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99. 13.199 LEKYTHOS from Gela PLATE LI, 3

Height 0.3925. The shape, Caskey G. p. 214 no. 168. Reveller. About 470-460 B.C., by a painter of the Mannerist Group (ARV. p. 399 no. 84).

Once again a lekythos decorated on the Nolan principle, with neither pattern above the figure, nor palmettes on the shoulder. A man with a long beard moves forward, leaning back, touching the strings of his lyre with the fingers of his left hand, and holding up the plectrum in his right. The lips are closed: he is not singing, but thinking of singing, and toying with the strings. Lyre-players are often shown leaning back: for example on a neck-amphora by the Berlin Painter in the British Museum (London E 267: CV. pl. 9, 1 and pl. 10, 1: ARV. p. 133 no. 28). The lyre is of the graceful type with long arms and the greatest breadth near the cross-bar. The left forearm passes through a supporting-band attached to the lower 'horn' of the lyre. A long spotted fillet hangs from the same 'horn'. The tortoise-shell sounding-board is partly visible behind the forearm. The man wears a long chiton with kolpos and full 'false sleeves'; a himation laid shawl-wise over both shoulders; a woman's saccos, spotted, and shoes. The plectrum-string is red. Brown lines on the kolpos; brown for the markings of the tortoise-shell; the wrist-band is also brown. The face and the greater part of the rest are contoured with relief-lines. The incised sketch shows that the head was originally intended to be farther to the left. To right of the pattern below the figure there is a 'ghost' — a piece of maeander — where the vase, before it was hard, touched another. Graffito Ε.

This is the only lekythos that can be assigned to the Mannerist Group. Caskey notes (G. pp. 215-16) that it is said to have been found together with the hunter lekythos by the Pan Painter (no. 97), which resembles it closely in shape and has the same overall proportion.

The picture is one of a large number in which bearded revellers wear saccos and full-length chiton as well as himation, and often carry a parasol; the reveller often has a lyre, or, if a party is depicted, a lyre-player is of it. Many of these pictures were put together by Buschor (Jb. 38-9 pp. 128-32) and interpreted as representing a 'feast of parasols'. He conjectured that the Skirophoria were such a feast, and that a feature of it was interchange of costume, women dressing up as men and men as women; he found something unnatural in the beards on the vases, and suspected that the men were sometimes women in disguise, and the women men. Braun had already suggested that two of the pictures might represent the 'Skiadephoria' (Bull. 1843, p. 90); Lenormant and de Witte that two of them showed men travestied as women, and two other women travestied as men (El. cér. 4 p. 238). I have always described all these figures as komasts, and recently Nilsson has argued for the same view (Acta. Arch. 13 pp. 223-6). He points out that in several of the pictures drinking-cups are held or flourished, and krotala are held; and that such objects would be out of place in a sacred procession. As for the 'disguises', he quotes, after Deubner, the words of Philostratus (1, 2): συγχωρεῖ δὲ κῶμος καὶ γυναικὶ ἀνδρίζεσθαι καὶ ἀνδρὶ <<θῆλυν ἐνδῦναι στολὴν καὶ θῆλυ βαίνειν>>.

Nilsson publishes a column-krater in Cleveland (below, ii p. 59, no. 21), on which all three figures are bearded, wear long chiton, himation, saccos; one of them holds a lyre, the second a parasol and crotala, the third a cup. Nilsson does not mention a particular which is hardly visible in his reproductions: two of the three, the lyre-player and the parasol-carrier, wear earrings. Now earrings were not worn by Greek men: they were a mark of the barbarian.1 It will be remembered how in the Anabasis (iii, I, 31) the agitator Apollonides who spoke with a Boeotian accent was disposed of: Agasias of Stymphalos said that Apollonides had nothing to do with Boeotia or even Greece: he had seen his ears and they were pierced like a Lydian's; that was the end of Apollonides. Anacreon says of his enemy Artemon that before he became rich he used to wear wooden astragaloi in his ears (fr. 54): he doubtless implies that Artemon was a barbarian or not distinguishable from one. As there is no reason to suppose that the persons on the Cleveland vase are barbarians, they must either be women disguised as men or men disguised as women: but one cannot immediately say which. I see no ground for thinking that the figures on the Cleveland vase or other figures like them are women disguised as men. There is never a female breast or other female feature; and the beards are perfectly normal. The reveller on a cup in the Louvre has been thought female because there is a beard but no moustache (El. cér. 4 pl. 93: below, ii p. 59, no. 12): but the absence of a moustache would prove nothing; and in fact there is a moustache, although it is omitted in the reproduction.

We take the figures, therefore, to be men. Are they disguised as women? Three elements in the costume might be considered feminine: the long chiton, the saccos, the parasol. Of these, long chiton and himation had been the regular full dress for men in earlier days: but by the time most of our vases were painted it was obsolescent or at least old-fashioned; the long chiton might still be worn on high occasions, but in ordinary circumstances may have counted as a feminine garment.

The saccos is properly a woman's article: it might indeed be worn, by youths as well as men, at komos and symposion, either with nothing else or with himation or wrap:2 in these cases there can be no question of the wearer being disguised as a woman, but the saccos was no doubt thought of as borrowed from feminine costume.

That some at least considered it effeminate in a man to use a parasol is a fair inference from the words of Anacreon (fr. 54, 11 Diehl) and perhaps of Pherecrates (fr. 54).

While none of the three articles singly may amount to a real disguise, the joint use of them must surely do so. Finally, two of the men wear earrings.

We therefore believe all these figures to be men disguised as women;3 but to be taking part in a komos and not in a sacred rite. An unpublished vase raises the question whether they are just komasts, or may not be particular persons:

  • Rome, Prof. Ludwig Curtius, fragments of a large rf. calyx-krater. A, symposion; B, komos. By the Kleophrades Painter, as Prof. Curtius saw, in his earliest phase: ARV. p. 123 no. 29.
There were four revellers on B, all moving quickly to right. (1) Of the left-hand figure, the hindmost, all that remains is one foot. Of the other figures, parts of the shanks and feet are preserved, with head and shoulder of the leader. (2) wears a long chiton, and shoes (persikai); to right of his knee, the bottom of a basket is seen; (3) wears a long chiton and sandals; his name ended in ...Σ; (4) wears a himation, probably shawl-wise, as well as the long chiton (the others may have had himatia too, but that part is not preserved); he has a saccos on his head, and an ivy-wreath round his neck; he dances, kicking up one foot behind, throws his head back, and sings: the letters ΙΙΟΟ (= ee-ee o — o or the like) issue from his open mouth; over his shoulder he carries a parasol; he has a long yellow beard.

A floating fragment belongs to either (1) or (2), probably (2). It gives the hands, and part of the breast, of a male figure moving to right, wearing himation as well as chiton, an ivy-wreath round the neck, a plectrum in the right hand and a lyre, of the long type, in the left. There is an inscription in red on the arm of the lyre, ΑΝΑΚΡΕ[ΟΝ]. The letter Α... in the field to the right of the breast is the beginning of a word, whether Α[ΝΑΚΡΕΟΝ] again, or not. The subject of the picture is therefore 'Anacreon and his boon companions'.

If this floating fragment belongs to (2), as is most likely, the light basket must have hung by a cord from the lower arm of the lyre, as often: for example, on the hydria Munich 2424, in the earliest manner of the Kleophrades Painter (Buschor Gr. Vasen p. 146 fig. 165: ARV. p. 129 no. 4); on a cup by Makron in Athens, Athens, Acr. 311 (Jb. 2 p. 164; Langlotz pl. 19: ARV. p. 313 no. 222); on a cup by Makron in Adria (Adria B 318: Micali Mon. ined. pl. 45, 2: ARV. p. 308 no. 113).4

The Curtius krater is among the earliest of our vases (for it must have been painted some years before the end of the sixth century); and far the finest: but in subject it is a regular member of the series. The inscription shows that it represents Anacreon and his boon companions. Does it follow that all the vases in our series have the same subject as the krater? I am inclined to think that it does: that (1) they too represent not merely a komos, but a special komos; (2) that when one of the figures is a man playing the lyre, it is Anacreon; (3) that when a figure just like these 'Anacreons' is represented alone, as on the Boston lekythos, it is Anacreon; (4) that when there is no 'Anacreon', the figures are still to be thought of as 'boon companions of Anacreon'. It might be thought safer to suppose that some of the pictures were intended to represent not Anacreon himself and his cronies, but, more generally, revellers of the good old days. The question is not easy.

There would perhaps be some irony in Anacreon, who seems to have objected to earrings and parasols, being represented in the company of men with parasols, or even holding a parasol himself, and wearing earrings (it will hardly be maintained that what the poet disliked was not parasols and earrings in themselves, but parasols of a certain material and earrings of a certain shape).

In the list that follows, Buschor's numbers are given in brackets. It includes additions. In general, the pictures are not fully described unless they are unpublished. 'Anacreon' is present in thirteen pictures out of twenty-five.5 Five of these are single-figure pieces, with 'Anacreon' alone. Naturally enough the lyre-player seldom carries a parasol; but on the Madrid stamnos he has one under his arm. Of the pictures in which there is no 'Anacreon', four have a single figure only, a reveller who may be thought of from one point of view, as an extract from a larger composition. Women are present seven times: once, on the pelike in Rhodes (no. 20) together with 'Anacreon'; six times in place of him, providing the music, with flute, cithara, or lyre. Most of the vases were painted between 490 and 450; but the black-figured plate, and the Curtius krater, are earlier.

  • 1. Paris, Mr. R. Jameson, bf. plate with white ground. Chabouillet Cab. Fould pl. 17, 1395; Richter A.R.V.S. fig. 36. By Psiax (Richter: ARV. p. 11 no. 30). A woman stands to right, playing the flute: in front of her, a man dances to right, looking round and down; he wears a chiton reaching to mid-calf, a wrap over both shoulders, a saccos, an ivy-wreath, boots, holds a lyre in the right hand, and raises his left arm above his head with a cup in the hand. Behind the woman, a camp-stool; hanging on the wall, a flute-case with mouthpiece-box. The date is probably about 520-510. By our rule I suppose we should call the man Anacreon, since he holds a lyre: but his attitude is so unlike that of the other lyre-players that there would be a case for excepting him.
  • 2. Rome, Prof. Ludwig Curtius, rf. calyx-krater. Already described.
  • 3 (1). Florence 3987, rf. pelike. CV. pl. 31, 1 and pl. 33, 1-2.
  • 4 (2). Louvre G 220, rf. amphora (type C). Pottier pl. 130, whence (A) BCH. 66-7 p. 251; CV. pl. 42, 3-4. By the Flying-Angel Painter (ARV. p. 183 no. 8). The man on A wears not a saccos, but a cloth or kerchief (μίτρα) round his head. On a stamnos in Madrid (below, no. 6), while two of the komasts have this same cloth, the other six wear the saccos: it is an alternative headgear; and is worn in ordinary komos- or symposion-scenes even more frequently than the saccos: for example, on a cup in Athens, Athens, Acr. 229 (Langlotz pl. 12); a cup by Epiktetos in London, London E 38 (FR. pl. 73, 2: ARV. p. 46 no. 15); a cup by the Ashby Painter in Castle Ashby (BSR. 11 pl. 7, 3 : ARV. p. 299 no. 6); cups by the Foundry Painter in Boston, Corpus Christi Cambridge, and Berlin (Caskey B. pl. 12; JHS. 41 p. 224 and pll. 15-16; Anz. 1892 p. 101: ARV. p. 264 nos. 11-13). On a cup by the Panaitios Painter in the Louvre, a youth, at the symposion, is winding a μίτρα: round his head (ii p. 30, foot).6 It is often worn by women too, and may have been thought effeminate in men, but this is not certain.
  • 5 (5). Munich 2326, rf. neck-amphora. CV. pl. 55, 1, pl. 56, 5, and pl. 57, 3. By the Harrow Painter (ARV. p. 178 no. 19). The man holds a parasol, but wears neither saccos nor mitra: his hair is done up in a krobylos.
  • 6 (6). Madrid 11009, rf. stamnos. A, Leroux pl. 19; CV. pll. 6-8. See above on no. 4.
  • 7. Once Rome, Count Antonio Cippico, rf. stamnos, from Chiusi. R.I. 9, 82. By the Tyszkiewicz Painter (ARV. p. 186 no. 20). I have not much note of it. On A, a man with a parasol to right, a woman (or a man?) moving to right with a lyre, a man dancing to right, looking round; on B, a man with a parasol and a woman with a lyre (and another figure?). I do not know if this could be Braun's vase (no. 28).
  • 8. Paris, Petit Palais 336, white lekythos. CV. pl. 33, 3-4. Belongs to the class of 'semi-outline lekythoi' described by Miss Haspels in ABL. pp. 111-12. Paris, Petit Palais 335 (CV. pl. 33, 1-2) is by the same hand.
  • 9. Louvre G 286, rf. cup. By Douris (ARV. p. 291 no. 178). Fragments in the Louvre, added by Marie Beazley, join, and not much of the picture is missing. Inside, a man, head to right, in his left hand a skyphos, in his right a stick, with a flute-case hanging from the top of it: chiton, himation, saccos.
  • 10. Munich 2647, rf. cup. Jb. 31 pl. 3 and pp. 84-5. By Douris in his late period (ARV. p. 287 no. 112). Inside, the reveller in long chiton, himation, and saccos is accompanied by another who has nothing fancy about his costume, which consists of a himation hanging shawl-wise over the shoulders, and a chaplet.
  • 11. Brussels R 332, rf. cup. CV. pl. 1, 2. Very late work by the Brygos Painter (ARV. p. 253 no. 126). The reveller wears long chiton, himation, shoes, but neither saccos nor mitra: instead, a thick headband with rounded ends, tagged, and over it a woollen chaplet. He drops his stick and dances, holding out his himation with both hands covered by it: compare the dancers on nos. 13, 23, and 26.
  • 12 (3). Louvre G 285, rf. cup. El. 4 pl. 93; Pottier pl. 134. Very late work by the Brygos Painter (ARV. p. 253 no. 127). See above, ii p. 56. The ivy-wreath has been supposed to prove that the man is taking part in a festival of Dionysos (BCH. 66-7 p. 253): but the wreath is not certainly of ivy, and even if it were, it would not prove anything of the kind, for ivy-wreaths were often worn by mere revellers not engaged in any religious celebration (see, for example, Hoppin Rf. ii pp. 321 and 325, Epiktetos; ii p. 412, Skythes; ii p. 25, Hermonax; CV. London pl. 28, 4, Peleus Painter).
  • 13. Chiusi 1836, rf. cup. School of Makron (ARV. p. 540 no. 34). In the komos outside the cup, all the revellers wear long chiton, himation, and saccos. A: 1, a youth dancing to right, holding his himation out like the man on the cup in Brussels (no. 11); 2, a man running to left, looking round, with skyphos and parasol; 3, a man running to right, looking round, with stick and cup; B: 4, a man running to right, a parasol in his right hand, his left missing; 5, a man running to right, looking round, a parasol in his left hand, his right missing; 6, to left, with a stick.
  • 14. Berlin 2351, rf. neck-amphora from Orvieto. The man on A holds a parasol, and, behind him, a lyre: long chiton, himation, shoes, mitra; the man on B throws his head back and sings: long chiton, himation; bare-headed, wreathed. See ii p. 60.
  • 15. Mykonos, rf. neck-amphora from Rheneia (and Delos). Manner of the Aegisthus Painter (ARV. p. 333, above, no. 3). On A, a woman moves to right, playing the flute, and a man moves quickly to right, looking back, with stick and parasol, dressed in long chiton, himation, saccos. B is not connected with A: a man standing to right, dressed in a himation, holding a stick, and a woman standing to right, looking round.
  • 16 (14). Adria B 497, fragment of a rf. column-krater. Micali Mon. ined. pl. 45, 5.
  • 16 bis. Athens, rf. column-krater, from Perachora. On each side, a man dressed in long chiton, himation, and saccos; on A, moving quickly to left, looking round, a skyphos in his left hand, the right hand missing; on B, moving to right, a flute-case in his left hand, the right hand missing.
  • 17. Boston 13.199. Our lekythos. Mannerist Group.
  • 18. Baltimore, Robinson, rf. column-krater. CV. ii pll. 28 and 28a. Manner of Myson, early Mannerist Group (ARV. p. 173 no. 11).
  • 19. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 7242, fragments of a rf. column-krater. School of Myson, early Mannerist Group (ARV. p. 173 no. 12). A, a man moves to right with plectrum and lyre; a flute-case hangs from the lower arm of the lyre: long chiton with kolpos, himation: the head, except for part of the beard, is missing, so one cannot say whether a saccos was worn or not. B, the middle of an ordinary reveller remains, moving to right, with plectrum and lyre; himation worn shawl-wise over the shoulders, otherwise naked.
  • 20. Rhodes 13129, rf. pelike. Cl. Rh. 4 pp. 124-5; CV. pl. 3. Mannerist Group: by the Pig Painter (ARV. p. 371 no. 22). The lyre-player on A is preceded by a woman who holds krotala. The painter has forgotten to fill in the background between her right arm and her side.
  • 21. Cleveland 26.549, rf. column-krater. A, Acta arch. 13 p. 224. Mannerist Group: by the Pig Painter. In ARV. p. 379 no. 30 I attributed it to another mannerist, the Agrigento Painter, but now that I have photographs I perceive that it is not by him, though close. See ii p. 56. The two left-hand men, as was said above, wear earrings. The picture on the reverse of the vase is not connected with the other: two naked youths dance; between them is a third youth, dressed in a himation, walking or dancing.
  • 22 (9). Vienna 770, rf. column-krater. Laborde I pl. 38, whence El. 4 pl. 91. Mannerist Group: by the Agrigento Painter (ARV. p. 379 no. 29 and p. 959). The middle figure is a woman playing a cithara.
  • 23 (7). Bologna 239, rf. column-krater. Part of A, Pellegrini VF. p. 96. By the Alkimachos Painter (ARV. p. 358 no. 41). The second reveller from the left faces us and lifts his himation with both hands, recalling the dancer on the cup in Brussels (no. 11). The third figure is a woman moving to right, playing the lyre; the fourth a man moving to right, with a cup.
  • 24 (8). Bologna 234, rf. column-krater. Zannoni pl. 40, 1-3 and 5, whence (A) Jb. 38-9 p. 130; A, Deubner Att. Feste pl. 21, 3. By the Orchard Painter (ARV. p. 347 no. 16). A woman plays the flute.
  • 25 (4). London E 308, rf. neck-amphora. A, El. cér. 4 pl. 90; CV. pl. 55, 2. By the Zannoni Painter (ARV. p. 716 no. 5).
  • 26. Bari, rf. column-krater. A, Japigia 8 p. 480 fig. 4. Six men, all wearing long chiton, himation, saccos. A: 1, dancing to left, looking round, a thin red fillet in his left hand; 2, moving to right, head thrown back, with plectrum and lyre; 3, dancing to left, head thrown back, holding out his himation with both hands (compare no. 11); B: 4, moving to right; 5, moving to left, looking round; 6, moving to left.
  • 27 (10). Palazzolo Acreide. Doubtless a column-krater. Giudica Antichità di Acre pl. 31, whence El. cér. 4 pl. 92. The middle figure is a flute-girl.
  • 28 (11). Lost?, From Chiusi. Known only from Braun's description in Bull. 1843 p. 90: 'on each side, a woman playing the lyre between two bearded and cloaked men holding parasols.' The shape is not given. I do not know if this could be the Cippico stamnos (no. 7) or not.
A kind of forerunner of these figures perhaps appears on an earlier vase, a black-figured amphora of peculiar shape in Rhodes (see ii p. 9), which is in the manner of Lydos, belongs to the third quarter of the sixth century, and cannot be very much later than the middle. It shows a komos of three persons: a naked youth with a cithara: another, with a drinking-horn, who seems to be dancing; and a man with a short beard also holding a drinking-horn. He wears a long, sleeveless chiton, the skirt of which he lifts with one hand; loose boots with tops turned over; and something on his head. Unfortunately the vase is damaged or daubed over at this point, and one cannot be quite sure whether the headgear is a saccos, as seems more probable, or a 'mitra'. Even if it is a saccos, the figure does not quite enter into our series, and is best described as a forerunner.

One or two of our lyre-players have already been interpreted as Anacreon. Helbig gave the name of Anacreon to the man with lyre and parasol on the vase in Berlin (Bull. 1879 pp. 3-4; above, no. 14), and Mrs. Karouzou to the lyre-player on the amphora in the Louvre (BCH. 1942-3 pp. 248-54: above, no. 4). She was led to make the identification by a similarity between the Louvre figure and the inscribed portrait of Anacreon on the lekythos signed by the potter Gales in Syracuse (see below, ii p. 61). There is neither saccos in the Gales picture, nor parasol: nor is there in the figure on the front of the Louvre amphora: but the figure on the back, which is clearly connected with the other, is a man dancing, wearing a saccos, and holding a parasol. Mrs. Karouzou assumes that he is 'a participant in the Feast of Parasols', and if he, then the 'Anacreon' on the front of the vase. In our view the two men are not taking part in any religious ceremony, but in an ordinary revel or komos.

The Curtius Anacreon is one of three inscribed portraits of the poet on vases. The other two are well known. The earlier is on a red-figured cup by Oltos in the British Museum (London E 18: Jahn Dichter pl. 3; I, Murray no. 14; detail of B, Jh. 3 p. 89; B, ML. 19 p. 95 fig. 11; B, Schefold Die Bildnisse der antiken Dichter, Denker und Redner p. 51, above: ARV. p. 40 no. 69). On B, Anacreon strides forward, holding plectrum and lyre, dressed in a himation, with a wreath on his bare head; there is nothing feminine in his costume, he is an ordinary reveller. Two persons hasten towards him, a youth called ΝΥΦΕΣ (Ny(m)phes) with a cloak over his shoulders, and a youth or man (the upper part is missing) whose name ends in -ΟΝ, dressed in a himation. In the restoration published by Schefold (Bildnisse p. 51, middle) this figure is made into a youth. The ΚΑΛΟΣ, retrograde, on the left of the picture might refer to Anacreon, but is probably unattached. The date should be about 520-510.

The third inscribed Anacreon is on a red-figured lekythos signed by the potter Gales, in Syracuse (Syracuse 26967: ML. 19 pl. 3 and p. 96 figs. 9-10, whence Hoppin Rf. i p. 465, BCH. 1942-3 p. 248, Schefold Bildnisse p. 51, below; the back, Jacobsthal O. pl. 54, b): by the Gales Painter (ARV. p. 31, above, no. 2). Anacreon moves to right, with plectrum and lyre, accompanied by two youths wearing cloaks over arm or shoulders and holding sticks. The poet wears a long chiton, a himation (shawl-wise), a wreath and a fillet, perhaps shoes. The head, which is much damaged, is thought to be bald, and may be so: a long time ago I thought I made out a saccos: I lay no stress on my old note, but should like to re-examine the original. Wilamowitz (Sappho und Simonides p. 102) and Mrs. Karouzou think that the left-hand youth is offering the skyphos to Anacreon (BCH. 66-7 p. 250), but this does not seem likely: for the figure compare the cup by the Panaitios Painter in the Czartoryski collection (Hartwig pl. 11; V. Pol. pl. 8, 1; CV. pl. 8, 1: ARV. p. 213 no. 1). The other youth is probably flourishing his stick, not threatening anyone with it, as Schefold (op. cit. p. 50). The vase is later than the Oltos cup, probably about 500 B.C.: see also Haspels ABL. p. 69.

A red-figured cup of the same period as the three inscribed portraits, Louvre G 94, has, inside, an athlete using a pickaxe, outside, athletes on one half, on the other a komos with an old man holding a lyre among a group of youths. The musician is not named, but it is likely enough that the painter had Anacreon in his mind.7

M. Farnsworth, Archaeology 12 (1959), p. 250, fig. 13; ARV2, pp. 588 (no. 73), 1660; Noble 1965, p. 54, fig. 203; Para., p. 393, no. 73; J. Snyder, Hermes 102 (1974), 2, p. 244, illus.; Boardman 1975, pp. 180, 186 (fig. 334), 219, 247; Johnston 1979, pp. 41, 43, 47, 141 (Type 16E, no. 7, as 13.119), 216; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 129; Kurtz & Boardman 1986, p. 49, no. 32; M. Robertson, 1986, in Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 3, p. 89; Maas & Snyder 1989, pp. 126, 236, note 36; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 264; Frank 1990, p. 285, note 500; B. A. Sparkes, 1991, Greek Pottery: An Introduction, New York, St. Martin's Press, pp. 47, 141, note 54.

1 There is said to have been a statue of Achilles, with pierced ears, at Sigeum: this would allude to his sojourn in Skyros: see D. S. Robertson in Cambridge University Reporter 5 July 1932.

2 E.g. bf. oinochoe by Kleisophos in Athens (Pfuhl fig. 254); fragment of a bf. stamnos in Oxford, Oxford 1919.46, Perizoma Group; Berlin inv. 3211, stamnos of the Perizoma Group; Hegesiboulos cup in New York (New York 07.286.47; FR. pl. 93, 2; Richter and Hall pl. 10); rf. cup in Vienna (Anz. 7 p. 172); Braun Leagros cup (ARV. p. 931 no. 41). There are plenty of revellers wearing saccoi on late Chiot vases.

An alternative headgear was the Oriental kidaris or tiara, also worn by men or youths at symposia and in the komos: see Jacobsthal Gött. V. pp. 61-2; JHS. 49 pp. 3-4; Dietrich von Bothmer in Bull. of the American Schools of Oriental Research no. 83 p. 29 and in Tell en-Nasbeh i p. 176.

3 Quite certain examples of men holding parasols who are disguised as women are to be found on a black-figured eye-cup in Naples, Naples 2729. Inside, a gorgoneion; outside, on each half, a figure between eyes. To quote Heydemann's description: 'A, a bearded man moves cautiously forward, wrapped in his mantle and holding an open parasol in his left hand; on his head he has a small female head; B, a bearded man comes to meet him, wrapped in his mantle and holding a parasol downwards in his left hand; on his head he has a female head, the neck of which ends in the body of a bird.'

The small female head must be a token disguise (not exactly a mask) of the same kind as in the black-figured mastoid in the Museo Artistico Industriale at Rome (RM. 38-9 p. 82: see p. 84).

The Naples cup is mentioned by Bloesch (F.A.S. p. 7), but he takes the figures to be women disguised as men, not, with us, men disguised as women. Since the above was written it has been published in CV. pl. 27.

4 P. 57: the Curtius fragments are now Copenhagen 13365 (ARV.2 p. 185 no. 32).

5 Omitted from the count, the Cippico stamnos (no. 7), about which I am ill-informed, and the Adria fragment (no. 16), where little can be said about the composition. Buschor's list includes as no. 15, a late bf. fragment in Athens (Athens, Acr. 682: Graef pl. 46), but the figure there is female.

6 On such head-cloths see also Langlotz Phidiasprobleme p. 81.

7 (From Addenda to Part II) Pp. 55-61. On this subject see now Rumpf in Studies Robinson ii pp. 84-9.

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