profile foot. The right elbow, with part of the upper arm, is modern. The uppermost hound has his tail between his legs. The right-hand one wears a collar. In earlier pictures Artemis either sets the hounds at Actaeon, or stands by motionless while they do their work. Here she stands by motionless, and a new figure in vase-painting, Lyssa (ΛΥΣΑ), personification of Madness or Rabies, runs forward urging the hounds on. Her lips are parted. She wears a chitoniskos; over it, a coat with long sleeves; over that a pelt, girt; high laced boots. The pelt is covered with an uneven brown wash. The sleeved coat has a black border and a pattern of voided squares. Above the crown of her head, as if growing from it, is the head of a small hound, with alert look and ears pricked up. This is a very unusual feature. Jacobsthal well says that 'hundreds of years before this, Lyssa would have been shown as a hound-headed woman. The classic age avoids the monstrous, or mitigates it. In the Hades of Polygnotos at Delphi, Actaeon, in human form, sits on a stag's pelt and holds a young stag in his hand; Callisto, the she-bear, only sits on a bearskin; and Eurynomos, once a bird-headed demon, rests on a vulture-skin — as Cecrops, once snake-footed, has a snake beside him in the West Pediment of the Parthenon.' The analogy would be exact, if Lyssa's hound-head were part of a stephane: but there is no indication of this, it seems to grow from the head itself. The lower part of the hair, with neck and shoulder, is modern: and it might perhaps be thought that what remains was part of a complete animal sitting on Lyssa's shoulder: but it is not likely: we are familiar with photographs of the successful novelist, beret on head, pipe in face, cat on shoulder: but I do not remember anything like it in antiquity.1 The only parallels I can remember to this hound-head are on two black-figured vases: a cup in Naples, described above (ii p. 57), and a small handleless mastoid in the Museo Artistico Industriale in Rome, published by Mercklin in RM. 38-9 p. 82 (part, clearer, Mouseion 33-4 p. 115, above, left). The style of the mastoid recalls the neck-amphorae signed Nikosthenes. A chorus of eight naked youths, in Indian file, dance, accompanied by a flute-player. Each of the five foremost has on his head a second human head, small, beardless. The relation between the two heads is the same as in the Boston vase: there is no sign of attachment. The small head on these vases seems to be not so much a mask as a sort of token disguise; and so it may be in the figure of Lyssa on the Boston vase, where it may have been borrowed, without much excuse, from the stage.23 The right knee and part of the chiton above it are modern. Lyssa appears in the Herakles of Euripides, and appeared earlier in the Xantriai of Aeschylus (fr. 169 Nauck); whether also in Aeschylus' play about Actaeon, the Toxotides, we should be glad to know. In Virgil, Allecto maddens the hounds of Ascanius: 'hic subitam canibus rabiem Cocytia virgo obicit' (Aen. 7, 479). The form of the name on our vase, Lyssa for the Attic Lytta, is probably due to the influence of poetry.4 The single sigma for the double is common. The winged woman who stands beside Actaeon on a later vase, an Apulian Panathenaic amphora (of A.P. style) in Berlin (Berlin 3239: Gerhard Ap. Vb. pl. 6, whence El. pl. 103; Jacobsthal Akt. p. 12), is not inscribed, but may be Lyssa. It is not clear to me why the painter has clothed Lyssa in a sleeved coat, the Persian kandys. It is worn by Amazons as part of their Oriental costume; and from the later part
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1 (From Addenda to Part II) P. 84, line 21. See, however, Winter Die Typen der figürlichen Terrakotten i p. 213, 6.
2 A somewhat similar device appears on a small black-figured neck-amphora, with double handles, in Naples, by the Diosphos Painter. On A, a man pursues a woman; on B, two women flee. All three women have small birds on their heads. On A, Tereus and Procne? On B, Procne (again) and Philomele? In any case the birds would seem to indicate metamorphoses.At the last moment I can add a red-figured parallel. On a cup by the Stieglitz Painter in the Louvre one of the pictures outside shows a youth or man (the head is missing), with a drawn sword, pursuing a woman who flees; another woman also flees, preceding her; but their escape is as it were cut off by a man with a sword; at the other end of the picture two men or youths make off, one dressed in a himation, the other wearing a chitoniskos like the attackers and holding a pair of spears; the upper halves of these two are missing. Above — behind — the crown of the chief woman's head one sees, tiny, the upper part of an animal's head, frontal: it might be either feline ('panther') or canine. It is hard to say what the subject is: not Peleus and Thetis, since the attacker has a companion if not two; I thought of Perseus pursuing the maenads, but am uncertain.
3 (From Addenda to Part II) P. 84, note 1. Another explanation of the Naples cup is given by Latte in Festschrift zur Feier des zweihundertjährigen Bestehen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen ii pp. 67-74.Tereus pursues Procne and Philomele (who have small birds on their heads) on the early classic column-krater which contains the ashes of Luigi Pirandello at Agrigento. I owe photographs to the kindness of Mrs. Paola Zancani Montuoro; the birds are not visible in the small photograph published by Griffo, Il Museo Civico di Agrigento p. 29, 1.