Bloesch it was fashioned by the potter Euphronios (F.A.S. p. 77 no. 34).

Roton 1950, pp. 161 (illus.), 217 (illus.); M. Robertson, AJA 62 (1958), p. 59; E. Kunze, Berichte über die Ausgrabungen in Olympia 8 (1958-1962), p. 140, note 24; ARV2, p. 320, no. 14 (Onesimos); Caskey & Beazley, III, p. 18 (under no. 125); Schefold 1967b, pp. 22-24 (fig. 2), 277; G. von Lücken, Die Griechische Vase (Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universität Rostock 16, 1967), pp. 488, 677, pl. 56, 1; E. Vermeule, AJA 71 (1967), pp. 311-312; Schettino Nobile 1969, p. 14, note 32; K. Schefold, AntK 17 (1974), p. 140, note 31; Boardman 1975, p. 134, illus.; K. Schauenburg, AM 92 (1977), p. 98, note 37; K. Schauenburg, Rivista di Archeologia 1 (1977), p. 17; Schneider-Herrmann 1977, p. 48, note 89a; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 107; J. E. Hanhisalo, 1983, Enjoying Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture & the Decorative Arts, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, pp. 39-40, fig. 17; Brijder 1984, p. 157 (T. Seki); CVA, Tübingen, 5, p. 21, under no. S./10 1523 (J. Burow); Padgett 1989, p. 81; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 215.

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