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96. 01.8109 NOLAN AMPHORA (with triple handles) from Cumae PLATE L, 96

Height 0.307. The drawings are by Caskey. One figure from A, VA. p. 115; A, International Studio 88 (Dec. 1927) p. 71, above, r. (D. C. Rich); A, Panm. pl. 16, 3; the shape, Hambidge p. 61 and Caskey G. p. 66. A, a boy victor. B, a youth (attendant at a sacrifice) dragging the skin of an ox. About 470-460 B.C., by the Pan Painter (VA. p. 115; Att. V. p. 102 no. 22; Panm. p. 22 no. 27; ARV. p. 364 no. 33).

The victorious athlete is a sturdy boy, planted firmly on his feet, with the left leg frontal; wreathed, and holding three sprigs, such as were given to victors, in each hand. He looks towards a man, dressed in a himation, and wreathed, who stands in the same position, with the right leg frontal, but the feet not so far apart and the head turned to right and raised: he holds a pronged wand in his right hand and a walking-stick in his left. He may be about to announce the victory, as in other pictures resembling this: see CV. Oxford, on pl. 49, 6, and Panm. p. 14 note 28; add the bell-krater by the Nikias Painter in the British Museum (London 98.7-16.6: Fröhner Coll. Tyszkiewicz pl. 35, whence Hoppin Rf. ii p. 219: ARV. p. 847 no. 1).

The mouth of the boy has disappeared in a dint. One might think that the apparent bald patch on the forehead was due to the same accident, but it is not. At first I thought of incipient baldness and a comic touch in the artist's manner (VA. p. 115); later, I conjectured that the boy had recently cut off his forehead-hair and dedicated it to Apollo, as boys did when they became ephebes (Panm. p. 14: Hesychius s.v. οἰνιστήρια, see also Hauser in FR. ii p. 292 and Jacobsthal Die melischen Reliefs p. 84). A third explanation now occurs to me and should perhaps be preferred: the boy is a wrestler or pancratiast and has cut off his forehead-hair so as not to be caught hold of by it. In black-figure pictures of wrestlers the hair on the forehead often seems to be cropped.

The picture on the reverse is not connected with the other, except that both strike a festal note. A boy, wreathed, has tied his cloak round his waist, and is dragging the hide of an ox by the tail. Part of the boy's knee, in three-quarter view, is seen to left of the hide. The ox has been flayed after a sacrifice. The hide was often the perquisite of the priest. Three archaic vases have a similar subject, though not the same: a youth carries the leg of an ox over his shoulder: so on a cup by Oltos, about 520 B.C., in Providence (JHS. 47 p. 64; CV. pl. 13: ARV. p. 37 no. 35) and on a black-figured cup, of type C, by the Theseus Painter, in Salerno, from Fratte, about the beginning of the fifth century; a cup by the Epeleios Painter in Florence and Heidelberg, late sixth century, gives a full context (ARV. p. 107, below, no. 2): an old priest pours a libation on the altar; two youths carry baskets; two others, legs of an ox; then come the block and the carcass, and a youth with a chopper: more particulars will be found in CF. p. 11. Other vases show the flaying, or at least the preparation of the carcass, though the animal is a ram not an ox: see V. Pol. p. 36.

The figures on A are contoured with relief-lines, but not the figure on B. On A, both right elbows are damaged. The fingers of the man's left hand have partly disappeared, and so has the inner marking below his chest; on B, the fingers, the pit of the stomach, and some other parts have suffered. The hide is streaked with brown. The wreaths and sprigs are in red. At each handle, a palmette, contoured with relief. An unusual feature is the second band of maeander running round the vase not far from the base.

L. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford, BABesch 24-26 (1949-1951), pp. 21-22; G. Q. Giglioli, ArchCl 2 (1950), p. 44, note 1; Karouzos 1961, p. 79; ARV2, p. 553, no. 40; Follmann 1968, pp. 38-39, 110, no. 40; L. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford, BABesch 44 (1969), p. 132; A. Balomenou, ArchDelt 33 (1978), p. 338, note 4; Blech 1982, pp. 116, 427, no. L 5, 3; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 126 (with incorrect ref. to Boardman, fig. 339, which is 10.184); CVA, Leiden, 3, p. 41, under no. 1971/4, 1 (M. F. Vos); M. Detienne and J.-P. Vernant, 1989, The Cuisine of Sacrifice among the Greeks, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, p. 111, fig. 9; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 258 (also as Boardman, fig. 339).

Exhibited: Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 1988-1991 (Padgett 1988, pp. 34-35, no. 15, 2 illus.); Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, 1991-.

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