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85. 76.46 (Robinson 424) SMALL NECK-AMPHORA (with ridged handles) from Capua PLATE XLV, 85

Height 0.305. Formerly in the Peytrignet collection at Nocera de' Pagani in Campania (Bull. 1864 p. 177, Helbig), later in the possession of Alessandro Castellani (1866 sale catalogue, no. 58); given by Thomas G. Appleton. A, E. Robinson p. 154; Brommer Satyrspiele pp. 50-1; the shape, Caskey G. p. 65. Satyrs (A, one carrying another, a third following; B, a fourth looking on). On A, ΧΑΡΜΙΔΕΣ and ΚΑΛΟΣ, on B, ΚΑΛΟΣ. About 470 B.C.: by the Charmides Painter (VA. p. 74 no. 1; Att. V. p. 130 no. 11; ARV. p. 440 no. 12).

From the point of view of shape, the vase will be discussed below, ii pp. 39-40.

A satyr has hoisted his father, or an aged comrade, on his back and is struggling along. Father has his arms locked round son's neck, grasping his own right forearm with his left hand. Son holds father by the right arm with his right hand; his left hand is free and appears to make a gesture of mock despair which accords with the expression on his face. Father does not seem quite comfortable either, and he looks round as if expecting sympathy: it is more often the bearer who does this, πιεζόμενος; but obviously the burden might sometimes count himself qualified.

In contrast to this pair is the third satyr, who strides behind them grasping the father's tail, holds a sprig of ivy in his other hand, and is evidently well pleased with himself. If you have a donkey in front of you it is tempting to take him by the tail, and one often sees boys or other slight persons doing it. On a black-figured psykter in New York (New York 06.1021.80: see ii p. 6) a satyr grasps the tail of Dionysos' donkey and another the tail of Hephaistos's. On a late black-figured cup in Oxford (Oxford 236) two satyrs each take a donkey by the tail. On a cup by Oltos in the Louvre (Louvre F 128: Pottier pl. 73: ARV. p. 37 no. 39) a satyr appears to take hold of a donkey's tail, but the hand is modern and the action not quite certain; on a cup by Oltos in Compiègne (Compiègne 1093: CV. pl. 14, 1-2 and 5: ARV. p. 41 no. 87) a maenad catches a donkey by the tail. On fragments of a cup by the Antiphon Painter in the Louvre a satyr takes hold of a donkey by the tail. Even in Hades, as is shown by the well-known black-figured lekythos in Palermo, the donkey's tail is not immune (Haspels ABL. pl. 19, 5).

There is a superficial resemblance between our group and the Castigation of Pan on a Roman sarcophagus in the British Museum (A. H. Smith Cat. Sculpture iii no. 2298: see also A. von Salis Antike und Renaissance pp. 112-24 and Degenhart in Boll. d'Arte 1950 pp. 208-15).

The fourth satyr, on the reverse of the vase, stands with his back to us, a stick in his right hand, his left arm akimbo, and looks round at the others. In art, figures shown from behind, as a rule, question, criticize, negate, darken: and so perhaps here.

One's first thought when looking at the obverse is of Aeneas, Anchises, and the wife of Aeneas (VA. p. 74): but this may be an illusion. Satyrs often carry maenads on their backs or shoulders, and sometimes other satyrs: a list is given by Brommer (Satyrspiele pp. 76-7). The group most like ours is on a late black-figure fragment in Athens (Athens, Acr. 692: Graef pl. 46), where a satyr carries a small, white-haired satyr on his shoulders: but it does not help us. Our satyrs are all wreathed, and two of them wear thick fillets, tagged at the ends, round their heads. The foremost has a sprig of ivy tied round his right ankle and another round his left wrist: these correspond to the simple strings often worn as bracelets or anklets by youths and men, even heroes.1 The hindmost satyr has a bigger spray of ivy round his right thigh, which recalls the string and bead or beads often worn in that place by women, and on Italiote vases by males; see Wolters Faden und Knoten pp. 5-6; he compares an Italiote bell-krater in the Louvre (Millin, PVA. 2 pl. 65), where one of the satyrs wears a wreath of ivy round his thigh as here.

Perhaps this is only the return from the party. A moment comes for the order 'Let those who can walk remove those who can't'. On the black-figured oinochoe by Kleisophos in Athens (WV. 1889 pl. 1, 3, whence Hoppin Bf. p. 145) the word has come too late.

This is a favourable specimen of the Charmides Painter's slight and somewhat ragged style. There is hardly any use of relief-lines for the contours, and, as elsewhere in this artist, things that would normally be drawn in black lines are drawn in brown, such as the shoulder-blades of the satyr on the reverse and the furrow of his spine. Wreaths, fillets, and ivy are in red; hair, beard, and tail of the old satyr are white.

Brommer 1944, pp. 50-51 (figs. 51-52), 57, 76 (no. 149), 2nd ed., figs. 54-55; Brommer 1960, p. 274; ARV2, pp. 654 (no. 13), 1664; W. Fuchs, 1973, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, I, 4, New York, De Gruyter, p. 620; T. Hölscher, AntK 17 (1974), p. 83, note 46; Boardman 1975, pp. 195, 202 (fig. 367), 234, 248; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 135; Padgett 1989, p. 133; E. D. Serbeti, Boreas 12 (1989), p. 20, note 12; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 276.

1 Wolters Faden und Knoten als Amulett in ARW. 8, suppl., pp. 1-7 (but the supposed anklet in the Vatican cup ibid. p. 6 is due to restoration); add Karouzou on the modern martes in AJA. 1946 p. 128.

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