previous next

playing with is not a puppy but a weasel (the same animal is figured on a fourth-century squat lekythos with design in added red, Etruscan or Italic, from Leprignano, in Villa Giulia). A new vase by Euphronios is a neck-pelike in Villa Giulia: on one side a youth leads a horse; on the other a man, seated, chastises a young boy with a sandal: on each side of the vase, ΛΕΑΓΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ. Add also a fragment, attributed by Albizzati and Belloni, in the Museo di Archeologia (Castello Sforzesco), Milan (AJA. 1950 pl. 20, c: probably from a calyx-krater: Herakles), and a fragment of a cup decorated inside only, attributed by Dietrich von Bothmer, in the Louvre (I, archer, with ...ΝΕΠΟΙΕΣΕΝ: — i.e. [Χαχρυλιο]νεποιεσεν: ?). Peters has made the attractive suggestion (Studien zu den panathenäischen Preisamphoren p. 56) that a small fragment of a black-figured Panathenaic amphora in Athens, Athens, Acr. 931 (Graef pl. 56), may be by Euphronios.1

The fillet between neck and shoulder is painted red. The picture doubtless ran uninterrupted round the whole vase. The psykter shape will be discussed on ii pp. 6-9.

This is the earliest representation of Pentheus; it is also our earliest evidence for the legend and even the name. The earliest literary authority is Aeschylus, who treated the death of the hero in his Pentheus (fr. 183 Nauck), and alluded to it in his Xantriai (Nauck p. 55)2 as well as in his Eumenides (Aesch. Eum. 26).3

Nowhere else is Pentheus bearded, except on a Greco-Roman gem in the British Museum (Walters Cat. Gems pl. 22, 1629: Philippart Ic. p. 68 no. 160); and it has been observed that the part which Agave might have been expected to play (Eur. Bacch. 1125) is given to Galene. The other representations of the subject have been collected by Hartwig (Jb. 7 pp. 153-64), Curtius (Pentheus), and Philippart (Ic. pp. 50-66); see also Séchan pp. 102-6, and Dodds Euripides Bacchae pp. xxx-xxxii. A new picture, on a red-figured calyx-krater from Centuripe in private possession at Catania, Italiote but close to Attic, has recently been published by Libertini (Annuario n.s. 1-2 pp. 140-3): two maenads attack Pentheus with their thyrsi, and he falls: the date is about 425 B.C.

Of the vases that show the dismembered body, or the severed head, the Attic cup in the Louvre is only a little later than the Boston psykter (Louvre G 69: Jb. 7 p. 162, whence redrawn, Daremberg and Saglio s.v. maenades fig. 4769; Philippart Ic. pl. 13, a):4 it belongs to that 'Coarser Group' of early archaic cups which forms the subject of Chapter IV in ARV. The Attic stamnos by the Berlin Painter in Oxford is of the decade 490-480 (CV. pl. 25, 1-2, pl. 20, 10-12, pl. 30, 5-6: ARV. p. 138 no. 112). The Attic cup-fragment in the Villa Giulia must have been painted about 430-425 (CV. pl. 37, 1-2; clearer, Cultrera Hydria a figure rosse del Museo di Villa Giulia pp. 14-15). The cup in the Cabinet des Médailles (Paris, Cab. Méd. 1066: Gaz. arch. 1879 pll. 4-5; Philippart Ic. pl. 13, b) is not Italiote but Etruscan, by the Settecamini Painter: I have dealt with it in EVP. pp. 6 and pp. 54-5, and pl. 10, 3-5. A fragment in Florence, representing Agave with the head of Pentheus, comes from another Etruscan vase of the fourth century (Florence PD 6: Suppl. Pl. 11, 5: given by J. A. Spranger): I have not seen the original. There remains the skyphos, mentioned by Hartwig (Jb. 7 p. 163), which was formerly in the Spinelli collection (so probably found at Suessula) and is now in Boston (Boston 03.824): Campanian work of about 400 B.C., very close to Attic. The group on the reverse, two maenads holding a fawn between them, recurs on the Pentheus pyxis, in a private collection at Heidelberg, published by Curtius (Pentheus pl. 1 and pp. 2-4); also, as Curtius observed,


1 (From Addenda to Part II) Pp. 1-2. Important additions to the list of vases by Euphronios have now been made by Villard in Mon. Piot 45 pp. 1-13. Add a neck-amphora in the Louvre with an acontist on one side, a discus-thrower on the other, the inscription ΑΝΤΙΑΣΚΑΛΟΣ and the fragmentary signature ...ΓΡΑΦΣΕΝ.

2 The subject of the Xantriai must have been, as Welcker proposed, the conflict between Dionysos and Perseus at Argos. The scene can only have been laid in the Argolid, since nowhere else could a begging priestess hope to collect subscriptions for local Argive deities, Ἰνάχου Ἀργείου ποτάμου παισὶν βιοδώροις.

3 Thespis is said to have written a Πενθεύς, and some think that the title may be genuine though not the line quoted (see Pickard-Cambridge, Dithyramb, Tragedy and Comedy pp. 116-17): certainty is not to be had. 'Hecateus still called him Τενθεύς; τένθης is λίχνος; so Πενθεύς is a modification first in Aeschylus' (Wilamowitz-Moellendorf Glaube der Hellenen ii p. 66 note 1; Schwyzer Griechische Grammatik i p. 295). Not first in Aeschylus, anyway.

4 The cup has now been cleaned, and I have added four fragments, including the second handle. The second maenad from the left holds an arm or leg in her right hand, and a snake coils round her left arm. The maenad on the right holds a wineskin in her left hand; a hare, standing on its hind legs, lays its forepaws on her left leg.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: