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Miss Price suggested that a fragment of a Chiot chalice in London (JHS. 44 pl. 6, 6) might represent Aphrodite saving Aeneas from Diomed, and Johansen agrees (Il. p. 165, C 1): but the man does not look like a warrior.1

Let us now look at the two pictures in detail. Achilles wears chitoniskos, leather corslet, greaves, Attic helmet with nasal, and with movable cheek-pieces, which are raised. The corslet has pteryges, and the middle part of it is strengthened with metal scales; on one shoulder-flap a lion, on the other a lioness, in black. What is seen below the lioness's belly is the end of a lock of Achilles' hair. The baldric is in red. The shield is of 'Boeotian' type; the inside is browned. The drawing omits inner markings on the legs, and the heart of the black palmette on the helmet. Memnon's mouth is open, and the upper part of the cornea is concealed by the eyelid. He is dressed like Achilles, but has no greaves. The middle of the corslet is imbricated instead of scaled; the shoulder-piece is covered with scales alternately black and reserved, and is unusually ornate, for the nape-piece and the lower corners are in the form of panther's heads. Part of the left corner-panther is seen to right of the shield. The scabbard also ends in the head of a panther. The cheek-piece of the helmet is ornamented with the figure of a lizard, and the part over the forehead is decorated with an imitation of human forehead-hair, as often in actual helmets and in representations of them (see Hauser in Jh. 9 pp. 96-9). The top of the crest is cut off by the upper border, whereas the crests of Achilles and Athena overlap on to it. The device on the shield is a gorgoneion in outline, with black hair and red tongue. The head of the gorgon is surrounded by a black ring and then by a brown one, which is set with snakes. The brown ring is edged with incised lines. The shield-device of Athena on a fragment by the same painter in Athens is very like this (Athens, Acr. 812: Langlotz pl. 73: ARV. p. 188 no. 60).

It is perhaps more than a coincidence that in an earlier picture of this combat, on a cup by Epiktetos in the Villa Giulia (see ii p. 18), not only does Memnon bear a gorgoneion on his shield as here, but his nape-piece is decorated with a panther-head; the lower corners of the shoulder-piece are plain, but there are panther-heads on the shoulder-flaps of Achilles.2

Antilochos, with wounds in side, nape, and left thigh, lies with the right leg contracted and extended frontal. He has no corslet, only a chitoniskos, with kolpos; his Corinthian helmet has fallen off, and the crest droops, but the skirt of the chiton, instead of hanging down, sticks straight out as if it were made of metal foil. The hair is rolled round a cord at the nape.

I do not recall another vase in which the helmet is seen, fallen off, beside the head of the fallen warrior. But a helmet is shown falling, on a column-krater in Bologna (Bologna 192: CV. pl. 28, 4-5), and apparently on a Boeotian red-figured kantharos in Athens (Athens 12486: AM. 65 pl. 20, 1); fallen, on the volute-krater by the Geneva Painter in Geneva (Geneva MF 238; FR. ii p. 314 fig. 105: ARV. p. 430 no. 1), on a hydria by the Leningrad Painter in London (London E 167: CV. pl. 73, 1 and pl. 79, 1: ARV. p. 376 no. 63), on a fragment of a volute-krater in Oxford (Oxford 1922.209: CV. pl. 50, 27; the fragment New York 23.160.64 might be from the same vase); on Etruscan black-figured vases — the amphora Würzburg 799 (Jh. 13 pll. 5-8: Langlotz pll. 232-4: EVP. pp. 17-18), the hydria Naples 2781 (Jh. 13 p. 157: EVP. p. 18). In the right half of the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, the squire is thought to be holding his master's helmet — catching it when it has slipped


1 One of the groups on the lid of a Praenestine cista in the Villa Giulia (Ausonia 5 p. 83; Matthies Die praenestinischen Spiegel p. 37, whence Bulas Les illustrations antiques de l'Iliade p. 106) may be meant for Diomed and Aeneas (Savignoni in Ausonia 5 p. 82; Matthies p. 139) rather than Menelaos and Paris (Matthies pp. 37-8; Bulas p. 105); but the falling man is unarmed, which suits neither episode.

A third-century Etruscan mirror in Tarquinia (Gerhard E.S., suppl., pl. 112, 1) is supposed to represent Diomed, Aeneas, and Aphrodite, but the interpretation is uncertain.

2 In the Vivenzio hydria by the Kleophrades Painter (Naples 2422; FR. pl. 34, whence Pfuhl fig. 378 and Kl. pl. 27: ARV. p. 126 no. 66), Neoptolemos has panther heads on the shoulder-piece of his corslet, but higher up: see Furtwängler in FR. i p. 183.

On panther-heads in the proximity of gorgoneia, and the affinity between the two motives, see Besig Gorgo und Gorgoneion pp. 67-9; on the gorgoneion surrounded by snakes, ibid. pp. 90 and 94.

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