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In the early representations, and even as late as the Cerberus Painter, the figure of Cassandra is very small. By this the artist wishes to indicate that the statue of Athena is very large.1 He uses two scales: one for the image and Cassandra, the other for Ajax. Similarly, even at the very end of the archaic period, the Foundry Painter, on his name-piece in Berlin, uses two scales: one for the colossal statue and the two workmen who are giving it the final touches; the other for the two men in authority who are looking on.2

The Cassandra of our vase is a big woman, stark, and by archaic standards lanky: a contrast to the taut Cassandra of the Kleophrades Painter, and sister to the Amazon of the Penthesilea Painter on his contemporary name-piece in Munich (Munich 2688).

Aeneas carrying his father is quite a popular subject with Attic black-figure vase-painters from the third quarter of the sixth century onwards, but the red-figure examples are few, and ours is one of the latest;3 hardly later, if at all, is the Aeneas and Anchises, ill preserved, on a calyx-krater, already mentioned, by the Niobid Painter, a younger companion of the Altamura.4 The archaic pictures culminate, for us, on the Vivenzio hydria, where the group, like all on that vase, is original and masterly. The white lekythos by the Brygos Painter in Gela, contemporary with the Vivenzio hydria, has Aeneas and Anchises, but Aeneas leads his father instead of carrying or hoisting him.5

In some pictures of Aeneas and Anchises, it might be questioned whether the woman accompanying the pair was the wife of the hero, or Aphrodite: here there can be no doubt.6

The Altamura Painter is not a subtle artist, but in his best works, of which this is one, he achieves a certain grandeur.


MFA, Annual Report, 1959, pp. 9-10, 22 (illus.), 27; A. Boëthius, in A. Boëthius, et al., 1960, San Giovenale: Etruskerna landet och folket, Malmö: Allhems Förlag, pp. 52 (fig. 35), 80; K. Schauenburg, Gymnasium 67, 3 (1960), pp. 181-182; Brommer 1960, pp. 274 (no. B 5), 283 (no. B 14), 286 (no. B 9), 332 (no. B 13); Palmer 1962, pp. 95-96, fig. 83; E. T. Vermeule, AJA 67 (1963, pp. 218-219; Chase & Vermeule 1963, pp. 92-93, 96, 111, figs. 91-92; Scherer 1963, p. 123, pl. 100; A. Greifenhagen, 1963, 118 BWPr, pp. 10, 28, note 12; MFA, Illustrated Handbook, 1964, pp. 64-65, illus.; K. Schauenburg, RM 71 (1964), pp. 62-63 (as 59.176), pl. 5; E. Vermeule 1965, figs. 39, 41; A. Alföldi, 1965, Early Rome and the Latins, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, p. 283, pl. 23; Schefold 1967a, pp. 224-225 (as 59.176), pl. 218; Schefold 1967b, pp. 21, 58, 63, 67, 246, Appendix pls. 13, 15; W. Fuchs, AJA 72 (1968), p. 384; Schettino Nobile 1969, pp. 52-53; P. T. Rathbone, Apollo (Magazine), Jan. 1970, p. 57, fig. 3; Whitehill 1970, pp. 663-664, illus.; Para., p. 394, no. 11 (as 59.176); The Rathbone Years: Masterpieces acquired for the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1955-1972 and for the St. Louis Art Museum, 1940-1955, Boston (1972), p. 38, no. 23, color illus.; Isler & Seiterle 1973, p. 104, note 63 (M. Schmidt); Brommer 1973, pp. 333 (no. B 7), 389 (no. B 5), 394 (no. B 9), 467 (no. B 15), all listed as 59.176, and p. 384, no. B 14 (as 59.17 b); W. Fuchs, 1973, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, I, 4, New York, De Gruyter, pp. 617 (note 8), 619-620, fig. 3; M. True, C. Vermeule, BMFA 72 (1974), p. 120, under no. 2, fig. 2a; MFA, Illustrated Handbook, 1976, pp. 96-97, illus.; K. Schefold, AntK 19 (1976), p. 75; K. Schauenburg, Rivista di Archeologia 1 (1977), p. 18, note 25; C. Vermeule, 1980, Greek Art: Socrates to Sulla, from the Peloponnesian Wars to the rise of Julius Caesar, Boston, Dept. of Classical Art, Museum of Fine Arts, p. 4, note; M. Reho-Bumbalova, BABesch 56 (1981), p. 153; LIMC, I, 1, pp. 344 (no. 60), 350-351, I, 2, pl. 263, illus. (O. Touchefeu); LIMC, I, 1, p. 388, no. 90 (F. Canciani); M. I. Davies, in ibid., p. 814, no. 17 (all entries as 59.176); Beazley Addenda 1, p. 129 (as 59.176); LIMC, II, 1, p. 967, no. 87 (as 59.176) (P. Demargne); LIMC, II, 1, pp. 933 (no. 24), 936-937, II, 2, pl. 685, illus. (O. Touchefeu); Brijder 1984, pp. 258-259, figs. 5-6 (as 59.176) (E. C. Keuls); H. Rühfel, 1984, Das Kind in der griechischen Kunst: von der minoisch-mykenischen Zeit bis zum Hellenismus, Mainz am Rhein: P. von Zabern, pp. 56-58, fig. 22; Keuls 1985, pp. 400-401 (figs. 338-339), 442 (as 59.176); E. Brümmer, JdI 100 (1985), pp. 34 (note 187, as 59.176), 82 (note 354); W. Schürmann, 1985, Typologie und Bedeutung der Stadtrömischen Minerva-Kultbilder, Roma: G. Bretschneider, pp. 21, 112, notes 419, 423 (both as 59.176); S. B. Matheson, in Greek Vases in The J. Paul Getty Museum, 3 (1986), p. 105 (as 59.176); Enthousiasmos 1986, p. 138, note 24 (L. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford); E. Jarva, ActaArch 57 (1986), p. 24, no. 83 (as 59.176); Christiansen & Melander 1987, pp. 120-121, fig. 2 (H. Cassimatis); Schefold & Jung 1989, pp. 288-289, 397, note 631 (as 59.176); Beazley Addenda 2, p. 264; E. D. Serbeti, Boreas 12 (1989), p. 32, note 87 (as 59.176); Frank 1990, pp. 195 (no. 82 as 59.176), 197, 202-203, 205-206, 221, 229.

160. 20.187 PELIKE PLATE XCVI, 1-3

Height 0.2545, diameter 0.179, with the handles 0.181. From the Hamilton and Hope collections. A, Tischbein 4 pl. 21, whence El. 1 pl. 94 (whence Roscher s.v. Nike p. 1326 and Studniczka Die Siegesgöttin fig. 45) and Inghirami pl. 164: A, MFA. Bull. 18 p. 23 (Caskey); A, Tillyard pl. 14, whence (redrawn) Janssen Het antieke Tropaion p. 63; the shape, Caskey G. p. 90. A, Nike erecting a trophy; B, youth. About 450-440 B.C., by the Trophy Painter, his name-piece (VA. p. 161; Att. V. p. 365 no. 2; ARV.1 p. 718 no. 2; ARV.2 p. 857 no. 2).

On the front of the vase, Nike is preparing a trophy. The tree-stump has already been dressed with a chitoniskos, a leather corslet, and a Corinthian helmet; a sword has been slung round the corslet, and the spear has been temporarily fixed, one is not shown how, with point downward; the shield, charged with an eye, still leans against the trunk. The rectangles to right of the shoulder-piece must be the cross-piece of the stump. Nike is boring a hole in the stump, with an auger or the like, preparatory to fastening the helmet on with a nail. She wears a peplos with a long apoptygma, overgirt. The skirt clings rather close to the legs, with a 'hobble' look, as if it were tucked into the girdle, on the off side, against flapping during the work. Many of the folds were drawn in thin brown lines before the relief-lines were applied. The coverts have brown details, and the helmet is scumbled with brown. The contours are in relief-lines. Red or white for the cord passing thrice round the hair.

On the back of the vase, a youth in a himation, with a stick, watches the scene. No relief-contours. The edge of the himation is brown. Red or white for the thin head-fillet.


1 For other explanations, incorrect to my mind, see Davreux pp. 142-3.

2 Berlin 2294: FR. pl. 135; CV. pll. 72-3, pl. 76, 4, pl. 126, 5; ARV.1 p. 263 no. 1; ARV.2 pp. 400-1 no. 1.

3 A full list of representations is given by Schauenburg in Gymnasium 67, 176-91. Add the earliest, on a fragment of an amphora by Exekias, from Locri, in Reggio.

4 Ferrara T. 936: see iii p. 63 footnote 4 (in vase description for Boston 59.178); the Anchises group (restored in the illustration), Spinazzola Pompei i p. 155 fig. 191; (without restoration) Gymnasium 67 pl. 17, 1.

5 Vivenzio hydria: see iii p. 63 footnote 1 (in vase description for Boston 59.178). The Gela lekythos, Benndorf pl. 46, 1: ARV.2 p. 385 no. 223. The other rf. examples: cup in the Vatican (Mus. Greg. ii pl. 85, 2; Gymnasium 67 pl. 17, 2: ARV.1 p. 31, middle); cup-fragments in Florence, see CF. p. 19 on pl. 12, B 1-2.

6 Another vase where the woman is certainly the wife of Aeneas is the Etruscan amphora of the Praxias Group in Munich (Munich 3185: Gerhard pl. 217: Jb. 43 p. 345 fig. 13-14: EVP. p. 195 no. 3).

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