94. 10.185 BELL-KRATER from Cumae PLATES XLVII, above, and XLVIII-XLIXHeight 0.371, diameter 0.424. FR. pl. 115 (Hauser), whence Pfuhl figs. 475-6, (A) Buschor Gr. Vasenmalerei p. 184, (A) VA. p. 113, (A) Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst 55 p. 98 fig. 6, (A) Cambridge Ancient History, Plates, ii p. 32, 3, (A) Walther Müller Die griechische Kunst, p. 139, 1, (A) International Studio 88 (Dec. 1927) p. 70, below (D. C. Rich), (A) Seltman pl. 24, a, (A) Hoenn Artemis 74, (detail of A) Jb. 26 p. 182 fig. 82, (B) Rumpf Religion der Griechen fig. 29, (B) Herbig Pan pl. 35, 1; A, Hambidge p. 88; A, Pfuhl fig. 783; A, Jacobsthal Aktaions Tod p. 8; part of B, Picard La vie privée dans la Grèce classique p. viii, 1; part of B, Cloché Les classes pl. 14, 3 ; Panm. pll. 1-4; A, Scheurleer G.V. pl. 31, 86; A, Buschor Gr. Vasen p. 178; A, Schoenebeck and Kraiker Hellas pl. 88; A, Lane Greek Pottery pll. 82-3; A, Fairbanks and Chase p. 52 fig. 51; part of B, Richter A.R.V.S. fig. 67; the shape, Hambidge p. 88, and Caskey G. pp. 126-7. A, Death of Actaeon. B, Pan pursuing a goatherd. About 470 B.C., by the Pan Painter (JHS. 32 p. 355 no. 1; VA. p. 113; Att. V. p. 100 no. 1; Panm. p. 20 no. 1; ARV. p. 361 no. 1). Graffito the letter beta. In the following pages I have repeated some passages from my previous accounts of the vase (JHS. 32 p. 354; VA. pp. 113-14; and especially Panm. pp. 9-11 and 20). See also the first publication, by Hauser, in FR. ii pp. 289-96; Zahn in BPW. 1910 pp. 910-11; Pfuhl pp. 487-8; and especially Jacobsthal Aktaions Tod p. 10. The picture on the obverse is the Death of Actaeon. Actaeon was the Theban hunter who incurred the wrath of Artemis, and his hounds took him for a stag and tore him to pieces. The later story, that Artemis hated him because he had seen her naked, familiar to the moderns and already to Callimachus, was unknown to the Pan Painter: the earlier story was that Zeus was angry with Actaeon for wooing Semele, and ordered Artemis to slay him. There are many ancient pictures of Actaeon's death, but this one stands alone. Other artists showed Actaeon attacked, but defending himself — fleeing, or (if falling), struggling or laying about him; and Artemis standing solemn by. The Pan Painter has quickened the movement and subtilized the contrast. The design is V-shaped. The two figures burst apart as if from an explosion at the base of the vase. Actaeon is neither fleeing nor struggling: he is collapsing utterly, he is dying. From the waist down he is already lifeless. Artemis turns towards Actaeon as she flies past him, and holds an arrow on her bow. He cries, he flings his arms out, he is dead. 'The feeling for great gesture appears here for the first time. That the motive may tell with its full force, the shanks, which would impair the leading lines of the composition, are almost foreshortened away. The mantle fills the void between left arm and torso, so that the body of Actaeon contracts to a compact mass, a mountain-block hurled to earth by divine power.' So Hauser: he speaks of a rock; but there is another image that would be no less apt. This is not the first falling or dying figure in Greek art: but it is the first that brings to mind the Homeric simile: 'He fell as falls an oak, or a white poplar, or a tall pine': “ἤριπε δ᾽ ὡς ὅτε τις δρῦς ἤριπεν ἢ ἀχερωΐς ἠὲ πίτυς βλωθρή
” The Pan Painter likes out-of-the-way subjects; and the picture on the other side of the vase is unique. The god Pan is almost unknown in Attic art before the Persian wars: he had ground for complaining to Philippides, on the eve of Marathon, that the Athenians neglected him. After the Persian wars Pan became popular at Athens: but not in this context: only here is he seen pursuing a boy. A young goatherd, in country garb — goat-skin, sheepskin cap, stockings, whip — is hotly pursued by the goat-god; and at the rock-seat, a third, strange person, the wooden herm-like image of some small Priapos-like deity, views the scene with a round, bewildered eye. In the drawing, a blend of late-archaic daintiness and early-classic grandeur; the pathos of the early-classic period but not its ēthos; swift, nay explosive movement; ravishing elegance; a darting, fastidious touch; piquant contrasts, deliberate and amusing disproportions — small things made larger, large things smaller, than one expects; round heads with tiny nose and delicate nostril but big chin and bull neck; wasp waist but sturdy thighs; powerful arms but tapering fingers; the bow very long, the quiver very thin; the hounds lilliputian; Pan's face small between long beard and long horns. The forms, even more than in most vase-painters, approximated to geometrical shapes, with a special fondness for circle and arc (even the irregularities of the rock are fully patternized); yet packed with expression, and tense with life. A. On the story of Actaeon, and the representations, see Eduard Schwartz in Annali 1882 pp. 290-9, Hauser in FR. ii pp. 289-96, Wilamowitz-Moellendorff Hellenistische Dichtung ii, 23, Jacobsthal Aktaions Tod; and below, ii pp. 83-6. In our vase, Artemis wears a chiton, with kolpos; a himation of 'Ionic' fashion, passing over the right shoulder; a fawnskin, which includes the head of the animal; and round earrings. A long thin quiver is at her back. Her long hair is parted in the middle and passed through a circlet, then falls over the shoulders, where the ends are packed into a bag. There are half a dozen incised lines on the hair in front of the ear. On the coiffure see Hauser in FR. ii p. 291 and Studniczka in Jb. 26 pp. 182-3, on the circlet Rumpf Tettix (from Symbola Coloniensia) p. 95. The goddess holds an arrow on her bow, and a second arrow in her left hand: it will not be necessary to shoot.1 The left forefinger is extended, but does not show clearly in the photograph. The head of the spare arrow has disappeared in a fracture, but the contour-stripe shows where it was. The oval cut in the middle of the bow, to fit the hand, is indicated, and the tendril decoration above and below the cut. There are some repainted fractures in the skirt, especially above and below the left ankle, and the outer line of the ankle is missing. The treatment of the folds in the skirt recalls the Thetis side of the bell-krater by the Oreithyia Painter in Palermo (Politi Cinque vasi di premio pll. 7-8; CV. pll. 35-7: ARV. p. 325 no. 5). The beauty of the smooth, rounded forehead, the eye, the nose, the mouth, is coarsened in Reichhold's drawings, and there are a good many inaccuracies of detail. On the other hand the photographs hardly show the delicate nostril and the very thin relief-line, modelling the cheek, at the corner of the mouth. Much of the contour of the figure is without relief-line, and even the face has none except for the lower lip and the lower edge of the nose. The front of the neck, and the part of the jaw to the left of it, were done in thin brown lines, and afterwards lined in with relief. The pelt is washed with brown. Not all the brown lines on the chiton appear in the photographs. Actaeon wears a chlamys and sandals (no doubt with stockings). His sword in its sheath hangs from a baldric. The long hair is parted in the middle, with thick locks hanging in front of the ear. Hauser thought there was something ominous in the looseness of the hair (FR. ii p. 292): but what of Apollo's hair on the calyx-krater by the Aegisthus Painter in the Louvre (Louvre G 164; Mon. 1856 pl. 11; FR. pl. 164; CV. pll. 10-11: ARV. p. 330 no. 1)? The whisker is in brown. A repainted crack passes through belly and locks, and part of the navel is missing. The contour of the figure, including the face, is in relief-lines, except for the right forearm and hand, the chlamys, the left forearm and most of the hand. The navel is in black, but the navel-pubes line is brown, not black as in Reichhold's drawing. The brown lines on the body do not all come out in the photograph, and the fine relief-lines of the nostril and the corner of the mouth are not very clear. The upper part of the cornea is withdrawn beneath the upper lid: this is traditional in Greek art for persons who have received a deadly hurt. According to Reichhold the tongue is indicated by a relief-line: but this is not so. Reichhold has again coarsened the face. The sword-hilt is washed with brown. All four hounds wear collars. The hound biting the throat has the head frontal. Reichhold has darkened the marks on its face. The eye, muzzle, and tail of the uppermost hound have suffered. We have another picture of the Death of Actaeon by the Pan Painter on a fragmentary volute-krater, earlier than our vase, in Athens, from the Acropolis (Athens, Acr. 760: Jacobsthal Aktaions Tod p. 7; Panm. pl. 12, 2; Langlotz pl. 65: ARV. p. 362 no. 16). The treatment is different, and less unusual, though very individual. Actaeon, attacked by his hounds, rushes away from us, looking round at Artemis, his arms extended, helpless, the right arm in entreaty: as on the Boston vase, he neither struggles nor tries to defend himself. The goddess fronts us, like a column, her head turned towards Actaeon: her right arm is stretched out horizontally, urging the hounds on; the horizontal is emphasized by the bow held in the other hand, the perpendicular of her body by the pattern-band from the waist down and the perpendicular quiver at her back. Actaeon is dressed, as nowhere else, in a deerskin fitting close to his trunk, thighs, and arms, with the head (not merely the scalp) forming a sort of cap: the painter has had Herakles' lionskin in his mind, but still more Dolon's wolfskin coat: see the cup by the Panaitios Painter in the Cabinet des Médailles (WV. 5 pl. 5, 1, whence Hoppin Rf. i p. 395: ARV. p. 215 no. 27); and the cup by the Dokimasia Painter in Leningrad (Annali 1875 pl. Q, 1-2 and pl. R, 1: ARV. p. 271 no. 12), where the attitude of the Dolon in one of the two pictures recalls our Actaeon. By giving Actaeon this strange costume the Pan Painter is explaining how the hounds came to take their master for a stag. This is not the same notion as in Stesichorus, but it is akin: Στησίχορος δὲ ὁ Ἱμεραῖος ἔγραψεν ἐλάφου περιβαλεῖν δέρμα Ἀκταίωνι τὴν θεόν (Paus. 9.2.3: see Jacobsthal Akt. p. 4). The hounds are small, as in the Boston vase; and again one of them is at Actaeon's throat. B. On the various early representations of Pan see Hartwig in RM. pp. 89-101, Hauser in FR. ii pp. 294-5, Brommer Satyroi pp. 10-19 and 49-51 and in Anz. 1938 pp. 375-82, Crome in A.M. 64 pp. 120-4, Herbig Pan. Here he has goat's head, neck, and horns, goat's hooves, and a small goat's tail, is otherwise human. The body is perfectly formed and proportioned, and the animal head has nobility: there is no other Pan in which the god shows so clearly through the goat. In the goatherd, relief-lines contour the forehead and chin, the right thumb, the lower line of the right upper arm, the right shoulder, the lower line of the right thigh; in Pan, forehead and nose, parts of the hands, the penis, the back and buttocks, the right thigh and the front line of the left. Brown inner markings. The goatherd wears a chitoniskos, a goatskin, a sheepskin hat, shoes and stockings. The chiton is ἔξωμος, leaves the right shoulder bare. It is twisted up into the girdle in front: Hauser conjectures that the boy has his supper in this part of his chiton (FR. ii p. 290), but it is improbable that Apollo has his supper in his chiton on the Siphnian frieze, although it is twisted up in much the same manner. The boy's left hand is under the goatskin and draws it tight lest Pan should catch him by the flying end. Once more Reichhold has not got the face quite right. A goatskin and a hat of the same type as this are worn, with or without a chiton, on a good many vases of this period. Here are some examples:
- 1. New York 38.11.2, hoof-vase, related to the Brygos Painter. Bull. Metr. 33 p. 225; AJA 1939 p. 6; part, Richter A.R.V.S. fig. 80.
- 2. Louvre G 536, small pelike by the Geras Painter (ARV. p. 174 no. 9). Annali 1862 pl. 4; A, Pottier pl. 155; CV. d pl. 45, 5, 7, and 11.
- 3. Louvre G 216, Nolan amphora by the Providence Painter (ARV. p. 432 no. 32). CV. pl. 41, 1-3 and pl. 40, 9.
- 4. Berlin 4052, Nolan amphora, near the Oionokles Painter (ARV. p. 439, below). Annali 1845 pl. C and pl. D, 3; A, Licht iii p. 96, 2.
- 5. Rouen, Bellon, 609, neck-amphora, by the Oionokles Painter (ARV. p. 439 no. 30). Gargiulo Recueil (1845) ii pl. 40; Fröhner Coll. Lecuyer 2 pl. F, 5; Coll. Camille Lecuyer pp. 61-2.
- 6. Berlin inv. 3359, cup by the Briseis Painter (ARV. p. 267 no. 11).
- 7. New York market (Joseph Brummer; ex Parrish), Nolan amphora by the Alkimachos Painter (ARV. p. 356 no. 2). The Lapith on B.
- 8. Goluchow, Prince Czartoryski, 53, Nolan amphora by the Alkimachos Painter (ARV. p. 356 no. 5). V. Pol. pl. 18; CV. pl. 30, 1.
- 9. London E 286, small neck-amphora by the Alkimachos Painter (ARV. p. 357 no. 21). CV. pl. 47, 1.
- 10. Formerly in the Pizzati collection, Nolan amphora by the Ethiop Painter (ARV. p. 464 no. 12). On A, a youth (chitoniskos, left arm extended in a pelt, fur or skin cap) moves to right, attacking with a spear another youth (chitoniskos, kidaris, shield) who turns and defends himself.
- 11. Cambridge, Mr. Charles Seltman, small lekythos. A youth throwing a stone.
- 12. Lost, cup by the Painter of Louvre G 456 (ARV. p. 547 no. 7). One of the youths on A wears chitoniskos, pelt, fur or skin hat, has spear and shield.
- 13. London D 7, white cup by the Sotades Painter (ARV. p. 450 no. 3). Murray WAV. pl. 18, b; Pfuhl fig. 528. A goatskin, but no hat, is worn by a hunter on another vase by the Sotades Painter, the rhyton London E 789 (CV. pl. 37, 4 and pl. 39, 2: ARV. p. 451 no. 8).
quem faber, incertus scamnum faceretne Priapum,
maluit esse deum.
” Recall, too, Carmina Priapea 10: “insulsissima quid puella rides?
non me Praxiteles Scopasue fecit;
nec sum Phidiaca manu politus:
sed lignum rude uilicus dolauit,
et dixit mihi 'tu Priapus esto'.
” Anth. Plan. 86 may also be compared.3 Another vase that the Boston picture brings to mind is a small pelike in Compiègne (Compiègne 970: Micali St. pl. 96, 3; CV. pl. 17, 1-2): Pan, holding a club, stands in front of a herm set on a rock: if my memory serves me the herm is of very rude cut. A much later picture that recalls ours in a more general way is on the Lloyd vase, an Italiote calyx-krater of the fourth century in Oxford (Oxford 1937.283: JHS. 63 pl. 1, 1 and pll. 2-3, with p. 93): young satyrs attack a pair of maenads, while Pan — or a statue of Pan ? — looks on. We have spoken of a goatherd, without attempting to name him; yet, as Curtius has recently pointed out (Jh. 38 p. 14) it is not very likely that this is just any goatherd: it should be a particular one. Hauser suggested (in FR. ii p. 294) that it might be Daphnis, who figured in a poem by one of the Stesichoroi; but did not insist. Eduard Fraenkel reminds me that Daphnis, Pan, Priapos occur together in Theocritus (Epigr. 3: 'in picturam aut anaglyphum', Wilamowitz), and in circumstances that recall our vase: “εὕδεις ... Δάφνι ...
ἀγρεύει δέ τυ Πὰν καὶ ὁ τὸν κροκόεντα Πρίηπος
κισσὸν ἐφ᾽ ἱμερτῷ κρατὶ καθαπτόμενος.
... ἀλλὰ τὺ φεῦγε ...
” 'The young goatherd on the vase may have been asleep a moment before, exactly like the ideal shepherd, Daphnis.'4 There are two varieties of bell-krater. The less common variety, to which our vase belongs, has solid lugs instead of handles. This variety perhaps began before the other: at least the four bell-kraters decorated by the Berlin Painter between 490 and 480 (ARV. p. 137 nos. 95-8) are the earliest Attic bell-kraters extant. There may have been earlier bell-kraters: a very early red-figured fragment by the Hischylos Painter in the Villa Giulia (ARV. p. 57 no. 5), of about 530-525, and a fragment by the Dikaios Painter in the Cabinet des Médailles (Paris, Cab. Méd. 387: Archiv für die Geschichte der Medizin, 3, 1909, p. 38, fig. 5), seem from the curve to be parts of bell-kraters, whether handled or lugged. The lugged bell-krater differs from the handled in other respects as well: the mouth has a simpler form; and as to the foot, when it acquires one (the earliest have none), H. R. W. Smith rightly speaks of 'a dogged attempt, down to the end of the fifth century, to keep the lugged krater distinct' in this respect 'from its upstart competitor' (CV. San Francisco p. 45). There is a certain amount of hybridization: as early as 460, a lugged krater by the Painter of the Yale Oinochoe, in Leningrad, borrows mouth and foot from the other variety (Leningrad 777: ARV. p. 329 no. 11). On the origin of the two varieties, see, most recently, H. R. W. Smith, loc. cit. The Pan Painter has left another lugged bell-krater, Palermo 778 (Politi Cinque vasi di premio pll. 2-3, whence Hartwig p. 471; Panm. pll. 31-2 and pl. 27, 2; CV. pl. 34: ARV. p. 361 no. 2): later, and fine, but not comparable to the Boston vase. The foot is different: it is of double-ogee form, and has a base-fillet (the retouched photographs in the Corpus are misleading). Louvre G 368, by the Painter of the Yale Oinochoe, has a similar foot (CV. d pl. 8, 2-3 and pl. 11, 2: phot. Alinari 23683: ARV. p. 329 no. 10). The Boston foot is more like that of a vase in the De Young Museum, San Francisco (CV. pl. 22, 1). Several vases by the Pan Painter have been published or republished since the list in ARV. pp. 361-8 and 959: A of no. 11 bis in Trendall and Stuart Handbook to the Nicholson Museum 2 p. 295; no. 27 in Bloesch Antike Kunst in der Schweiz, pll. 30-1, pl. 1, 2 and p. 63; no. 35 in CV. Madrid pl. 20, 2 and pl. 24, 3; no. 44 ibid. pl. 9, 3; no. 53 bis in CV. San Francisco pl. 15, 2 and pl. 16, 2 (Gargiulo Cenni sulla maniera di rinvenire i vasi fittili italo-greci pl. 7, 19 is perhaps an inaccurate reproduction of this vase); no. 58 in Classical Studies presented to Edward Capps p. 244 fig. 2; no. 60 in Feytmans Les Vases grecs de la Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique pll. 23-4; no. 74 in CV. Munich pl. 86, 9-10 and pl. 92, 6; no. 81 in JHS. 68 p. 27 fig. 2; no. 89 in CV. Vienna University pl. 10, 18 (from Orvieto). Add two fragments (of a volute-krater or a stamnos?) in the Louvre (on one, head and breast of a youth facing left; on the other, head and breast of a youth to right); a lekythos in Providence, RISD 35.708 (Cl. St. Capps p. 242 fig. 1), a fragment, from Athens, in Athens (BCH. 1940-1 pl. 10, 4), a fragment in the Louvre (middle of Triptolemos, arm of Demeter), and another also in the Louvre (Dionysos with kantharos and ivy, satyr dancing). No. 26, as Dietrich von Bothmer tells me, is not in the Louvre but in the Museum of Laon. No. 38, I learn from H. R. W. Smith, is now in the Museum at Houston, Texas (Houston 37.10). No. 36, the Nolan amphora in Palermo, should be removed from the list: it is by the Alkimachos Painter, as I had already suggested in Att. V. p. 105. No. 59 bis should be placed among the vases in the manner of the painter (ARV. p. 369): no. 1 in that list, which resembles it, is lent to the Los Angeles Museum by Mr. Victor Merlo (A, Merlo The Gallery of Classical Art: the Victor Merlo Collection. Los Angeles Museum mcmxxxii p. 15). It is not so close to the painter as I had thought. No. 4 in the 'manner' list should be withdrawn. No. 5 is now published by Curtius in Jh. 38 pp. 1-2.
AJA 17 (1913), p. 285; M. A. Banks, AJA 30 (1926), pp. 66, 68, pl. 3, fig. 48; G. M. A. Richter, AJA 36 (1932), pp. 376-377; G. Schneider, BABesch 10, no. 1 (1935), p. 17; C. M. Bowra, 1936, Greek Lyric Poetry from Alcman to Simonides, Oxford, Clarendon Press, p. 427; Curtius 1938, pp. 238, 241, fig. 419; MIT 1950, p. 80, fig. 21; Richter 1950, p. 97; L. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford, BABesch 24-26 (1949-1951), p. 23; Metzger 1951, p. 133; C. Clairmont, AJA 57 (1953), p. 85, note 6; Stella 1956, pp. 183 (illus.), 385 (illus.); Levi & Stenico 1956, p. 98, fig. 93; G. Vallet, 1958, Rhégion et Zancle, Paris, E. de Boccard, p. 330, note 2; EAA, I, p. 693, fig. 889 (P. E. Arias); EAA, I, p. 890 (G. Cressedi); Robertson 1959, pp. 118-119 (2 color illus.), 120-121; H. Diepolder, MüJB 9-10 (1958-59), pp. 10 (fig. 6), 11-13 (note 9); Brommer 1960, p. 336, no. B 3; Cook 1960, fig. 44; Karouzos 1961, p. 80; E. Simon, AntK 5 (1962), p. 44; Palmer 1962, p. 68, fig. 54; K. Schauenburg, RM 69 (1962), p. 41; Chase & Vermeule 1963, pp. 92, 96, 110, fig. 90; ARV2, pp. 550 (no. 1), 1659; C. Clairmont, AntK 6 (1963), p. 26; R. Brilliant, 1963, Gesture and Rank in Roman Art, New Haven, The Academy, pp. 11 (note 5), 12, fig. 1.1; L. Ghali-Kahil, 1963, Neue Ausgrabungen in Griechenland, Olten, Urs Graf-Verlag, pp. 14 (under no. 27), 22 (under no. 46); EAA, V, p. 921 (H. Sichtermann); EAA, V, p. 923 (E. Paribeni); Hull 1964, p. 214, pl. 4; R. Blatter, AntK 7 (1964), p. 48; Herbert 1964, p. 68; Antike Plastik, III, p. 23, note 101 (H. G. Niemeyer); Noble 1965, p. 98, note 6; Hale 1965, p. 82, illus.; Metzger 1965, p. 78, no. 3; O. J. Brendel, JdI 81 (1966), p. 220, note 22; Beazley & Ashmole 1966, p. 42, fig. 81; Boardman 1967, pp. 265-266, figs. 138-139 (J. Dörig); Antike Plastik, VII, p. 80, note 41 (G. Despinis); A.-B. 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