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79. 95.27 CUP from near Viterbo Plates XLI-XLII

Diameter 0.368. Burl. Cat. 1888 no. 8 pll. 4-6 (Fröhner) = Fröhner La collection van Branteghem, vente... Paris 16-18 juin 1892 pll. 10-14; Hartwig pl. 48, 1 and pl. 47, whence Perrot 10 pp. 769-71, Hoppin Rf. i p. 387, and Pfuhl figs. 409-11; whence (B) Mnemosyne 4th ser. 3 p. 199 (Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford); I, Eckstein Griechische strengrotfigurige Vasenmalerei fig. 12; I, Chase Guide p. 65. About 490-480, by the Panaitios Painter (VA. p. 86 no. 17; Att. V. p. 169 no. 48; ARV. p. 215 no. 31). I, komos; A-B, komos.

According to Gerhard, who had his information from Camilli, the vase was found by Pietro Saveri in a property of his, three miles from Viterbo (Bull. 1830 p. 233). Not long after, it was acquired from the dealer De Dominicis by the Rev. J. and Mrs. [Elizabeth Caroline] Hamilton Gray. In 1855 it was deposited, with the rest of the Hamilton Gray collection, in the Museum of Bethnal Green, London, where it remained till 1887, when it was acquired by Adolphe van Branteghem. It was no. 52 in the Branteghem sale catalogue in 1892, and was purchased by Edward Warren for the Museum of Fine Arts. The surface is in bad condition: many of the relief-lines have lost their black and are discernible only as furrows; worse, modern black has sunk into furrows and other crevices and cannot be dislodged.

Komos. I, two men. One moves lightly forward, playing the flute; the other tries to dance, but has to support himself on his stick. The flute-player wears a cloak over his shoulders. He has a short moustache, a short, stiff chin-beard, rendered by relief-lines, and whiskers, done in brown. The other man is naked, but wears shoes; he has a normal beard. A flute-case, of leopard-skin, with its mouthpiece-box, hangs in the field. The lower part of the box is missing. The small maeander, running in twos, is of a type common in Onesimos, and found in some other cups of the Panaitios Painter. On the left, retrograde, ΕΥΦΡΟΝΙΟΣΕΠΟΠΙΕΣΕΝ, on the right, ΚΑΛΟΣΗΟΠΑΙΣ. The mis-spelling has been called a barbarism (Pottier Vases du Louvre, p. 696): it arises from a dittography, and is a mere slip, such as everyone makes, nearly every day, but he can cross out, and the vase-painter could not.

A-B: komos: the disorderly procession of eleven figures runs round the whole cup with a slight break at one handle. The revellers are all bearded men, and one of them is bald. They have evidently drunk already, and are going on to another place where there will be more drinking. On A, two couples and a single. The party is headed by a light-haired man, seen from the front, wheeling round, then, in our direction, but looking back at his companions. He has a cloak over his shoulders, holds a stick in his right hand and a large skyphos in his left. Beside him is the flute-player, tripping forward in much the same attitude as the flute-player inside the cup, but more excited. He wears a short cloak on both shoulders. Then comes a dog, looking down and picking his way. Then a group of two: a man steps forward, his cloak on his left arm, his stick in his right hand, in his left hand a very large kylix held by the foot: he is not obviously the worse for liquor, but he looks round at his companion who obviously is: this man has dropped his cloak and stick, and seizes his friend by forearm and shoulder, to support himself, or to show affection, or both, and is going to be troublesome. This half of the procession is closed by the bald man, who strides along with cloak, stick, and a large phiale-like bowl, looking back and up, with his mouth open, as if calling to the rest. Under the handle is a dog, standing and waiting for the detachment on B. Both dogs wear collars. On B, three couples. A man staggers along with arms extended, looking down, his cloak on his left arm; his companion, cloak on shoulders, stick in left hand, right arm extended, looks round at those who follow. The middle group on this side forms a pendant to the middle group on the other: here again one man is relatively sober. A naked man, skyphos in hand, turns round towards one who has retained his cloak and stick, and holds a lyre as well, but has difficulty in advancing, and, in the words of Fröhner, 'fearful of dropping his lyre, hands it to the figure preceding him'. The last couple consists of a man rushing forward, with cloak and stick, who turns round towards his naked friend, urging him to make haste; and the friend does his best. Under the handle is a pointed amphora lying on its side.

The large phiale-like bowl held by the bald man is an unusual kind of drinking-vessel: on a cup formerly in the Paris market (see ii p. 41) a satyr drinks out of a very large phiale.

The contours are in relief-lines. Brown inner markings. Most of the men wear wreaths, two of them simple fillets. Wreaths, fillets, plectrum, plectrum-cord, dog-collars are in red, also the inscriptions in the field: on A, retr., ΠΑΝΑΙΤΙΟΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ, on B, ΠΑΝΑΙΤΙΟΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ. On the pointed amphora, in brown, [ΗΟΠ]ΑΙΣ (little remains of the sigma and its form is uncertain).

The cup, of type B, was fashioned by the potter Euphronios, as the inscription says, and is no. 6 in Bloesch's list (F.A.S. p. 71). It is very nearly as large as the great Theseus cup, also signed by Euphronios, in the Louvre. The foot was readjusted in antiquity. Mrs. Hamilton Gray wrote as follows in her Tour to the Sepulchres of Etruria in 1839 (1839) p. 56: 'Our grand Viterbo tazza... had also been mended before interment; a circumstance which was discovered by Dedomenicis to his infinite surprise and satisfaction, and which enhanced its value in our eyes. It has a small cylinder of iron run through the bottom of the tazza to join it to the stalk.' Fröhner says that the presence of this iron nail was confirmed by W. Talbot Ready when the cup came into his hands after the sale to van Branteghem.

The cup is a good deal later than the others by the same painter in Boston, and the proportions of the figures, in particular, are different. It leads on to the work of Onesimos, who continues the style of the Panaitios Painter in a less forcible and more graceful form: unless, indeed, Onesimos is the Panaitios Painter himself in a late phase. This conjecture of Furtwängler's, though afterwards abandoned by him, has always seemed to me to deserve most serious consideration (ARV. pp. 209 and 218-19).

Hartwig saw that the Boston cup stood specially close to an unsigned cup in Leningrad (Hartwig pl. 48, 2 and pl. 49, with restorations, whence Perrot 10 pp. 773-5 and, A, Pfuhl fig. 406; I and A, with the restorations indicated, Anz. 1913 p. 93: ARV. p. 216 no. 32):1 Again a V-shaped composition within, here a man vomiting, his head held by a boy; outside, another unruly band of bearded revellers, and here they have come to blows. A third cup that may be placed near these, fragmentary, is in the Villa Giulia (Villa Giulia 18558: ARV. p. 215 no. 30: the interior now published in Hesp. suppl. viii pl. 2, 2). Nor should the beautiful fragments in Florence and Heidelberg be forgotten (CV. Fl. pl. 10 B 106 and CF. pl. Y 15: ARV. p. 214 no. 13): inside, an unsteady elderly reveller is led along by a naked girl with a mole on her wrist: somewhat earlier than the cups in Boston, Leningrad, and Villa Giulia.

Karouzos 1961, p. 79; H. Sichtermann, RM 69 (1962), p. 46, note 12; Sedlmayr & Messerer 1967, p. 38 (W. Züchner); Chase & Vermeule 1963, pp. 90-91, 95, 105, fig. 85; ARV2, p. 325, no. 76 (Onesimos); Herbert 1964, p. 63; S. Buluç, AJA 70 (1966), p. 370; E. Vermeule, AJA 71 (1967), pp. 311-313, pl. 96, fig. 3; Schefold 1967a, p. 223, pl. 209 a-b; Cambitoglou 1968, pp. 15, 35; L. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford, BABesch 44 (1969), p. 129, note 17; Chapman Tribute, illus.; M. Robertson 1975, pp. 230, 656, note 129, pl. 76a; Boardman 1975, p. 134, illus.; D. J. R. Williams, JHS 96 (1976), p. 163; CVA, Musée du Louvre, 19, p. 17, under pl. 34, 3 (H. Giroux); Fischer-Graf 1980, p. 28; G. F. Pinney, AJA 85 (1981), p. 156, note 47; G. Sassatelli, 1981, Corpus Speculorum Etruscorum, Italia 1, fasc. 1, Rome, L'Erma di Bretschneider, p. 56; M. Ohly-Dumm, GettyMusJ 9 (1981), p. 20; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 107; Böhr & Martini 1986, p. 120, note 14 (B. Freyer-Schauenburg); CVA, Tübingen, 5, pp. 20 (under no. S./10 1538 and S./10 1522d), 21 (under no. H./10 1212) (J. Burow); Maas & Snyder 1989, p. 237, note 87; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 216.

1 This is not the cup described in Bull. 1871 p. 117, which is Berlin 2309, by the Brygos Painter (ARV. p. 248 no. 37). Urlichs confused the two cups (Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte p. 61 note 1): Klein pointed out the error (Meist. p. 176), but it is repeated by Hartwig. The Leningrad cup is described by P. J. Meier in Bull. 1884 pp. 40-5.

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