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  • 3. Ancona, rf. oinochoe (shape I) by the Altamura Painter (ARV. p. 415 no. 52). Marconi and Serra pl. 52. Dionysos and a Giant; a maenad comes up on the left and attacks with a thyrsus.
  • 4. Bologna 286, rf. calyx-krater by the Blenheim Painter (ARV. p. 417 no. 3). See above, ii p. 70. A maenad assists Dionysos, swinging a thyrsus.
  • 5. Ferrara, Ferrara T. 313, calyx-krater by the Niobid Painter (ARV. p. 420 no. 22). Aurigemma 1 p. 171 = 2 p. 205. The maenad holds a torch.
  • 6. Naples 2883, fragments of a rf. calyx-krater, in the manner of the Pronomos Painter (ARV. p. 850 no. 3). Mon. 9 pl. 6; Hahland pl. 10. The maenad Paidia holds a thyrsus and is ready to throw a stone.
Ours is the only vase on which two maenads take part, and the only other vase on which a maenad hurls a rock is the Vlasto stamnos. She is inspired by the god to a feat of strength. A satyr hurls a rock in the Gigantomachy on a calyx-krater by the Niobid Painter in Ferrara (above, no. 5: not visible in the reproductions).

On other vases, maenads perform less strenuous duties: helping Dionysos, or a satyr, to arm, or filling the phiale of Dionysos for the libation before he goes into battle.

A stephane ornamented with the foreparts of four winged horses is worn by Athena on a calyx-krater by the Altamura Painter in the Louvre (Louvre G 342: see ii p. 16), and by a woman, probably a goddess, on fragments of a bell-krater by the same artist in Erbach and in the Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen (Tischbein 5 pl. 111; El. 1 pl. 29, 1; Bonner Jahrbücher 96 p. 342: ARV. p. 414 no. 27); on an amphora by the Niobid Painter in London (London E 257: Gerhard AV. pl. 176, 1; CV. pl. 7, 2: ARV. p. 421 no. 41) Hera's stephane is surmounted by the forepart of a winged horse. Compare the stephane with the forepart of a griffin on a stamnos-fragment by Hermonax in Heidelberg (Heidelberg 169: Kraiker pl. 31 : ARV. p. 318 no. 19), and the helmets with the same on the neck-amphora by Exekias in the British Museum (London B 210: WV. 1888 pl. 6, 2, whence Hoppin Bf. p. 95; CV. pl. 49, 2; Technau Exekias pl. 25) and the panathenaic Athens, Acr. 923 (Graef pl. 59). On a large bell-krater, with lugs for handles, of early classic style, which was in the Rogers (no. 399), Forman (no. 356), de Morgan (Greek Art. Collection of Henry de Morgan. American Art Galleries, New York, March 12th and 13th, 1901, no. 401), and Gould collections (Art Collection of the late Charles W. Gould. American Art Association, New York, Oct. 27-29, 1932 p. 82, no. 575), the subject of the side not reproduced is Dionysos leading Ariadne (or Semele?) by the hand: she wears 'a broad fillet surmounted over the forehead by an eagle with raised wings in the centre, flanked by springing Pegasi'. It will be noticed that these stephanai are worn by different persons, so that one can hardly attribute any special symbolic value to them.1

B. The subject is continued on the back of the vase. A satyr drives a biga drawn by two other satyrs. He holds a goad in his right hand and lays it on the shoulders of one of the pair, who looks round. The satyrs hold the reins with both hands. The peg and part of the pad are seen between the two heads, but it is not clear how the pole is kept up.

There are other pictures of a satyr driving a biga drawn by two of his companions:

  • Munich 1389 (J. 1119), bf. amphora. CV. pl. 24, 3 and pl. 27, 1.
  • Athens, Athens, Acr. 885, fragment of a late bf. vase. Graef pl. 54.
  • Athens, Vlasto collection, rf. stamnos by the Tyszkiewicz Painter (ARV. p. 186 no. 19). On A, Dionysos, dressed in a long chiton and a skin, attacks to right, with a spear in his right hand and a vine-branch in his left; the giant falls; a small panther bites the giant, and a maenad attacks him with a rock; on B, a satyr drives a satyr-biga to right.
  • Orvieto 1044, rf. stamnos by the Painter of the Yale Lekythos (ARV. p. 443, below, no. 1). Mayer Giganten pl. 2; CV. pll. 9-10; phots. Armoni.
  • Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale, rf. cup-skyphos probably by the Painter of Bologna 228 (ARV. p. 337, middle). Fröhner Musée Napoléon pl. 5 = Fröhner Musées de France pl. 6; Feytmans Les Vases grecs de la Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique pll. 25-8.
In four of these vases the satyr-biga is used in the Gigantomachy, but a satyr-biga

1 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 71, lower middle: for the stephane on the Gould vase see Antike Kunst 4 p. 65, right, below.

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