The Dated Reliefs
The collection of tribute IG I3 68 Athens, EM 6595 426/25 Plate 1
Thirteen fragments, ten found on Akropolis and South
Slope. Twelve fragments now EM 6595
and set in relative
positions in plaster reconstruction (photo, AJP
pl. 2): I (a + b, c), II (d, e + f + m), III (g + i + j + l, h).
Position of fragment K (EM 2494
) uncertain. Both edges
preserved. Fragment I b preserves part of left edge of relief
and inscription, otherwise broken all around. Relief separated from inscription by taenia and cyma reversa. Moulding and inscription extend 0.115 beyond edge of relief. Surface battered, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. Restored minimum dimensions of stele without relief:
h. 1.40, w. 0.592, th. 0.163. Relief: p.h. 0.13, p.w. 0.195, th.
0.115, relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.009.
The stele records two decrees containing a number of
provisions for the collection and enforcement of the
tribute, with emphasis upon the personal responsibility of the local tribute collectors. It is assumed that these decrees are the result of provisions made in the second Methone decree (no. 2, lines 51-56), which is dated to the first prytany of 426/25. The stele was to have been set up on the Akropolis while Kekropis was in prytany (lines 24-25); Kekropis held the second prytany in 426/25 (IG I3 369
, line 6).
All that remains of the relief is a small fragment of
the lower left corner depicting containers, which must
represent the collected tribute. Standing at the left is
a hydria and above and behind it perhaps another.
Pots were convenient storage containers for coins;
the accounts of the treasury at Delos list stamnoi
containing money (F. Durrbach, Inscriptions de Délos,
comptes des Hiéropes
 no. 399 and 63), and
72  356-62) has argued that
the tribute collected at the time of the City Dionysia
was displayed, one talent per hydria, in the theatre
(see also Isok. 8.82
). Next to the pots are a number of
bulging sacks tied at the top, which resemble those
on the nearly contemporary frieze of the Ilissos Temple (NM 1780
: C. Picon, AJA
82  51, fig. 1) and
must also represent tribute. There may originally have
been at least one figure, perhaps Athena, in the missing part of the relief.
K. S. Pittakys, L'ancienne Athènes
(1835) 315-16; ArchEph
(1838) 134 no. 85, fig. 85 (drwg.); ArchEph
(1939) 180 no.
163; Rangabé I, 347 nos. 263, 264; 351-52 no. 269; 361 no.
283; Pittakys, ArchEph
(1855) 1319 no. 2652; ArchEph
1432 no. 2911; ArchEph
(1860) 1961 no. 3809, 1964 no.
I 38; IG
I Suppl. I, 25 no. 116m; H. Lolling,
(1889) 52 no. 4; IG
I Suppl. III, 141 no. 39a; W.
27 (1902) 301-2; A. Wilhelm, AnzWien
53-56, pl. opp. 54; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl
14 (1911) 59; IG
I2 65; Binneboeßel, 3 no. 4, 27-28; A. Hess, Klio
28 (1935) 27, pl. I; B. D. Meritt, Documents on Athenian Tribute
(1937) 3-42, figs. 1-7; ATL
I, 123-26, 166-67 D8, 213, figs.
178-84; A. E. Raubitschek, AJP
61 (1940) 475-77; TAPA
72 (1941) 356-62; P. Jacobsthal, AJA
47 (1943) 308; ATL
II, 52-58; SEG
III, 133; SEG
13.10; N. Platon,
19 B.I (1964) 22, pl. II; B. Meritt, AJP
29-32, pls. I, 2 SEG
23.18; Meiggs and Lewis, 184-88 no.
25.29; Meyer, 265 A 3.
Athens and Methone IG I3 61 Athens, EM 6596 424/23 Plate 1
Found in Theatre of Dionysos. Upper part of relief and
bottom of inscription broken, edges badly chipped. Surface
very worn, corroded, with several vertical cracks. Grey-white, medium-grained marble. p.h. of stele 1.00, p.w. of
stele 0.53 (top), 0.55 (bottom), th. 0.11, p.h. of relief 0.21,
relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.015 (lines 1-2), 0.01 (lines
The stele recorded at least four decrees concerning
Methone, an Eretrian colony on the Thermaic gulf,
probably a tributary ally of the Athenian empire by
this time, and favoured by Athens for its strategic
position in an area of Macedonian influence. Only
the first two decrees, setting forth financial and trading privileges and warning Perdikkas of Macedon of Athenian support for Methone, are well-preserved.
The decrees were not passed in the same year, and the
date of the first (between 430 and 426) in particular
is problematic, but the stele itself was carved in the
eighth prytany of 424/23, when Phainippos was secretary of Akamantis (Thuc. 4.118.11). He is named at the top of the inscription (line 2), in addition to the
secretaries of the first three decrees, and so must have
been the secretary of the last decree, which is lost
The relief depicts Athena seated on a rock at the
far right, facing another figure in the centre of the
relief. She extends her right hand toward the somewhat smaller figure and rests her left elbow on part of
the rock (or once-painted shield?) behind her. She
wears a sleeved chiton, a mantle wrapped around her
lower body, and an aegis, its small gorgoneion barely
visible. Her head is almost entirely broken away. The
seated Athena is a popular type in late fifth- and early
fourth-century document reliefs (see nos. 11, 71, 72,
87, 90, 91). The other figure, whose upper half is
almost completely destroyed, wears a short, belted
chiton and extends her right hand toward Athena;
she is accompanied on the left by a dog, and there are
further unidentifiable traces of relief on the far left.
The dress of the figure, the dog, and the probability
of the figure's dexiosis with Athena make Artemis, a
major Eretrian deity, a likely symbol of her colony;
cf. NM 1783 B
, a late fifth-century votive relief dedicated to Hermes and the Nymphs with a similar figure of Artemis wearing a short chiton (Svoronos, pl. 28; Mitropoulou, Corpus
I, fig. 186). The disparity in the
scale of the two figures, which has sometimes been
cited as an objection to this identification, is no more
than the conventional difference in size between standing and seated figures grouped together. The relief is very worn, but Athena's position and the prominent modelling lines across her legs bring to mind the
drapery of the seated Athena of the east frieze of the
31 , pl. 77b, fig. 6;
Ridgway, fig. 50).
(1838) 96-98 no. 45, fig. 45 (drwg.) opp.
p. 114; Rangabé I, 313-28 no. 250, pl. 7 (drwg.); Müller
and Schöll, 53-58 no. 31, 76, 82; Schöne, 24-25 no. 50, pl.
8 (drwg.); A. Dumont, Monuments Grecs
1 (1873) 37-38;
I 40; Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 563, 566; P. Gardner, JHS
9 (1888) 54-55; Le Bas, pl. 34 (drwg.); Farnell I, 351; Kern,
xi no. 15, pl. 15; Matz, 55; SIG
3 75; Walter, Beschreibung
, 20; IG
12 57, Add. p. 302; Kjellberg, 139; W. R. Halliday, The Greek Questions of Plutarch
(1928) 64-65; Diepolder,
18; Binneboeßel, 3 no. 3, 20, 25-29, 36, 52; H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 90; Svoronos, 664 no. 428, pl. 205.1; Walter, ÖJh
30 (1937) 53-54; ATL
I, 120, 162-63, 209, 212 D3-6; Picard
II.2, 838; Tod I, 129-32 no. 61; ATL II, 48-49, pl. 1; ATL
III, 133-37; SEG
10.66; Lippold, 198 n. 6; SEG
Meiggs and Lewis, 176-80 no. 65; SEG
I, 172 no. 5, fig. 77; SEG
32.8; Meyer, 265 A , pl. 4.1; SEG
Rheitos bridge decree IG I3 79 Eleusis, Archaeological Museum E 958 422/21 Plate 2
Found in fortification wall near Greater Propylaia in Eleusis
in 1887. Back and top rough-picked, sides smooth, bottom
broken. Badly chipped taenia and cyma reversa above. Relief
bordered below by taenia with first line of inscription and
cyma reversa, together 0.09 wide. Surface uniformly weathered, with corrosion and red-brown iron stains. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. of stele 0.90, w. 0.53 (relief
and inscription), 0.57 (top moulding), th. 0.10 (relief), 0.12
(inscription), relief h. 0.02, h. of letters 0.018.
The decree, dated to the first prytany of 422/21 by its
secretary Prepis (lines 1-4), provides for the construction of a stone footbridge over one of the Rheitoi, the
pair of lakes that stood at the border between Athens
and Eleusis, to be constructed from blocks taken from
the demolished Archaic Telesterion at Eleusis. The
bridge formed part of the Sacred Way taken by Athenians going to Eleusis for initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries.
The relief depicts Demeter, Kore, a young male
probably to be identified as Triptolemos, and Athena,
all standing on a ground line slightly raised above the
moulding. Athena stands on the right. She wears a
belted peplos, shoulder mantle, aegis with gorgoneion,
and an Attic helmet. Her left arm is raised high to
hold her spear, which was originally shown in paint.
She looks toward the smaller male figure, who wears
a himation. His left hand is raised with the fingers
turned inward as though holding a slender object.
His right hand crosses Athena's right hand but probably does not grasp it; the angle of their arms seems too low, the gesture too inconsequential for dexiosis. In age and gesture the youth resembles the male figure
in the Great Eleusinian Relief (NM 126
: L. Schneider,
12 (1973) 103-22, pls. 31-41) and like him is
often identified as Triptolemos holding once-painted
stalks of grain. Triptolemos often appears with
Demeter and Kore in votive reliefs of this period and
is therefore a likely representative of their cult. Although he is almost always shown in his chariot (cf. no. 161), the stalks of grain would have been sufficient to identify him.
Further left stand Demeter and Kore, to whom the
Rheitoi were said to be sacred (Paus. 1.38.1
). Kore carries one torch cradled in her
left arm and a second torch held upside down in her
extended right hand. She wears a peplos and a
himation. Demeter wears a belted peplos with
unbelted overfall and a shoulder mantle, one end of
which she holds up in her left hand. Figures very
similar to these appear in contemporary votive reliefs
(cf. the figures identified by inscription on a relief in
the Catania Mus. Communale: Neumann, Weihreliefs
pl. 32a) and may have been inspired by the figures of
Demeter and Kore on the east frieze of the Nike
Temple (Blümel, pl. 7, figs. 20, 21); cf. also no. 165.
The style of the document relief is also closely comparable to that of the frieze; figures in both relief and frieze have the same clear distinction between the weight leg obscured by heavy folds and the free leg
revealed by clinging cloth.
D. Philios, AM
19 (1894) 163-73, pl. 7; M. Ruhland,
(1901) 19-27, 40, pl. 2.1 (det.);
Farnell III, 237, pl. 14; Matz, 56; SIG
3 86; IG I2 81
and Add. p. 302; Kjellberg, 87, 89, 93, 120, 132-33, 137, 140,
144, pl. 12 no. 39; A. Hekler, JdI
42 (1927) 70-73, Beil. 2
to p. 71; Diepolder, 21; Binneboeßel, 4 no. 5, 20, 23, 28-31,
33-34, 37-38, 50; F. Poulsen, ActaA
3 (1932) 242-46, fig.
10; H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 24-25, 90, pls. 8.1, 8.2 (dets.),
9.1; V. Müller, AJA
39 (1935) 250; K. Kourouniotes, Eleusis,
Guide to the Excavations and Museum
(1936) 85-86, frontispiece; Curtius, Antike Kunst
, 237, 265, 315, 324, 428, fig.
410; Süsserott, 19 n. 27, 27 n. 5, 29, 32 n. 20, 33-34, 37 n.
33, 38 n. 39, 39, 45 n. 63, 54, 94-95, 130, 197 n. 4, 216;
Picard II.2, 838; SEG
10.94; Lippold, 198 n. 6, pl. 73.3;
Dohrn, 17, 21, 24, 26-29, 41; Hausmann, 41-42, pl. 20; G.
Mylonas, Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries
(1961) 84 n.
17, 193-94, fig. 69; F. Eckstein, AntP
4 (1965) 31, figs. 3-6 (casts); E. Berger, AntK
10 (1967) 85, pl. 24.2 (det.); B. D.
Meritt and M. F. McGregor, Phoenix
21 (1967) 85-91;
Schefold, Classical Greece
, 111, 151, 158-59, 248 no. 30,
app. pl. 30; Guarducci, 592-93, fig. 185; G. M. A. Richter,
Sculptors and Sculpture of the Greeks
4 (1970) 69, 255;
Schmaltz, 22 n. 26, 23, 43; Hiller, 21-23, 27, 49, 54, 56, 62,
fig. 23 (det.); Rauscher, 149-50; A. Peschlow-Bindokat, JdI
87 (1972) 112-13, 130-34, 150, fig. 34; Mitropoulou, Corpus I
, 172-73 no. 9, fig. 83; K. Kanta, Eleusis: Myth, Mysteries, History, Museum
(1979) 47 no. 5093, fig. 10; Neumann, Weihreliefs
, 57; T. L. Shear, Jr., Studies in Athenian Architecture, Sculpture and Topography presented to
Homer A. Thompson, Hesperia
, Suppl. 20 (1982) 130-31,
pl. 18b; LIMC
II, 1013 no. 606, pl. 763, s.v. Athena
(P. Demargne); J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: the Classical
(1985) 186-87, fig. 178; L.J. Roccos, AJA
III, 378-79 no. 42, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); LIMC
IV, 881 no. 446, s.v. Demeter (L. Beschi); Meyer, 266 A 5; SEG
36.13 and 137.
The sanctuary of Kodros, Neleus, and Basile IG I3 84 Athens, EM 10616 418/17 Plate 2
Complete stele found in winter of 1884-85 in house construction some distance south-east of Akropolis on left bank
of railway to Phaleron. All edges, tenon at bottom preserved. Mouldings above and below relief, most of sculpted surface rough-picked. White, medium-grained marble. h. 1.49, h. of relief 0.41, w. of relief 0.59 (top), 0.605 (bottom), w. of inscription 0.59 (top), 0.64 (bottom), th. 0.195 (top),
0.16 (bottom), h. of letters 0.01.
The decree, passed in the ninth prytany of the archonship of Antiphon (lines 2-3), concerns provisions for
enclosing and leasing various parts of the sanctuary
of Kodros, Neleus, and Basile in Athens. The stele
was to have been set up at public expense in the
Neleion, by the ikria (lines 27-28). (For other probable references to this shrine, see Pl. Charmides
and Agora I 4138: B.D. Meritt, Hesperia
7 (1938) 123-26 no. 25.)
Although the entire stele is preserved, the relief has
been systematically rough-picked, probably for reuse
of the stone. Only two small areas of very low relief
survive undamaged, but the general outline of the
original composition is still to some extent visible. At
the left a seated figure faces right, its left arm raised
high as though holding a spear or sceptre. Both that
hand and what appears to have been the crest of the
figure's helmet overlapped the moulding above the
relief. The figure is usually described as bearded, but
this may be only the impression created by damage
to the area around the head. At the right, facing the
figure on the left, is a figure on a rearing horse whose
head and forelegs are clearly visible in outline. The
end of the horse's tail and part of the rider's chlamys
are still preserved in very low relief at the far right.
The chlamys flies out behind the rider in several folds
ending in omega-shaped loops at the hem, a motif
that occurs in some figures of the Nike Temple frieze
(Blümel, pls. V, VI) and on the gently fluttering veil of
Hera on no. 5.
Because so little is known about the cult and the
relationship between Kodros, Neleus, and Basile, and
because both figures are so badly damaged, any reconstruction of the relief must be conjectural. It has
sometimes been assumed that the sanctuary was
chiefly associated with Neleus because the inscription refers variously to the ‘the Neleion’ (lines 27-28), ‘payments to Neleus’ (lines 21-22), and the ‘temenos of Neleus and Basile’ (lines 12, 29, 32), but it is clear from the text as a whole that these are
references only to various parts of the sanctuary and
the provisions for them; Kodros is always mentioned
first in references to the sanctuary as a whole (lines 4,
Neleus is a shadowy figure and difficult to characterize. Most representations of him come from Italy,
where he often appears with his mother Tyro and his
twin Pelias in the recognition scene from Sophokles'
(L. Séchan, Études sur la tragédie grecque dans ses rapports avec la céramique
 224 n. 9), but he
is not depicted as a rider, and these scenes can have
nothing to do with the relief in question. It is unclear
whether in Athens he was equated with the Pylian
Neleus, father of Nestor and ancestor of Kodros, or
with the Neleus who was a son of Kodros and founder
of Ionian cities (Hdt. 10.97). H. A. Shapiro (Ancient
Greek Art and Iconography
) has suggested the possible political significance of the Neleids to their
descendants the Peisistratids in the Archaic period,
but the only Attic representation of Neleus is a late
fifth-century vase fragment of the recognition scene
24  78-79 and pl. 34a).
Basile, sometimes confused with Basileia, is also
obscure; the only fifth-century representation of her
is a labelled figure on a late fifth-century rf pyxis that
has not yet been fully published (O. Alexandri,
31 B.1  30, pl. 35a). She is certainly
also the female figure in the relief of a deme decree of
Eitea of 332/31 (no. 43), which was to have been set
up in a sanctuary of Basile, and she is listed in the
sacrificial calendar of Erkhia of ca. 375-50 (G. Daux,
87  621). There is nothing in these sources
to associate her with either of the figures in the document relief. (The inscription of the so-called Echelos-Basile relief [NM 1783
] clearly reads ‘Iasile’: O. Walter,
 A 113; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
 284-85. For the distinction between Basile and
Basileia, see Shapiro, ZPE
Kodros, in contrast, seems to have been a more
popular figure in fifth-century Athens. He appears
with the Eponymous and Marathonian heroes in
Phidias' Marathon monument at Delphi, probably
dating from the 450s (Paus. 10.10.1
, 215-17; E. B. Harrison, ‘Eponymous
Heroes’, 81-83), and as a fully armed warrior on the
name vase of the Codrus Painter of ca. 430 (Bologna,
Mus. Civ. PU 273
2 1268.1; Kron, Phylenheroen
pls. 15.1, 16.1 and 2). In the late fifth century it is
possible that the importance of Kodros, the Athenian
king who sacrificed himself to the Peloponnesians in
order to save Athens (Lykourg. Leokr
. 84- 87), had
eclipsed that of Basile and Neleus and that, as the
most politically significant of the three cult personages, he would have been the most likely subject for
a type of relief that had largely political associations.
If the rider in the relief is Kodros, the figure opposite
him is as likely to be Athena as either Basile or Neleus.
She is present in most fifth-century document reliefs,
and the general outline of the figure on the left resembles that of the seated Athenas that were so common in document reliefs of the late fifth and early
fourth centuries (cf. nos. 2, 11, 71, 72, 87, 90, 91).
S. A. Koumanoudes, ArchEph
(1884) 161-66, pl. 10 (drwg.);
A. Frothingham, AJA
1 (1885) 228, 469; E. Curtius, SBBerl
(1885) 437 = Gesammelte Abhandlungen
I (1894) 459-64;
J. R. Wheeler, AJA
3 (1887) 38-49; IG
I Suppl. pp. 66-67
no. 53a, 165; IG I2 94
, Add. p. 302; SIG
3 93; Binneboeßel,
4 no. 8, 20, 23, 32, 43; B. D. Meritt, AJP
57 (1936) 180-82;
O. Walter, ArchEph
(1937) A 114 n. 1; M. Giffler, Hermes
75 (1940) 215-22; Meritt, CQ
40 (1946) 45-46; SEG
Dohrn, 17; R. E. Wycherley, BSA
55 (1960) 60-66; SEG
19.18; Sokolowiki, Lois sacrées des cités grecques
(1969) 28-30 no. 14; D. Behrend, Attische Pachturkunden
(1970) 55-61; A. Kaloyeropoulou, ArchDelt
25 A (1970) 209 n. 14;
Travlos, 332-35, figs. 435, 436; SEG
, 173 no. 10, fig. 84; H.A. Shapiro, in W. Moon
(ed.), Ancient Greek Art and Iconography
35.7 and 110; Shapiro, ZPE
63 (1986) 134-36; LIMC
III, 674-75, s.v. Echelos (A. Kossatz-Deissmann);
36.15 and 38; N. D. Robertson, GRBS
29 (1988) 224-30; Meyer, 267 A 7, pl. 6.1; SEG
Athens and Argos
IG 13 86 Athens, AM 2980
+ 2431 + 2981 + EM 6588a 417/16 Plate 3
Ten fragments, all but g (found in 1937 in Agora section R
19) from Akropolis: a + b (EM 6588a + d
), c + d + g (EM
6588 + EM 6588e
+ Agora I 5026
), e (EM 6588g
), f (EM
), relief (AM 0980 + 2431 + 2981
). EM 6588a
small section of relief joining AM fragments. Left edge and
top preserved, back rough-picked. Relief broken at upper
left corner and right side. Upper moulding 0.07 wide, badly
chipped. Relief separated from inscription by taenia bearing first line of inscription and ovolo, together 0.095 wide.
Two modern dowel holes in bottom of relief: one trefoil-shaped, 0.04 diam., 0.14 from left edge; the other round,
0.035 diam., 0.04 from vertical break along second figure
from left. Much of surface flaked, corroded. Relief background has conspicuous tool marks, with surface smoothed
only around contours of figures. White, medium-grained
marble. AM fragments: p.h. 0.62, p.w. 0.70, th. 0.155, relief
h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.015 (line 1), 0.01 (lines 2 ff.).
Argos, with its long history of anti-Spartan sentiment,
was an important ally for Athens at this point in the
Peloponnesian War. The decree is a renewal of an
alliance of 420 between Athens and Argos, resumed
after the brief period of oligarchic control in Argos
that followed the Spartan victory in the Battle of
Mantineia (Thuc. 5.40-47, 82). It is securely dated to
the prytany of Aiantis in the archonship of Euphemos
(lines 2-3), which Meritt has shown to have been the
spring of 417/16 (Hesperia
14  125).
The relief depicts Hera, the pre-eminent deity of
Argos, with her consort Zeus looking on (cf. nos. 24,
96, probably no. 41) as she clasps the right hand of
another figure, undoubtedly Athena, on the right.
Hera stands in the centre of the relief and faces right.
Her fluttering veil is caught up daintily with the thumb
and forefinger of her left hand in the gesture of unveiling characteristic of Hera as bride of Zeus. The
animated drapery with the omega-shaped fold at the
end occurs on the contemporary decree concerning
the sanctuary of Kodros, Neleus, and Basile (no. 4)
and on the Nike Temple frieze (Blümel, pls. V, VI).
All that remains of Athena are the outline of her extended hand and the damaged profile of her face. Zeus
is seated at the far left; the eagle at his side and the
front leg of his throne are preserved on the small
fragment of relief on EM 6588. He leans back in his
seat, draping his right arm over the back of it, and
raises his left arm high in front of him to hold his
sceptre, which was shown in paint. Walbank has suggested that this inscription and the honorary decree for Proxenides of Knidos (no. 68) were carved by the
same mason, but the reliefs do not appear to be by
the same hand.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1840) 305 no. 364, fig. 364 (drwg.);
Rangabé I, 334-36 no. 256, 352 no. 270, 360 no. 280;
(1853) 1038 no. 1951; ArchEph
1124-25 no. 2160; IG
I 50; Sybel, 442 no. 7137; A. Wilhelm,
1 (1898) 43; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl
14 (1911) 59;
18 (1915) 87-90, fig. 33; Beschreibung
, 1-3 no. 2,
fig. 2; IG I2 96
and Add. p. 302; Kjellberg, 136, 137, 139; F.
24 (1929) 12 1-22; J. Geerlings, CP
239-44; W. Kolbe, CP
25 (1930) 105-16; B. D. Meritt, CP
26 (193 1) 70-84; Binneboeßel, 4-5 no. 9, 20, 32-33, 36, 37;
F. Poulsen, ActaA
3 (1932) 246-47; H. Speier, RM
90; V. Müller, AJA
39 (193 5) 250; Svoronos, 664 no. 431
(1), pl. 207.1 (frag. c); Süsserott, 34 n. 25; Picard II.2, 838;
14 (1945) 122-27; SEG
198 n. 6; S. Charitonides, ArchEph
(1957) 86-87; Dohrn,
24; Bengtson, 134-36 no. 196; SEG
21.49; Schmaltz, 23 n.
28, 43 n. 58; Mitropoulou, Corpus I
, 173 no. 11, fig. 125;
Walbank, 348; LIMC
IV, 691 no. 294, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 267 A 8, pl. 3.
Repayments to Athena IG I3 99 Athens, EM 6605 410/9 Plate 4
Found on Akropolis in 1864. Left edge of relief and inscription preserved. Taenia with first two lines of inscription and ovolo below relief. Inscribed surface battered but not worn, relief severely damaged. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.37, p.h. of relief 0.08, p.w. 0.33, th. 0.085,
relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.015 (lines 1-2), 0.018 (lines 3-7), 0.009 (lines 8ff.).
The inscription concerns the repayment of money
borrowed from the treasury of Athena in the course
of the Peloponnesian War and the creation of a reserve fund on the Akropolis. It was passed in the third prytany of the archon [Glauk]ippos of 410/9
The relief is almost completely destroyed. At the
far left are the feet of a figure wearing a long garment.
The figure is turned toward the right, shifting its
weight on to the left foot and extending the right foot
to the side. Further right are the feet of another figure
also turned toward the right. There is space for at
least one more figure in the restored width of the
stele. Athena would almost certainly have been one
of the figures in the relief, and Erechtheus, who appears on other documents concerning Athena's treasury (nos. 8, 14, 20), would also be appropriate.
22 (1864) 298; IG
I 58; A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 566 n. 8; IG I2 109
; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 16, 20, 40; W. S. Ferguson, Treasurers
, 34; ATL
I, 126, 168, 213-14 D
9, figs. 187, 188; SEG
10.122; W. E. Thompson, ClMed
(1967) 228-29; Meyer, 269 A 14.
Athens and Thracian Neapolis IG I3 101
Athens, EM 6598 410/9 Plate 4
Nine fragments, all from Akropolis and South Slope: EM
, eight fragments reconstructed in BSA
46 (1951) pl.
23, and EM 6589, location in text uncertain. Left edge of
inscription, right edge of relief preserved, back rough-picked.
Three fragments preserve parts of relief; two join and constitute right half of relief, the third joins left side of inscription. Surface battered. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. of restored stele 1.36, p.h. of relief 0.345, w. 0.58, th. 0.065, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.025 (lines 2-3), 0.01 (lines 4-38), 0.007 (lines 39 ff.).
The stele records two decrees concerning Athens and
Thracian Neapolis, a strategically important ally who
in this period remained loyal to Athens in her struggles with Neapolis' mother city Thasos. The first
decree (lines 4-46), passed in the sixth prytany of the
archonship of [Gl]aukippos and therefore in the winter of 410/9 (lines 4-6), honoured the people of
Neapolis for supporting Athens in its battle with
Thasos, which had been in revolt after the Sicilian
expedition (Thuc. 8.64). Two copies of this decree
were to have been set up at the expense of the Neapolitans, one apparently on the Akropolis and the
other in Neapolis in the sanctuary of the Parthenos
(lines 42-45). The second decree (lines 48-64), passed
after the recovery of Thasos in 407 (Diod. 13.72
Xen. Hell. 1.4.9
), praises Neapolis for its continued
loyalty. Both the second decree and a line recording
an expenditure late in 410/9 (line 47) were carved by
different hands and must therefore be later additions
to the stone. The stele was originally carved and set
up in the sixth prytany of 410/9.
On the right side of the relief stands an Athena of
the angelehnte type (cf. nos. 65, 76, 98) facing left,
leaning on her shield and extending her right hand,
which is broken off at the wrist. On the left side of
the relief stood a figure of whom only the right foot
is preserved. The ball of the foot rests on the ground
and the heel is raised, suggesting that the figure turned
toward Athena and clasped her extended right hand.
The figure is probably the Parthenos of Neapolis,
who is specifically mentioned in the inscription and
who appears on an Athenian decree of 356/55 concerning the same city (no. 28). The elastic pose of Athena's body and the transparency of her drapery
are typical of works ca. 410, but the drapery does not cling like the drapery of the accounts of the treasurers of Athena of 410/9 (no. 8).
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1839) 224 no. 244; Rangabé I,
354-55 no. 273; IG
I 51; F. von Duhn, AZ
(1877) 158 no.
52; S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
5 (1876/77) 86-89
no. 5; A. Milchhüfer, AM
5 (1880) 206 n. 1; Sybel, 288 no.
3997; Studniczka, 11-13, pl. A on p. 12 (drwg.); IG
pp. 15-18; SIG
3 107; Walter, Beschreibung
, 17; IG I2 108
; A. Hekler, JdI
42 (1927) 71, fig. 9; A. Praschniker, Antike Plastik, W. Amelung zum sechzigsten Geburtstag
(1928) 176-81, fig. 5; Diepolder, 21; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 15, 20, 22, 23,
25, 38-41, 43, 50, 57; H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 28, 90; P.
Collart, Philippes, ville de Macédoine, depuis des origines
jusqu'à la fin de l'époque romaine
(1937) 127-30, pl. 22.1;
Svoronos, 663 no. 427, pl. 204; Süsserott, 16, 30 n. 12, 198,
199 n. 11, 200, 201 n. 20; Picard II.2, 838; J. Marcadé, RA
17 (1941) 219; Tod I, 207-10 no. 84; SEG
10.124; B. D.
Meritt and A. Andrewes, BSA
46 (1951) 200-9, pl. 23;
73 (1953) 6-8; Pouilloux, Cultes de Thasos
I, 155-60, pl. 14.1; SEG
12.37; Dohrn, 18, 39; Picard IV.2,
1256 n. 2, fig. 492; Karouzou, 153-59, fig. 8; F. Eckstein,
4 (1965) 31, fig. 7; E. Berger, AntK
10 (1967) 85, pl.
24.4 (det.); Meiggs and Lewis, 271-75 no. 89; Schmaltz, 22
n. 26, 23; Hiller, 54, 63; Bradeen and McGregor, 125-26;
Mitropoulou, Corpus I
, 174 no. 14, fig. 159; Meyer, 269 A
15, pl. 5.2; SEG
36.17 and 44.
Accounts of the treasurers of Athena in 410/9
IG I3 375 Paris, Louvre MA 831 409/8
Entire opisthographic stele found in Athens in 1788, taken
to Paris the next year by the Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier.
Sculpted panel on obverse separated from inscription by
badly chipped moulding. Back of panel smooth, with inscription beginning at level of obverse moulding. Inscription extends 0.08 beyond relief panel on either side. Mouldings, edges, hands, and heads of figures chipped.
Vertical crack runs length of centre of stone. Reportedly
Pentelic marble. h. 1.18, h. of relief 0.56, w. 0.62 (relief),
0.78 (inscription), th. 0.17 (top), 0.173 (bottom), h. of
letters 0.007-0.008 (obverse), 0.005-0.01 (reverse). Not
The stele, often referred to as the Choiseul Marble, is
inscribed on both sides with accounts of the treasurers of Athena. The distribution and interpretation
of the accounts are controversial, but the general
sequence of the work is clear. The accounts on the
obverse are for the year 410/9 and were carved at the
beginning of 409/8. The relief was carved at the same
time. The generally accepted date for the accounts on
the reverse (IG
13 377) is 407/6, but Pritchett has argued that the accounts of 408/7 were also inscribed
there. Because the accounts on the reverse were inscribed by a different mason, they must have been a later addition to the stone.
The relief depicts Athena and a bearded male figure,
probably Erechtheus, standing on either side of a bare
tree that probably once had painted leaves. Athena is
identified only by her characteristic dress, a belted
peplos, and her spear, held in her left hand and resting on her left shoulder. She turns slightly toward the
male figure on the right. He wears a himation and
holds a staff crutch-like under his left arm. He extends his right hand in a gesture of recognition or welcome. Unlike Athena, he is barefoot. This figure
and others like him on later records of the treasurers
of Athena have often been identified as Demos, but
there are no certain examples of the Athenian Demos
in document reliefs until well into the fourth century,
and the figures on the treasurers' documents do not
closely resemble the fourth-century figures, whose
longer hair and fuller beards make them seem considerably older (cf. nos. 38, 49, 54, 149, 167). In general type and stance the figure is very like some of the
eponymous heroes on the east frieze of the Parthenon (figures 18-28 and 43-46: Brommer, 255-56,
pls. 168, 171, 183, 184; Kron, Phylenheroen
pls. 30, 31). E. B. Harrison has identified the only
barefoot hero there as Erechtheus, his bare feet emphasizing his relationship to his mother Ge (‘Eponymous Heroes’, 71, 79). The tree between the two figures in the document relief, so emphasized by the
composition that it is surely Athena's sacred olive
tree , also supports the identification of the figure as
Erechtheus; the tree grew in the shrine shared by
Athena and Erechtheus on the Akropolis (Paus. 1.27.1-2
; for another representation of Erechtheus standing
by a tree, see the fragmentary pelike of ca. 460 by
Hermonax: Agora P 8959
2 486, 34; N. Weill,
86 (1962) 83-85, abb. 12, 13). As the autochthonous king of Athens reared by Athena, Erechtheus would be an especially appropriate guardian of Athena's treasury. On the inventory of the treasurers of
Athena and the Other Gods of 398/97 (no. 14), a similar
figure appears again with Athena, and on the inventory
of the treasurers of Athena of 377/76 (no. 20), Erechtheus may have been shown with his daughters.
The transparent drapery of the relief, particularly
the delicate web of folds rhythmically slung across
Erechtheus' body, is closely related to the style of the
Sandalbinder from the Nike Temple Parapet (Carpenter, pl. XXVII). The opposing bowed curves at Athena's bent knee also occur in the Erechtheion korai (Ridgway, 106-7, fig. 82).
F. de Clarac, Musée de sculpture . . . du Louvre (1841) II.1,
711-13 no. 265, II.2, 857-66 no. 447, Atlas II, pl. 152
(drwg.); Müller and Schöll, 74; W. Fröhner, Les inscriptions
grecques . . . du Louvre
(1865) 90 no. 46, drwg. opp. p. 90;
Schöne, 20; IG
I 188; P. Foucart, BCH
2 (1878) 37-40;
Fröhner, Notice de la sculpture du Louvre
I (1889) 152 no.
124; G. Geffrou, La sculpture au Louvre
(1908) 42, fig. p.
42; M. Bieber, AM
35 (1910) 12, pl. 4.2; Matz, 56 n. 7; SIG
3 109; Catalogue sommaire des marbres antiques du Louvre
(1922) 10 no. 831; IG I2 304
A; Kjellberg, 137; Diepolder, 22-24, fig. 4; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 14, 20, 29-31, 37-39, 41
H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 27-28, 38, 40, 44, 90, pl. 10.3; V.
39 (1935) 251-52, fig. 1; Svoronos, 602-4, fig.
260 (drwg.); Süsserott, 27-37, 40 n. 47, 45-46, 49, 57-59,
94-99, 130-31, 198 n. 10, pl. 1.1; Picard II.2, 838; Tod I,
202-7 no. 83, 224-26 no. 92; SEG
10.232; Alscher III,
19, fig. 70; Dohrn, 18, 30, 32, 35, 39, 56-57, 62, III;
, 92, fig. 68; P. Reuterswänd, Studien
zu Polychromie der Plastik Griechenland und Rom
54, fig. 6; J. Charbonneaux, Sculpture grecque et romaine
au Musée du Louvre
(1963) 124 no. 831, fig. 831; Hamdorf,
94 no. 254(a); B. D. Meritt, TAPA
95 (1964) 204-12; SEG
21.79; Schefold, Classical Greece
, 145, 151, 248 no. 31, app.
pl. 31; SEG
23.36; Fuchs, 521, fig. 608;
Guarducci, 609-10, fig. 202; Meiggi and Lewis, 255 - 58 no.
24.43; W. K. Pritchett, Choiseul Marble
M. A. Richter, Sculptors and Sculpture of the Greeks
69, 255, fig. 323; Schmaltz, 22-23; Hiller, 21, 50, 54, 63, fig.
17 (det.); Robertson, 373, fig. 123a; Kron, Phylenheroen
208-10, 259 E75, pl. 29; Mitropoulou, Corpus I
no. 17, fig. 162; SEG
26.30; Palagia, Euphranor
, 58, 62; SEG
II, 1013 no. 608, pl. 763, s.v. Athena
(P. Demargne); J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: the Classical
(1985) 186-87, fig. 179; LIMC
III, 379 no. 43, s.v.
Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); IV, 941 n. 76, s.v.
Erechtheus (U. Kron); K. Jeppesen, The Theory of the
Alternative Erechtheion, Acta Jutlandica 63: I Humanities
(1987) 45-46, figs. 11-13; Meyer, 270 A 16; SEG
36.28 and 300; SEG
VI, 1089 no. 37, s.v.
Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).
Athens and Kios IG I3 124 Athens, EM 6928 406/5 Plate
Found by the Propylaia in 1837. Right, left edges, and top
preserved, back rough-picked. Taenia with first line of decree and ovolo separate relief from inscription. Upper corners of relief broken, upper moulding badly chipped. Surface uniformly weathered, with crack down centre. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.33, p.h. of relief 0.185, w.
0.245, th. 0.145, relief h. 0.025, h. of letters 0.006 (Kios),
0.013 (lines 1-2), 0.01 (line 3).
Only three lines of the heading of the document are
preserved, but the name Kios inscribed over the head
of the male figure on the relief almost certainly indicates that the inscription concerned Bithynian Kios,
which appears regularly in the Tribute Lists. (Close
examination of the stone reveals no trace of an Ι
in the crack to the left of the Κ
, suggested by Müller, Schöll, and Schöne.) The inscription is securely dated
to the year 406/5 by its eponymous archon, [K]allias
of Angele (line 3). The editors of ATL
it may have been related to the Athenian ambassadors who had been held by the Persians and returned via Kios in that year (Xen. Hell
. 1.4.7; ATL
The relief depicts the dexiosis of Athena and the
bearded figure identified as Kios, probably the companion of Herakles and founder of the city that bears his name (Strab. 12.4.3). Athena, turned in profile view toward the right, wears a peplos, aegis, shoulder
mantle, and Attic helmet, and carries her shield in her
left hand (cf. nos. 14, 69, 83). Kios, an older man
wearing a himation, is depicted in the somewhat
smaller scale often used in document reliefs for heroes and personifications. The figures are stiffer than those of the previous decade, their drapery plain and sober in contrast to the earlier rich transparency.
A. Rangabé, ArchEph
(1837) 52 no. 24, fig. 25 (drwg.);
Müller and Schöll, 61 no. 37, 83-84; Rangabé II, 518-19
no. 835; U. Köhler, Hermes 5 (1871) 16-17; Schöne, 27-28
no. 53, pl. 9 (drwg.); A. Dumont, Monuments Grecs
II 22; Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 563, 567; Sybel, 434
no. 7021; Friederichs and Wolters, 384 no. 1160; Le Bas, pl.
35.2 (drwg.); Matz, 55-56; Walter, Beschreibung
, 1; IG
124; Binneboeßel, 7 no. 19, 20, 23, 43, 47, 57; H. Speier,
47 (1932) 55, 91 Svoronos, 665 no. 435 (2), pl. 210.2
I, 501-02; Süsserott, 28-32, pl. 1.2; SEG
Dohrn, 33-34, 37-38; Hamdorf, 91 no. 216; E. Tsirivakos,
23 A (1968) 75, pl. 34a; Guarducci, 608, fig. 200;
J. Frel, ArchDelt
25 A (1970) 2, Rauscher, 153-54;
Mitropoulou, Corpus I
, 175 no. 18, fig. 175; Zagdoun, FdD
IV.6, 57 n. 2; Meyer, 272 A 22, pl. 8.1; LIMC
VI, 48 no. 1,
s.v. Kios (P. Weiss).
10. Athens honours Epikerdes of Kyrene IG I3 125
Athens, EM 7010 405/4 Plate 6
Three non-joining fragments: a (EM 7010) found east of
Theatre of Dionysos, b (EM 7006) from Akropolis, c (Agora
I 7065) found built into wall north of tracks of electric
railway through Agora (J 5). Right and left edges preserved,
back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by
taenia with first line of decree and ovolo. Surface worn,
corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.35, p.h. of
relief 0.20, p.w. 0.18, th. 0.14, relief h. 0.02, h. of letters
The decree honours Epikerdes of Kyrene for his gifts
to the Athenian people. Demosthenes (20.41-45) cites
Epikerdes as an example of a patriotic benefactor who
came to the aid of Athens in times of need, both after
the Syracusan disaster and in the period before the
rule of the Thirty. This decree may concern the later
gift. It is securely dated to the year 405/4 by its eponymous archon Alexias (lines 5-6).
Epikerdes is the small figure on the left side of the
relief who raises his right hand in the gesture of a
worshipper. The drapery of his himation clearly reveals his body, but the material is more substantial
and less transparent than that of the previous decade.
Epikerdes faces a larger, apparently frontal figure on
the right, probably Athena, who alone bestows honours for Athens in this period. Only a small part of the very regular, tubular folds and zigzag edge of her peplos are preserved. There might have been room
for at least one more figure, perhaps a patron deity or
hero for Epikerdes, to the right.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1853) 902-3 no. 1448; Rangabé II,
158 no. 465; S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
7 (1878/79) 213; Sybel, 307 no. 4251;
II 85; IG
II.5 85; IG II2 174
3.80; Binneboeßel, 5 no. 12, 35-36; Svoronos, 664 no. 430 (2), pl. 206.2; E.
61 (1940) 353-54; SEG
10.115; Dohrn, 18, 39;
24.13; Pečírka, Enktesis, 39-41, pl. 8; B. D. Meritt,
39 (1970) 111-14, pl. 31; Mitropoulou, Corpus I
175 no. 20, fig. 178; Walbank, 488; SEG
33.17; Meyer, 272
A 24, pl. 8.2.
Athens honours [P]oly[p]os IG I3 126 Athens, EM 2552 + 3169 405/4 Plate 6
Three joining fragments: a (EM 2552), found near Tower of
the Winds, + b (EM 3169) + c (EM 2792), provenance unknown. Left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Possible traces of border at lower left corner of relief. Surface somewhat corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.42,
p.h. of relief 0.15, p.w. 0.59, th. 0.13, relief h. 0.01, h. of
letters 0.02 (line 1), 0.016 (lines 2-3), 0.012 (lines 4 ff.).
The inscription, which is securely dated to the year
405/4 by its eponymous archon Alexias (line 1), honours a proxenos whose name is probably to be restored as Polypos Menestheus; Wilhelm first suggested the restoration of the ethnic Gortynios. The inscription was apparently set up on the Akropolis (lines 8-10).
On the right side of the relief is Athena, preserved
only from the thighs down. She is seated on a rock
facing left, with her shield lying on the ground beside
her (cf. nos. 2, 71, 72, 87, 90, 91). In the centre of the
relief are the feet of a smaller figure turned toward
Athena, probably the honorand Polypos accepting
honours from the goddess. On the left is a male figure, preserved only from the knees down, who turns
toward the other figures. He is smaller than Athena
and therefore perhaps a hero of the honorand's home
(cf. no. 72). If Polypos is from Gortyna in Crete or
Gortys in Arkadia, he may be the eponymous hero
Gortys (Paus. 8.53.4
); cf. no. 9, depicting the eponymous hero of Kios.
The drapery of the relief is plain, revealing the body
in broad, uninterrupted expanses and falling away
from it in very regular, tubular folds. The greater
interest in space in the last decade of the century is
evident in the shield at Athena's side, now considerably foreshortened, the motif probably suggested by the similar Athena on the Nike Temple Parapet
(Carpenter, pl. XIX).
Sybel, 299 no. 4050; IG
II 200; Wilhelm, UDA
, 32-33; O.
14 (1911) 59; ÖJhBeibl
18 (1915) 98; IG I2 125
: Binneboeßel, 7 no. 20, 20, 28, 33, 36, 37, 52; Svoronos, 671 no. 456 (2), pl. 227.2; Süsserott, 31 n. 14, 102 n. 54, 216;
10.144; Dohrn, 33; Lambrechts, pl. 2; Schmaltz, 23 n.
28; Bradeen and McGregor, 126; Mitropoulou, Corpus I
175 no. 19, figs. 176, 177; Walbank, 469-74 no. 91, pl. 63;
28.12; Meyer, 272 A 23, pl. 12.1.
Athens and Samos
IG 13 127,
IG II2 I
Athens, AM 1333 403/2 Plate 7
Nearly complete stele consisting of four joining fragments:
fragment a found on Akropolis, b and c found between
Theatre of Dionysos and Odeion of Herodes Atticus, provenance of d unknown. Top and sides preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered by antae supporting taenia and cyma reversa. Ghosts of painted meander visible on taenia. Surface well-preserved, with some corrosion, iron stains. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 1.71, h. of relief 0.50, w. 0.56,
th. 0.12, h. of letters 0.02-0.03 (lines 1-2), 0.013 (lines 3-4), 0.006 (lines 5 ff.).
The stele records three decrees concerning Athens and
her important ally Samos. The first decree (lines 5-40), dated by its eponymous archon Alexias to 405/4, honours the Samians for their loyalty after the Athenian defeat at Aigospotamoi. The second (lines 41-55) and third (lines 56-75), voted two years later in
the archonship of Eukleides, reaffirm privileges, including Athenian citizenship for the loyal Samians,
granted in the first decree. The third also specifically
honours the Samian Poses and his sons. The heading
of the stele (lines 1-2) indicates that all three decrees
were inscribed in 403/2, when Kephisophon was secretary. One copy of the first decree was to have been set up on the Akropolis in Athens, and the Samians
were to inscribe their own copy in Samos (lines 38-40). The Athenian stele that originally carried it was probably destroyed by the Thirty.
The relief, of which no. 13 is a copy, depicts the
dexiosis of Athena and Hera, patron goddess of Samos.
Athena stands on the right, wearing a peplos, himation,
aegis with small gorgoneion, and an Attic helmet. In
her left arm she cradles her spear pointed downward
in front of her. Behind her to the right is her shield,
resting against a bare tree stump, probably merely a
prop rather than her olive tree; cf. no. 8. (For leafless
trees and stumps as a convention of Greek relief, see
M. Carroll-Spillecke, Landscape Depictions in Greek
Relief Sculpture: Development and Conventionalization
, European University Studies, Ser. 38, Vol. I I [Frankfurt am Main, Berne, New York 1985] 55.) Hera faces her on the left, her sceptre in her raised
left hand. She wears a peplos, shoulder mantle, and
The stele is a good example of the heaviness and
stiffness common in reliefs of the turn of the century.
Although their left legs are drawn aside, the figures
stand stiffly, with little shifting of their weight. The
turn to three-quarter view in Hera's upper body stops
abruptly at the waist, below which she is shown in
strict profile. The drapery folds, even those of Hera's
billowing mantle, have stiffened into hard, parallel
patterns. The relief as a whole has considerable depth,
created by the architectural frame, behind which
Athena's helmet crest disappears, and the overlapping
tree and foreshortened shield behind her.
S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
5 (1876/77) 92-94 no. 8; P.
(1888) 123-25, fig. 2 (drwg.); H. Lolling, ArchDelt
(1889) 24-3 I; E. Petersen, RM
4 (1889) 68-69 (drwg.); IG
II.5 Ib; Farnell I, 351, pl. 21b (drwg.); BrBr
pl. 475a; Collignon, 117 (drwg.); Kern, xii no. 19, pl. 19;
Matz, 56-57; SIG
3 116, 117; Casson, 234-37 no. 1333; G.
Rodenwaldt, Das Relief bei den Griechen
(1923) 69, 73, pl.
81; IG I2 126
; Kjellberg, 138, 140; A. Hekler, JdI
42 (1927) 71-72, Beil. to p. 72; Diepolder, 21: Binneboeßel, 7 no. 22,
20, 22, 23, 35, 37, 38, 43-46, 47, 58: H. Speier, RM
(1932) 28-30, 46, 91, pl. 13.2; V. Müller, AJA
251; Curtius, Antike Kunst
, 237, 306, 318, 320-21, 324,
397, 428, fig. 411; Müller, ArtB
20 (1938) 360, 361, fig. 1;
Süsserott, 17 n. 17, 28 n. 5, 31-36, 38 n. 37, 39 n. 44, 43 n.
56, 45 n. 64, 71, 98-102, 105, 131-32, 198 n. 8, 202 n. 22;
Picard II.2, 838, fig. 334; Tod I, 231-34 no. 96; Kirchner, 18
no. 43, pl. 19; SEG
10.143; Lippold, 198 n. 11, fig. 73.4;
Johansen, 151, fig. 76; SEG
12.42; Dohrn, 33; Hamdorf, 92
no. 239; Schefold, Classical Greece
, 152, 159, 248 no. 32,
app. pl. 32; Die Griechen und ihre Nachbarn
187-88, pl. 94a; J. Frel and B. M. Kingsley, GRBS
213 no. 57; Guarducci, 593, fig. 186; Meiggi and Lewis,
283-87 no. 94; Hiller, 66, 71, fig. 33 (det.); Rauscher, 150;
25.40; Brouskari, 174-75 no. 1333, pl. 377;
Mitropoulou, Corpus I
, 175-76 no. 21, fig. 179; Palagia,
, 21; Osborne, Naturalization
, D4 and 5; SEG
31.271, 276; SEG
II, 1013 no. 607, pl. 763, s.v.
Athena (P. Demargne); SEG
34.27; J. Boardman, Greek
Sculpture: the Classical Period
(1985) 186-87, fig. 177; LIMC
IV, 691 no. 296, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer,
273 A 26, pl. 10.1; SEG
36.23; G. Shipley, A History of
Samos 800-188 B.C
. (Oxford 1987) 130-31; SEG
Inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the
Other Gods in 400/399 IG II2 1374 Athens, EM 7862 399/98 Plate 7
Two joining fragments from Akropolis. Top, both edges of
relief, left edge of inscription preserved, bottom broken.
Relief bordered above by taenia and cyma reversa, together
0.135 wide. Surface worn, flaked, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.70, p.h. of relief 0.51, w. 0.53, th. 0.115, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.009.
The inscription is the inventory of the treasurers of
Athena and the Other Gods who served in the
archonship of Laches, 400/399 (lines 1-3). It was inscribed after their year in office, when the treasurers turned over their inventories to their successors.
The relief is a copy of no. 12, which concerns
Athens and Samos and appropriately depicts Athena
and Hera. Scholars have been reluctant to accept the
figure on the left in this relief as Hera (see, for example, Süsserott, 17 n. 17, who called her ‘eine nicht
sicher benennbare Göttin im Typus der Hera des
Reliefs von 403/02’;), because she does not seem particularly appropriate to the inscription, but she must
have been intended here as a neutral representative of
the Other Gods. The full explanation for her presence in this relief lies in the sculptor's decision, itself puzzling, to copy the earlier relief; the relief of 399 is the only example of duplication in document reliefs.
The motif of dexiosis on the inventory may refer to
the amalgamation, probably in 406/5, of the previously separate boards of treasurers of Athena and of the Other Gods.
Although the treasurers' relief closely follows the
original, it lacks antae, and it is apparently by the
hand of another sculptor, whose Hera, with the exception of her too-high breasts, looks masculine.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1837) 64 no. 26, fig. 26 (drwg.);
Müller and Schöll, 59-60 no. 34, 74-75; Atlas
, pl. III.6;
Rangabé II, 473-75 no. 824; F. G. Welcker, AZ
100; Schöne, 28-30 no. 54, pl. 10 (drwg.); A. Dumont,
1 (1873) 36-37; F. von Duhn, AZ
(1877) 169-70; IG
II 643; Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 562, 566;
P. Foucart, BCH
2 (1878) 39-40; Sybel, 441 no. 7127;
Friederichs and Wolters, 382-83 no. 1158; P. Gardner, JHS
9 (1888) 50; Le Bas, pl. 42 (drwg.); E. Petersen, RM
68-69 (drwg.); Collignon, 117; F. Eichler, ÖJh
122; Binneboeßel, 7 no. 23, 20, 35, 43-45, 46, 47, 53, 58;
, 116 n. 1; H. Speier, RM
28-30, 40, 91, pl. 12.2; V. Müller, AJA
39 (1935) 251;
Svoronos, 663 no. 426, pl. 203; Müller, ArtB
20 (1938) 360,
362; Süsserott, 17 n. 17, 27 n. 5, 35 n. 28, 98, 102 n. 55, 198
n. 8, 202 n. 22; Picard II.2, 838 n. 6; Dohrn, 33; J. Frel and
B. M. Kingsley, GRBS
11 (1970) 209 n. 14; Schmaltz, 22 n.
24; Hiller, 51, 63; LIMC
IV, 691 no. 297, s.v. Hera (A.
Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 273-74 A 27, pl. 10.2.
Inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the
Other Gods in 398/97 IG II2 1392 Athens, NM 1479 397/96 Plate 8
Two non-joining fragments: a (NM 1479
) from 1876-77
excavations on South Slope, b (EM 7801
) found on
Akropolis in 1887. Top, both edges of relief, and left edge
of inscription preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered
above by taenia and ovolo, together 0.04 5 wide. Surface
fairly well-preserved, with some chipping, yellow-brown
stains. Grey-blue, fine-grained marble. p.h. 0.395, h. of relief 0.265, w. 0.39 5 (relief), 0.43 (inscription), th. 0.09, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.01.
The inscription records the inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods who served in the
archonship of Euthykles, 398/97 (lines 2-3). It would
have been inscribed immediately after their year in
office. Athena turns slightly toward the left, clasping
the right hand of a male figure of the same scale,
probably Erechtheus. She wears a peplos, aegis with
gorgoneion, and an Attic helmet, and carries her shield
in her left hand (for the shield-carrying type of Athena,
see also nos. 9, 69, 83). The male figure closely resembles several of the eponymous heroes on the east frieze
of the Parthenon (Brommer, pl. 183) and the figure,
also apparently Erechtheus, on two other records of
the treasurers of Athena (nos. 8, 20). He wears a
himation and leans on a staff propped crutch-like
under his left arm, while raising his left hand to his
chin. Of all the eponymous heroes Erechtheus, the
autochthonous king of the Athenians who shared
a shrine on the Akropolis with Athena, is the most
appropriate guardian of her treasury. It is strange that
there was no attempt in this relief to include a representative of the Other Gods (cf. no. 13, in which Hera apparently served that role).
Although the figures transfer most of their weight
to their right legs, like other figures from reliefs of
this period they remain stiffly upright (cf. nos. 12, 13,
16). The folds over the upper bodies of both figures
have the rounded, doughy quality of drapery of the
Erechtheion frieze. M. B. Walbank, Classical Views
26 (1982) 262, attributes this inscription to the mason
of no. 96, but the reliefs are not the work of the same
F. von Duhn, AZ
35 (1877) 169-70 no. 98; IG
II 653; A.
2 (1878) 566, 569; P. Foucart, BCH
37-40, pl. 10; Mélanges d'épigraphie grecque
(1878) 67-69; Sybel, 294 no. 4012; Friederichs and Wolters, 383; K.
12 (1888) 150-52 no. 13; IG
Collignon, 144-45, fig. 71 (drwg.); Kastriotis, 264 no. 1479;
Matz, 56; EA
5 (1902) 2-3 no. 1212 (Löwy); Kjellberg, 133,
140-41; Binneboeßel, 8 no. 24, 20, 34, 36, 38, 43, 47-48, 50,
51, 58; Ferguson, Treasurers
, frontispiece; H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 51, 91, pl. 15.4; Svoronos, 601-5 no. 247, pl. 107.2;
O. Walter, ÖJh
30 (1937) 55 n. 16; V. Müller, ArtB
(1938) 360-62, fig. 3; Süsserott, 30 n. 10, 32 n. 21, 33, 40,
42 n. 54, 43 n. 57, 45-46, 47 n. 71, 62, 71 n. 145, 72, 98,
100-4, 106, 132, 199 n. 11, 202 n. 22, pl. 1.4; Picard III, 19,
fig. 3; Lippold, 229, pl. 88.1; Dohrn, 33; Hamdorf, 94 no.
254(b); E. Berger, AntK
10 (1967) 85 no. 15, pl. 24.5 (det.);
Schefold, Classical Greece
, 152, 182, 248 no. 33, app. pl. 33;
Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes
, 25 no. 102; Guarducci, 610-11, fig. 203; Schmaltz, 22, 23, 29, 38; Hiller, 51, 63, fig. 48
(det.); Kron, Phylenheroen
, 261-62 K 28; Palagia,
, 62; LIMC
III, 379 no. 44, pl. 274, s.v. Demos
(O. Alexandri-Tzachou); Meyer, 275-76 A 36, pl. II.1;
VI, 1089 no. 38, s.v. Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I.
Athens and Eretria IG II2 16 Athens, EM 6885 394/93 (or 404/3?) Plate 8
Two non-joining fragments: a (EM 6885
) found on
Akropolis, b (EM 6887
), provenance unknown. Parts of
both edges preserved. First two lines of heading above plain
ovolo separating relief and inscription. Fragment a worn,
corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.215, p.h.
of relief 0.13 5, p.w. 0.29, p. th. 0.11 (back in plaster), relief
h. very low, h. of letters 0.007 (lines 3 ff.).
The document is a decree of the Athenian boule concluding an alliance between Athens and Eretria. The heading of the decree is usually restored to make the
Euboulide[s] of line 5 the eponymous archon, placing
the alliance in 394/93, when forces from Euboia fought
on the Athenian side in the Corinthian War (Xen.
. 4.2.17; 3.1 5). Krentz has recently suggested an
alternative, that this was a decree of the Thirty in
404/3 and that Euboulides should be restored as
epistates rather than archon. The two dates are too
close together and the relief too poorly preserved for
the sculpture to contribute anything to the argument.
Only the lower left corner of the relief is preserved.
Just above the moulding are the sandalled feet of a
seated figure facing right. The balls of the feet rest on
the flat surface of the ground; the heels are raised.
The figure appears to be seated on a rock. A seated
type of Athena is popular in reliefs of the late fifth
and early fourth centuries (see nos. 2, I I, 71, 72, 87,
90, 91), and she could appropriately face a representative of Eretria in this relief. The position of the feet is very similar to that of the Athena of the late fifth-century document concerning Athens and Samos (no. 71).
U. Köhler, AM
2 (1877) 212-13; A. Wilhelm, AEM
1-4 no. 1; IG
II.5 7b; SIG
3 123; Binneboeßel, 8 no. 26, 48; Svoronos, 667 no. 441 (2), pl. 216.2; Tod II, 16-18 no. 103;
Bengtson, 176-77 no. 229; SEG
21.222; P. Krentz, AJP
(1979) 398-400; SEG
29.84; D. Knoepfler, AJP
35.53; Meyer, 276 A 37.
Athens honours Dionysios I of Syracuse
IG II2 18 Athens, EM 6899 394/93 Plate 9
Found in Theatre of Dionysos in 1862. Left edge of inscription preserved. Plain narrow taenia and ovolo below
relief. Possible traces of anta at lower left. Surface badly
worn, corroded, with vertical cracks. White, medium-grained
marble. p.h. 0.58, p.h. of relief 0.32, p.w. 0.47, th. 0.10,
relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.015.
The document is a resolution of the Athenian boule
honouring Dionysios I of Syracuse, his brothers
Leptines and Thearides, and his brother-in-law
Polyxenos. (Leptines is perhaps the adopted Syracusan
father of the Alketas honoured in no. 21.) The inscription is securely dated to the sixth prytany of the archonship of Euboulides, 394/93 (lines 1-2). None
of the provisions of the decree are preserved. Because
the proposer of the decree was apparently the poet
Kinesias and because it was passed at the time of the
Lenaea and according to its find-spot apparently set
up in or near the Theatre of Dionysos, Köhler suggested that the honours were in some way connected with Dionysios' well-known patronage of poets.
It comes from the beginning of a brief period of
rapprochment between Dionysios and Athens that was
marked by Dionysios' increasing involvement with
Athenian literary figures.
The relief depicts the dexiosis of Athena and a female figure representing Syracuse or Sicily, a subject
more appropriate for an alliance than an honorary
decree. It is possible that, although framed as an
honorary decree, the document contained interstate
agreements of some sort, but it was not until the early
360s that Dionysios was given Athenian citizenship
(IG II2 103
) and contracted an alliance with Athens
(IG II2 105
). The Athena is an adaptation of the
Parthenos type, with her left hand resting on the rim
of her shield and a large snake coiled behind her (cf.
nos. 30, 65, 106, 132, 164). The figure opposite her
apparently wears a peplos and in her left hand holds
an object that thickens toward the top like a torch.
She has often been identified as Demeter, but the possibility that the object she holds is a torch and her somewhat smaller scale relative to Athena suggest that she is Persephone, whose head appears on the coins
The relief is very badly worn, but the figures, like
others in reliefs of this period, remain stiffly upright,
the drapery over their weight legs falling in thick,
undifferentiated folds (cf. nos. 12, 13).
S. A. Koumanoudes, Philistor
4 (1862) 542 no. 2; U. Köhler,
3 (1869) 156-59 no. 2; Schöne, 24 no. 49, pl. 7
(drwg.); A. Dumont, Monuments Grecs
1 (1873) 35; J.
Overbeck, Griechische Kunstmythologie
III (1873) 509 no.
7; Heydemann, 256-58; Köhler, AM
I (1876) 4-5; IG
2 (1878) 563, 566, 569 n. 2; Sybel, 280 no.
3907; Friederichs and Wolters, 383-84 no. 1159; P. Gardner,
9 (1888) 60; Matz, 57; SIG
3 128; Binneboeßel, 8 no. 27, 20, 34, 47, 49, 50; H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 54, 91 Svoronos,
664 no. 429, pl. 205.2; Süsserott, 32 n. 21, 35 n. 28, 38-42,
43 n. 57, 47 n. 71, 71, 98 n. 8, 199 n. 11, pl. 2.1; Tod II, 24-26 no. 108; Lippold, 230 n. 2; Hamdorf, 92 no. 241(a); Frel,
Les sculpteurs anonymes
, 19; Frel and B.M. Kingsley, GRBS
11 (1970) 210 no. 44; A. Peschlow-Bindokat, JdI
122, 152 R39; C. J. Sanders, Dionysios I of Syracuse and
(1987) 1-25; LIMC
IV, 881 no. 447, s.v.
Demeter (L. Beschi); Meyer, 276 A 38, pl. 11.2; SEG
Athens and Klazomenai IG II2 28 Athens, EM 6917 387/86 Plate 9
Three joining fragments, all from vicinity of the Asklepieion.
Right and left edges preserved, back rough-picked. Surface
slightly weathered. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.45,
p.h. of relief 0.13, w. 0.50, th. 0.085, relief h. 0.02, h. of
Klazomenai had been a member of the Delian League
and was again under Athenian influence, for at this
time it was subject to the eikoste, the new tribute
imposed by the Athenian commander Thrasyboulos
in 389. In this decree, Athens commends Klazomenai
for its loyalty, resolves not to interfere in its trade or
other treaties, but confirms that it is still subject to
the tax. The decree is securely dated by its eponymous archon Theodotos to the year 387/86 (line 1). It is usually placed in the fall of that year, for Klazomenai was claimed by Persia in the Peace of Antalkidas of
386 (Xen. Hell
The relief depicts two animals, probably rams, facing each other. A walking or recumbent ram or a ram's head is the dominant device on the reverse of
Klazomenian bronze coins between ca. 387 and 300
(B. V. Head, BMC: Creek Coins of Ionia
 21-26, pl. 4, nos. 14, 15, 16). Only three feet of the animal on the right are preserved. The animal on the left,
missing its head and part of its back, has a rather
shapeless body with tufts of hair indicated by a
bumpy-textured surface punctuated by short, sharp
incisions. Its tail is long and full, the hair indicated by
S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
5 (1876/77) 89-90 no. 6;
II Add. 14b p. 397, Add. 14b p. 423; Koumanoudes,
10 (1881/82) 68-71; H. Swoboda, AM
II.5 14b; Kern, xii-xiii no. 23, pl. 23a; SIG
136; Binneboeßel, 8 no. 29, 80; Svoronos, 665 no. 432 (1),
pl. 208.1; Kirchner, 19 no. 49, pl. 23; Tod II, 39-41 no. 114;
T. Ritti, MemLinc
14 (1969/70) 322 no. 1a, pl. XV fig. 2; R.
5 (1970) 32-36; SEG
31.59; Meyer, 277
A 41; SEG
Athens honours Hebryzelmis, king of the
Thracian Odrysai IG II2 31 Athens, EM 6941 386/85 Plate 10
Found on the Akropolis in 1889. Left edge of relief and
inscription preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered
on left by 0.045 wide anta, below by 0.06 wide moulding,
profile completely chipped away. Surface very weathered,
flaked, with iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h.
0.71, p.h. of relief 0.25 5, p.w. 0.405, th. 0.11, relief h. 0.005,
h. of letters 0.02 (line 1), 0.008 (lines 2 ff.).
The decree honours Hebryzelmis, the king of the
Odrysai, for his loyalty, and praises several others,
including his strategos. The Athenians had a history
of friendly relations with this Thracian kingdom, and
Hebryzelmis is here given all the honours that Athens had previously awarded his ancestors. The stele was to have been set up on the Akropolis at public
expense and a cost of thirty drachmai (lines 12-17). It
is securely dated to the year 386/85 by its eponymous
archon Mystichides (line 1).
The very poorly preserved relief depicts two horsemen, one on either side of a frontal female figure. The
Athenians generally associated Thracians with horses,
and depicted horses or horses and riders on the reliefs on most of their documents concerning Thrace
(nos. 27, 30, 46). The female figure, whose identity is
unknown, is preserved only from the chest down; she
wears a belted peplos or chiton and a veil or shoulder
mantle which flies out behind her on both sides. The
horse on the left is cut off in the middle by the anta
on the left side of the relief and above by the break
at the top of the fragment; only slight traces of its
rider and his chlamys are preserved. On the right,
only the forelegs of the horse and its rider's left foot
II.5 14c; SIG
3 138; Binneboeßel, 9 no. 30, 20, 21, 50-51; Svoronos, 672 no. 460, pl. 230.1; A. Billheimer, AJA
(1938) 466; O. Walter, ÖJh
32 (1940) 15 n. 49; Tod II, 47-50 no. 117; SEG
33.78; Meyer, 277 A 42, pl. 15.1.
Athens and Chios IG II2 34 Athens, EM 6907a 384/83 Plate 10
Five fragments: a + b + c + d (together EM 6907
Akropolis, e (EM 6907a
), provenance unknown. Left edge
of relief, right edge of inscription preserved; left edge of
relief has narrow anta. Surface very worn, corroded, with
iron stains all over. White, medium-grained marble. p.h.
0.50, p.h. of relief 0.34, p.w. 0.22, th. 0.14, relief h. 0.005, h.
of letters 0.010.
Chios had been one of the wealthiest members of
the Delian League, and in this document, securely
dated to the first prytany of the archonship of
[Diei]t[r]ephes, 384/83 (lines 1-3), it again enters into
alliance with Athens. The stele was to have been set
up on the Akropolis by the agalma (lines 20-22),
which is usually taken to be the Athena Promachos
(cf. no. 84).
On the left side of the relief is a frontal female
figure, preserved from the shoulders down. She wears
a chiton or peplos with a himation over it and stands
with her weight on her left leg, her right leg drawn
aside. Her very worn right hand is apparently held at
her breast; her left hand, enveloped in drapery, disappears behind her hip. In pose and dress she resembles the unidentified figure in no. 140. At the broken right edge of the fragment is part of the foot of another figure.
The resemblance of the female figure to the figure
in no. 140 and the presence of the foot at the break
prompted Walter to suggest that this fragment joins
no. 131, the right half of a relief in the British Museum depicting Athena crowning a smaller male figure whose left foot is not preserved at the broken left edge. However, the British Museum relief, if it has
not been cut at the back, is not as thick as the Chios
relief, and it apparently had a moulding beneath and
wider antae at the sides. The composition resulting
from the association of the two fragments would be
more appropriate to an honorary decree for a single
individual than for an alliance with Chios.
The relief is very worn, but the peculiar position of
the figure's arms, her shifting weight, and the slight
torsion in her upper body are early indications of the
freer movement and complex poses that appear more
frequently in the second quarter of the century (cf.
S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
5 (1876/77) 520-21 no. 4;
II 15; U. Köhler, AM
2 (1877) 138-42; IG
II.5 15c; A.
(1903) 782; IG II2 35
3 142; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl
18 (1915) 91 Beschreibung
, 12-13; Binneboeßel,
9 no. 31, 20, 22, 51 Süsserott, 46-48, 50-51, 75, 109, 140,
pl. 3.1; Tod II, 50-52 no. 118; Dohrn, 78; Bengtson, 196-98 no. 248; SEG
21.225; Hiller, 27, 66; SEG
31.61; Meyer, 278 A 43, pl. 14.2.
Inventory of the treasurers of Athena in 377/76
IG II2 1410 Athens, EM 7859 376/75
Found west of Erechtheion in 1858. Top, right edge preserved. Relief bordered above and below by 0.065 wide
moulding consisting of taenia and ovolo. Surface somewhat
worn, chipped, corroded, with red-brown iron stains. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.55, h. of relief 0.45, p.w.
0.355, th. 0.12, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.007.
The inscription is the inventory of the treasurers of
Athena in 377/76; the board had been separated from
the amalgamated boards of the treasurers of Athena
and the Other Gods (nos. 13, 14) in 386/85. Only
part of the heading is preserved, but the restoration
of the eponymous archon Kalleas in line 1 is certain.
The inventory would have been inscribed immediately after the end of the treasurers' term.
Seated on a rock at the right is a bearded figure,
probably Erechtheus. His left elbow rests on the rock
behind him, and he cradles a sceptre in his left arm.
He wears a himation and a fillet around his head.
Further to the left is a female figure, of whom only
part of the left arm and leg are preserved. She moves
swiftly toward the left as the ends of her himation fly
out behind her.
In general type the male figure resembles the other
figures, apparently Erechtheus, on an earlier record
of the treasurers of Athena (no. 8) and on an inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods (no. 14). The rocky seat of this relief, like the olive
tree of the treasurers' accounts of 410/9 (no. 8), may
refer to his rocky home on the Akropolis, where he
shared a shrine with Athena and guarded her treasury. The fragmentary female figure resembles the last
figure in the dancing triads of Nymphs and Charites
on late fifth- and early fourth-century Attic votive
reliefs (Mitropoulou, Corpus I, figs. 151, 152) and the
dancing figures related to them, usually identified as
Horai and Aglaurids, on neo-Attic reliefs (E. B.
81 (1977) figs. 4-7, 10, 11). The iconography of the dancing triads was already flexible in
the late fifth century, however, and the figures could
also represent the daughters of Erechtheus. The restoration of the first lines of the treasurers' inventory leaves room for all three dancers in the missing left half of the relief.
The drapery of Erechtheus, particularly the parallel, rounded folds over his lap and the folds falling between his legs, resembles late fifth-century drapery
and probably looks back to the models upon which
the figures were based (cf. no. 5).
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1858) 1768-69 no. 3375; Schöne,
39-41 no. 71, pl. 15 (drwg.); F. von Duhn, AZ
no. 100; IG
II 670; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl
18 (1915) 90;
Diepolder, 35; Binneboeßel, 9 no. 33, 20, 51-53, 66, 71; H.
47 (1932) 55, 91, pl. 19.2; Svoronos, 665 no. 435
(1), pl. 210.1; V. Müller, ArtB
20 (1938) 362; Süsserott, 50
n. 82; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254(c); J. Frel, Eirene
5 (1966) 85;
Les sculpteurs anonymes
, 27 no. 120; W. Childs, RA
286 n. 1; Kron, Phylenheroen
, 262, K29; Palagia, Euphranor
III, 381 no. 71, pl. 277, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); Meyer, 279 A 49, pl. 16.1; LIMC
VI, 1089 no. 36, s.v. Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).
Athens honours Alketas of Syracuse IG II2 101 Athens, AM 1349 373/72 Plate 11
Two joining fragments from Akropolis. Broken along right
edge and bottom. Relief crowned by plain pediment with
badly damaged akroteria. Horizontal sima of pediment inscribed with name of archon; remainder of heading inscribed
in three lines on upper part of relief. Narrow, rounded
band separates relief from crown carved immediately below. Surface somewhat worn, with vertical cracks. White,
medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.1, p.w. 0.335, th. 0.08, relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.011.
The document is an honorary decree for Alketas,
son of Leptines of Syracuse, undoubtedly the same
Leptines who was honoured along with his brother
Dionysios in no. 16. Foucart suggested that his son
was named after Alketas I, king of the Molossians,
who was an exile in Syracuse (Diod. 15.13
), but it is
more likely, as Kirchner following Dittmar believed,
that this Alketas is the Molossian king himself, who
in exile had been adopted by Leptines. The date of
the inscription, set at 373/72 by its eponymous archon
Asteios (line 1), also points to the Molossian Alketas,
for early in 373 Alketas, who apparently by this time
had joined the Second Athenian League (IG II2 43
line B 13), assisted an Athenian force sent to Korkyra
. 6.2.10), and that winter he went on to
Athens to support the general Timotheus at his trial
The arrangement of the text, with three lines of the
heading inscribed on the relief, is unusual. In the centre of the relief, facing left, is a large horse standing
quietly on the narrow band representing the ground
line. Below the band is the upper part of a fragmentary
olive crown. Walter believed that the horse, depicted
in such close association with the crown, was a reference to an equestrian victory of Alketas rather than a
symbol of Syracuse or Epiros. The reliefs of the decree honouring the Molossian Alketas' son Arybbas
(no. 122) apparently also refer to equestrian victories.
P. Foucart, BCH
12 (1888) 177-79 no. viii; A. M. Dittmar,
De Atheniensium more exteros coronis publice ornandi
(1890) 196; IG
II.5 50b; P.
20 (1896) 550-51 no. 1. fig. 1 (drwg.); SIG
3154; Casson, 255-56 no. 1349; Binneboeßel, 10 no. 35, 80; O. Walter, ÖJh
32 (1940) 8-9. fig. 3; Epitumbion Christou
(1941) 410, 412 n. 22; Tod II, 217-18; Frel, Les
, 32 no. 183, pl. 16 Guarducci, 597-98,
fig. 189; Frel and B. M. Kingsley, GRBS
11 (1970) 202 no.
13; T. Ritti, MemLinc
14 (1969/70) 265-66 no. 2, pl. 1 fig.
2; Brouskari, 172 no. 1349, fig. 370; Meyer, 2 80 A 52.
Athenian dedications to Zeus Ammon and
SEG 21.241 Tunis, Musée National
du Bardo D 1139 363/62 Plate 12
Found in 1907 in a shipwreck of ca. 100 BC off Mahdia,
Tunisia. Relief bordered by antae and entablature with
pediment and side akroteria. Right edge broken away. Surface worn and badly pitted. Marble. p.h. 1.30, h. of relief 0.25, p.w. 0.40. Not examined.
The inscription records a decree of the boule and
demos ordering a list of dedications of the Athenians
to Zeus Ammon, Paralos, Athena, and Hera. It is
securely dated to the year 363/62 by its eponymous
archon Charik[leides] (line 1). It was probably set up
in the sanctuary of Zeus Ammon in Piraeus.
Only the bare outlines of the relief are still intelligible. On the left is Zeus, seated facing right. His left
arm is raised and probably held a painted sceptre (for
similar figures of Zeus, see nos. 5, 24, 96, possibly no.
41). Before him is a low, rectangular altar, approached
from the right by two small worshippers. The first
holds an object; the second is barely visible. There
may have been an additional figure or figures further
to the right.
A. Merlin, CRAI
(1909) 661, 669; Catalogue du Musée
, Suppl. 11 (1921) 46 no. 1201, 85 no. 1139; A. Dain,
44 (1931) 292; Inscriptions grecques du Musée du Bardo
(1936) 12-21 no. 1, pl. opp. p. 16 (woodcut); W. Fuchs,
Der Schiffsfund von Mahdia
(1963) 42 no. 58, pl. 66.1; Picard
IV.6, 1256 n. 2, 1265; M. Yacoub, Musée du Bardo
I, 671 no. 14, s.v. Ammon (J. Leclant and
G. Clerc); Meyer, 282 A 57, pl. 19.1.
Athens honours Menelaos of Pelagonia IG II2
110 Athens, EM 7024 363/62 Plate 12
Found on Akropolis in 1860. Both edges preserved, back
rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by taenia
with first line of heading and ovolo, together 0.065 wide.
Surface worn. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.51,
p.h. of relief 0.12, w. 0.42, th. 0.12, relief h. 0.015, h. of
letters 0.006 (lines 4 ff.).
In the 360s Athens made a sustained attempt to recover the strategically important city of Amphipolis,
which had maintained its independence after Athens
lost control of it at the end of the fifth century;
members of the Chalcidian League who had earlier
seceded from the Athenian League allied with
Amphipolis. This decree, securely dated to the sixth
prytany of the archonship of Charikleides of 363/62
(lines 2-3), honours Menelaos the Pelagonian for his
assistance in the war against the Chalkidians and
Amphipolis. He was probably a king or prince of the
Lynkestians, and it is likely that he was the same
Menelaos who fought Philip in Thrace in 351 (Dem.
4.27). He was apparently later made an Athenian
citizen (Tod II, no. 148).
On the left is a small male figure, probably
Menelaos; only his lower legs remain. He turns right,
toward a larger male figure in a himation, probably
Demos or a patron deity, who is preserved only from
the knees down. At the far right is Athena, of whom
only a small fragment of drapery and the bottom of
her shield are preserved. The relief is rather crudely
cut, the drapery falling in coarse, heavy folds indicated by sharp, deeply cut lines.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1860) 2028-30 no. 4046; IG
A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 567 n. 4; Kern, xiii no. 23, pl.
3 175; Binneboeßel, 10 no. 36, 54; Svoronos, 665 no. 434 (2), pl. 209.2; Kirchner, 20 no. 54, pl. 25; Süsserott, 52
n. 90, 53 n. 92, 54; Tod II, 132-34 no. 143; SEG
33.80; Meyer, 281 A 56, pl. 17.1; SEG
Athens and Arkadia, Achaia, Elis, and Phleious
IG II2 112 Athens, NM 1481 362/61 Plate 13
Two non-joining fragments: a (NM 1481
) found on South
Slope of Akropolis in 1876, b (EM 857
) from Akropolis.
Both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered
by 0.035 wide antae. Surface fairly well-preserved, with some
chipping, cracks. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.47,
p.h. of relief 0.215, w. 0.49, th. 0.145, relief h. 0.005, h. of
letters 0.012 (line 1), 0.006 (lines 2 ff.).
When Sparta refused to sign the peace treaty after the
battle of Mantineia in 362, the Peloponnesian states
that had alliances with the Athenian League through
their own alliances with Sparta had to deal with Athens separately. This decree is an alliance between Athens and Arkadia, Achaia, Elis, and Phleious, securely dated by its eponymous archon Molon to the
year 362/61 (line 1). The relief, which is very similar
to that of the alliance between Athens and Korkyra
(no. 96), depicts three figures, of whom two are certainly Athena and Zeus. On the right is Zeus, enthroned facing left; his feet rest on a low stool. His
left hand, which is broken away, holds a thunderbolt,
of which only the end is preserved. His right hand,
also missing, was raised and probably held a sceptre,
of which a trace may be just visible above his right
thigh. The central figure turns toward him. Her right
hand is raised and holds the edge of her mantle in an
unveiling gesture. Her left hand holds her sceptre.
Her head is completely destroyed, but a long lock of
hair hangs over her right shoulder. Further left stands
Athena, turned toward the others, holding her spear
in her raised left hand. Her right hand rests on her
hip. Her shield stands at her left side.
Scholars have long identified the central figure in
this relief as a personification of the Peloponnese, the
name used to refer to the allies in one place in the
inscription, but place personifications in document
reliefs are rare (nos. 66, 120), and both the dress and
the gesture and position of the figure with respect to
Zeus strongly suggest that the figure is Hera (cf. nos.
5, 96, perhaps no. 41). Zeus and Hera would be appropriate representatives of the Peloponnesian allies,
for the sanctuary of Zeus and Hera at Olympia was
the major sanctuary not only of the signatory Elis
but also of the entire Peloponnese. The enthroned,
thunderbolt-wielding Zeus is Zeus Olympios who
with Athena Polias heads the list of deities invoked in
Although the figures of Zeus and Hera appear to
have been based upon late fifth-century models (cf.
no. 5), the higher-waisted proportions of the female
figures and the interest in such relatively naturalistic
effects as the buckling material at the knees of Zeus
and Hera and the pulling of drapery across Hera's
breasts are indicative of a new style phase. Hera closely
resembles copies of the approximately contemporary
Eirene of Kephisodotos (Palagia, Euphranor, fig. 42).
U. Köhler, AM
1 (1876) 197-205; F. von Duhn, AZ
(1877) 171 no. 102, pl. 15.1 (drwg.); IG
II 112; IG
57b; S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
5 (1876/77) 101-2; A.
2 (1878) 559-69, pl. 11; Sybel, 285-86 no.
3989; Friederichs and Wolters, 385 no. 1162; P. Gardner,
9 (1888) 50-51; IG
II.5 57b; Farnell I, 351; P. Arndt
, pl. 533.2; Kastriotis, 265 no. 1481; Matz, 57-58;
3 181; Walter, Beschreibung
, 2, 3; F. Studniczka, Artemis und Iphigenie
(1926) 91 fig. 73; Diepolder, 39-42;
Binneboeßel, 10 no. 37, 20, 32, 41, 48, 52, 54-5 5, 63, 71 H.
47 (1932) 57-58, 92, pl. 21.1; Svoronos, 598-99
no. 245, pl. 106.1; V. Müller;ller, ArtB
20 (1938) 366-67, 377,
fig. 9; Süsserott, 52-57, 79, 113, 148-50, pl. 4.1; Tod II,
134-38 no. 144; Lippold, 247, pl. 88.3; Dohrn, 79-80, 157,
162, 168-69, 175, 180, 181, 214-16; Bengtson, 250-52 no.
290; Picard IV.6, 1262 n. 6; SEG
21.242; Schefold, Classical
, 187, 219-20, 249 n. 49, app. pl. 49; Schmaltz, 37 n.
49, 39 n. 51; Hiller, 24, 57, 63; Brown, 26, fig. 81; H. Jung,
91 (1976) 123-30, fig. 6; S. Dušanić, AM
94 (1979) 128-35, pl. 38; Palagia, Euphranor
, 58 n. 332; SEG
32.61; Eschbach, pl. 10.4 (det. Athena); LIMC
IV, 688 no.
257, pl. 420, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 282
A 58, pl. 17.2.
Athens honours Sochares of Apollonia IG II2
SEG 19.49 Palermo, Museo Nazionale
NI 1549 + Athens, EM 5415 355/54 Plate 15
Two fragments: EM 5415
, with slight trace of relief, provenance unknown, + Palermo NI 1 549
, found in Ilissos area
and taken to Palermo with collection of English consul
Robert Faghan. NI 1549
: Preserves right edge, top. Relief
bordered by antae supporting entablature with antefixes,
below by taenia inscribed with first line of heading and
ovolo. Surface worn, battered. White marble. p.h. 0.76, p.h.
of relief 0.36, p.w. 0.44, th. 0.07, h. of letters 0.007. Not
examined. EM 5415
: Preserves part of left edge. Surface
very worn. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.08, p.h.
of relief 0.015, p.w. 0.147, p.th. 0.04.
The decree honours the proxenos Sochares, son of
Chares of Pontic Apollonia, for his assistance in the
battle for Methone, which fell to Philip in the summer of 354 (Diod. 16.31.6
; 34.4-5). The decree is securely dated to the fifth prytany of the archonship of
[Kalli]stratos, 355/54 (lines 2-4). Sochares himself was
to pay for the stele, which, like the decree for Philiskos
of Sestos of the same year (no. 30), was to have been
set up within ten days, apparently on the Akropolis
Apollo, the patron deity of Sochares' Apollonia, is
seated on an omphalos at the far right, with a female
figure, probably his mother Leto, beside and slightly
behind him on the left. Leto's right hand is raised to
her shoulder as though holding or adjusting her mantle (cf. the similarly posed figure with Artemis in the Villa Albani metope, Ridgway, fig. 11); her left hand
rests on her hip. Athena, who wears a peplos, aegis
with gorgoneion, and helmet, turns away from them
toward the left. She extends her right hand, perhaps
holding a crown, toward the broken left side of the
relief where Sochares must have once stood; the foot
of another figure is preserved beside the anta of the
fragment in Athens.
Although Athena still has a curved fold running
along the contour of her bent left leg, her drapery
otherwise falls in straight, heavy folds. Leto's himation
is bunched around her waist in a manner resembling
the drapery of the standing figure in the decree of
347/46 honouring the Bosporan kings (no. 35).
E. Dodwell, A Classical and Topographical Tour through
1 (1819) 470, 471 (drwg.); CIG
6 90; Müller and Schöll, 73-74, 76; A. Salinas, Del Real Museo di Palermo
II 70; A. Dumont, BCH
2 (1878) 567 n. 5, 569 n. 1;
2 (1895) 52 no. 560; IG
II.5 70; Matz, 57; Diepolder,
40-43, fig. 10; Binneboeßel, 11 no. 41, 20-22, 32, 36, 56,
58-59; H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 58-60, 92, pl. 21.4; V.
20 (1938) 367, 377, fig. 11; Süsserott, 390.43,
54-59, 63 n. 117, 79, 81 n. 173, 115-17, 152-53, 155, 199
n. 12, 201, pl. 4.2; O. Walter, Serta Hoffilleriana
(1937-40) 101-3; S. Dow, CP
52 (1957) 106-7; Lambrechts,
pl. 8; SEG
19.49; Picard IV.2, 1256 n. 2; Pečírka, Enktesis
, 35-36, pls. 6, 7; Schefold, Classical Greece
, 187, 249 no. 51, app. pl. 51; SEG
24.85; Schmaltz, 37, 38, 48, 49;
Brown, 26, fig. 80; M. Manni Piraino, Iscrizioni Creche
(1973) 167-69 no. 128, pls. LXXVI, LXXVII; Zagdoun,
IV.6, 51, 60 n. 8; Palagia, Euphranor
, 17, 45; SEG
II, 299 no. 970, s.v. Apollon (O. Palagia);
Meyer, 285 A 69, pl. 22.2.
Content unidentified IG II2 209 Eleusis, Archaeological Museum E 88 349/48 Plate 18
From Eleusis. Right edge preserved, back rough-picked.
Relief bordered on right by anta, below by taenia inscribed
and ovolo, together 0.045 wide. Surface worn, with
iron stains, accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h.
0.26, p.h. of relief 0.145, p.w. 0.19, th. 0.09 (relief), 0.08
(inscription), relief h. 0.012, h. of letters 0.008 (line 1), 0.005
(lines 2 ff.).
The fragmentary inscription is an Athenian decree,
securely dated by its secretary Dieuches of Phrearrhioi
(lines 2-3), who served in the archonship of Kallimachos, 349/48 (IG II2 206). Its find-spot and the subject of its relief suggest that it concerned Eleusinian
matters (cf. no. 3). All that remains of the relief is a
figure of Demeter, preserved only from the waist
down, seated on a kiste facing left. Kore and perhaps
another figure or figures probably originally stood
on the left. The figure resembles figures of Demeter
who appear with Kore on other document reliefs from
Eleusis (nos. 127, 152), on fourth-century votive
reliefs (e.g. Neumann, Weihreliefs
, pl. 47a; Walter,
, fig. 114), and on Panathenaic amphorae
(Jucker, figs. 22-24; Eschbach, 71-90, pls. 20, 21).
Kern and Jucker suggested that the types were modelled after an Eleusinian cult group, but details of the various versions of the type differ considerably.
D. Philios, ArchEph
(1890) 81-84 no. 50, 171-72; O. Kern,
17 (1892) 131, fig. 8 (drwg.); E. Bielefeld, Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universität Greifswald
1 (1951/52) 7 no.
7; A. Peschlow-Bindokat, JdI
87 (1972) 154 R 58; I. Jucker,
95 (1980) 462-63, figs. 22-24; LIMC
IV, 858 no. 127,
s.v. Demeter (L. Beschi); Meyer, 288 A 78, pl. 24.1.
Athens honours Spartokos II, Pairisades I, and
Apollonios of the Crimean Bosporos IG II2 212
Athens, NM 1471 347/46 Plate 18
Joining fragments a and b found in 1877 between Church
of St Spyridon and Customs House in Piraeus. Top, both
edges preserved, back rough-picked. Broken bottom set in
plaster. Relief bordered by 0.055 wide antae supporting
entablature with antefixes, below by 0.09 wide moulding
consisting of taenia and ovolo. One rectangular cutting in
right edge of relief, another in right edge of moulding.
Surface worn, with accretions, iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 2.17, h. of relief 0.69, w. 0.615 (relief),
0.55 (inscription), th. 0.165, relief h. 0.09, h. of letters 0.025
(lines 1-2), 0.0075 (lines 3ff.).
The Bosporan kingdom, an important source of grain,
had had friendly relations with Athens since the second half of the fifth century. After the death of its king Leukon, his sons Spartokos II and Pairisades I
sent envoys to Athens with a letter seeking assurance
that the relationship would continue, and this decree
is the Athenian response. In return for the export of
wheat and other unspecified services, Athens extends
to them all the privileges granted their father Leukon
and grandfather Satyros, and promises to crown each
of them with a 1000-drachmai gold crown at each
Greater Panathenaia. A rider provides that their
brother Apollonios be crowned as well. The decree is
securely dated to the eighth prytany of the archonship
of Themistokles, 347/46 (lines 3 - 5). It was to have
been erected by the stele honouring Leukon and
Satyros at public expense and a cost of thirty drachmai
(lines 44-49); decrees concerning Leukon were set
up in Piraeus (Dem. 20.36), where this stele was found.
The relief of the huge stele is unusual in its strong
characterization of the honorands and the deferential
absence of any representative of Athens. The two
figures on the left, probably the rulers Spartokos and
Pairisades, are seated together on a large, claw-footed
throne. The standing figure leaning on a staff would
be Apollonios, who did not share in their rule. The
brothers are depicted with beards, and Spartokos and
Pairisades have long hair falling over their shoulders,
an attempt at characterizing them as foreigners that
originally might have extended to their facial features
as well; in type and style, they resemble the freestanding figures from the Mausoleion of Halikarnassos and a mid-fourth-century colossal statue found at
Kertch, site of the Bosporan capital, possibly representing one of the Bosporan kings (G. B. Waywell, The Free-Standing Sculptures of the Mausoleum of
Halicarnassus in the British Museum
68, 97-105 nos. 26, 27, pls. 13-15; 108-10 no. 33, pl.
17; O. Waldhauer, JHS
44 (1924) 45, 51-52, fig. 5;
Die Antiken Skulpturen der Hermitage
I (Berlin and
Leipzig 1928) 50 no. 36, pl. XVIII). In its high relief,
monumental figures disposed comfortably within the
deep space of the frame, and its voluminous drapery
with deeply carved folds, the relief more closely resembles the better contemporary grave reliefs than other mid-century document reliefs (cf. Diepolder, pls. 45, 46).
S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
6 (1877/78) 152-57; A.
33 (1878) 418-33; M. Homolle, BCH
(1881) 194-96, pl. 5; Friederichs and Wolters, 386 no. 1165;
II 109b; BrBr
, pl. 475b; Collignon II, 370; Kastriotis,
262 no. 1471; E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks
576-78, 651 no. 28; SIG
3 206; Diepolder, 45-46, fig. 11;
Binneboeßel, 13 no. 53, 20, 21, 23, 60-63, 64; H. Speier,
47 (1932) 59-61, 92, pl. 22.1; Svoronos, 591-92 no.
241, pl. 104; Curtius, Antike Kunst
, 337, 428-29, fig. 488;
V. Müller, ArtB
20 (1938) 368-69, 377, 384; Süsserott, 19
n. 27, 30 n. 10, 33 n. 23, 36 n. 31, 39 n. 43, 55, 58-60, 63
n. 117, 79-82, 117, 150, 158, 199 n. 12, 201, pl. 4.3; O.
32 (1940) 14 n. 42; Tod II, 193-98 no. 167;
Lippold, 247, pl. 88.4; Alscher III, 53-54, 184 n. 69, fig. 76;
17.22; Picard IV.2, 1257-58, fig. 494; F. W. Mitchel,
33 (1964) 343, pl. 65c; Schefold, Classical Greece
188, 249 no. 52, app. pl. 52; SEG
22.92; Guarducci, 595, fig.
188; Schmaltz, 29, 37-38, 48, 49; Brown, 26, fig. 82;
Robertson, 380-81; Fuchs, 530, 533-34, fig. 624; SEG
34.66; Meyer, 290 A 88, pl. 28.1; SEG
Athens honours Phokinos, Nikandros, and
Dexi[ppos] IG II2 231 Avignon, Musée
Calvet 28 340/39 Plate 19
Entered collection of the Venetian Nani in eighteenth century; acquired by Musée Calvet in 1841. Both edges preserved, broken top and bottom. Antae support moulding with first line of inscription, pediment. Surface worn. Reportedly Pentelic marble. p.h. 0.41, w. 0.41, th. 0.07, h. of
letters 0.007 (line 1), 0.005 (lines 2 ff.). Not examined.
The decree, of which only the heading is preserved, is
a grant of proxeny to Phokinos, Nikandros, and a
man whose name is probably to be restored as
Dexippos. Their dress suggests that they are being
honoured in connection with military activity. Phokinos may have been related, as Reinach suggested, to the fourth-century Megarian strategos Phokinos. The
decree is securely dated to the ninth prytany of the
archonship of [Theophra]st[os] I of 340/39 (lines 2-3) by the coincidence of its secretary to that of IG II2 233
The relief depicts the three men as warriors being
honoured by Athena. Athena stands on the far right,
her right hand holding a crown that she is about to
place on the head of the figure nearest her. She wears
a peplos and Corinthian helmet; her left hand rests
on the rim of the shield standing beside her. The three
smaller honorands all wear hoplite corselets over short
tunics. The first, tallest figure wears a helmet with a
crest. The position of his left hand suggests that he
carried a painted shield which is not preserved. His
right hand is raised, as are those of the other two
figures, in a gesture of adoration. The second figure
is slightly smaller and wears a helmet without a crest.
His raised left hand holds a spear which is lightly
incised on the relief ground. The third, still smaller
figure wears a cap-like helmet with a spike on top
and in his left hand carries a bow which is also incised on the background. It is not clear whether the differences in the scale of the honorands or their helmet types are significant. The relief is very crudely
carved, with details of the honorands sharply gouged
in the relief and cursorily incised into the relief ground.
In its low relief, flat frame, and figure types, it resembles a number of reliefs of the third quarter of the fourth century (nos. 38, 143-148).
P. M. Paciaudi, Monumenta Peloponnesia
(1761) II, 153; B.
II (1853) 367-68; C. Bötticher, AZ
15 (1857) 70;
P. Pervanoglu, AZ
25 (1867) 45, 47 no. 10; IG
II 198; A.
2 (1878) 568 n. 3; T. Reinach, REG
158-69, pl. 2; Binneboeßel, 13 no. 55, 20, 58-59, 63-64;
Süsserott, 85, pl. 5.1; Lambrechts, pl. 11; Picard IV.2, 1262;
Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes
, 35 no. 216; Guarducci, 595,
fig. 187; Schmaltz, 50 n. 64; Rauscher, 157-58, fig. 41; Meyer,
291 A 91, pl. 27.2; C. Habicht, Festschrift für Nikolaus
Athens honours Alkimachos IG II2 239
Athens, EM 7063 337/36 Plate 19
Found on Akropolis in 1838. Left edge preserved, back
rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by taenia
] and ovolo, together 0.045 wide. Surface very worn, flaked, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.31, p.h. of relief 0.125, p.w. 0.21, th. 0.14, relief
h. 0.025, h. of letters 0.009 (lines I, 2), 0.008 (lines 3 ff.).
The very fragmentary document is apparently an
honorary decree for Alkimachos, possibly the son of
Agathokles of Pella, an envoy and general of Philip II
and Alexander of Macedonia (Arr. Anab
Harp., s.v. Alkimachos). The decree is securely dated
to the sixth prytany of the archonship of Phryni[chos],
337/36 (lines 3-4). Only the badly damaged lower
left corner of the relief is preserved, depicting the
lower part of a seated figure, perhaps Athena, facing
right. It is possible to distinguish part of the seat, the
foot rest, and her lower right leg where bunched folds
emerge from beneath her himation. Alkimachos may
have stood facing her on the right.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1839) 222 no. 240, fig. 240 (drwg.);
Rangabé II, 85 no. 412; IG
II 123; A. Wilhelm, ÖJh
(1908) 91; Binneboeßel, 13 no. 56, 20, 64; Svoronos, 667 no.
441 (5), pl. 216.5; Tod II, 236-37 no. 180; SEG
Schwenk, 27-30 no. 4; SEG
35.239; Meyer, 293
Ephebic dedication IG II2 2970 Athens, EM 2802a 334/33 Plate 21
Provenance unknown. Left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on left by 0.045 wide anta, below
by taenia inscribed with first two lines of inscription and
ovolo, together 0.06 wide. Surface badly weathered, flaked,
corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.57, p.h. of
relief 0.26, p.w. 0.24, th. 0.12, relief h. 0.03, h. of letters
0.009 (lines 1-2), 0.004 (lines 3 ff.).
Only a few fragmentary lines of this inscription, a
dedication by a group of ephebes who had been honoured by the state, are preserved, but it is securely
dated to the year 334/33 by its eponymous archon
K[te]si[kles] (line 1). At the left is Athena, turned
toward the right, her left hand resting on the rim of
the shield beside her. Her raised right hand originally
held a painted spear. She wears a peplos, aegis with
gorgoneion, and a shoulder mantle. There is room for
another figure or figures, perhaps a representative of
the ephebes and their patron, in the missing right side
of the relief. The frontality of the figure and her high-waisted proportions, with the part of the overfall below the belt longer than the part above, are typical of figures from the third quarter of the century. The
billowing shoulder mantle resembles that of the approximately contemporary Athena in no. 142.
Schöne, 30 no. 60, pl. 12 (drwg.); Sybel, 441 no. 7126; J.
52 (1927) 197-98, 204, Beil. 23.1; Binneboeßel,
13 no. 58, 20, 58-59, 60, 64, 66-67; H. Speier, RM
(1932) 94; Svoronos, 669 no. 448 (1), pl. 221.1; Süsserott,
27 n. 5, 84-86, pl. 5.3; O. Walter, ÖJh
32 (1940) 23 n. 68;
F. Mitchel, Hesperia
33 (1964) 349-51; SEG
22.148; O. W.
Reinmuth, The Ephebic Inscriptions of the Fourth Century
, Suppl. 14 (1971) 13-15, 124, pl. 5 (det.);
B. Holtzmann, BCH
96 (1972) 74 n. 1; Zagdoun, FdD
55, fig. 36; U. Kron, AM
94 (1979) 53-54; Meyer, 293-94
A 99, pl. 31.1; L. J. Roccos, Hesperia
60 (1991) 408-9 no.
3, pl. 109.
Athens honours Archippos IG II2 336
Athens, EM 7237 333/32 Plate 21
Two fragments: a (EM 7237
), composed of four smaller
fragments, found in 1836 between Propylaia and Parthenon, b (EM 7237a
) found north of Parthenon in 1838. Left
edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from
inscription by 0.05 wide moulding, profile destroyed, probably originally inscribed with missing first two lines of
heading. Parts of surface well-preserved, parts corroded,
with accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.45,
p.h. of relief 0.05, p.w. 0.265, th. 0.135 (relief), 0.13 (inscription), relief h. 0.04, h. of letters 0.006.
The stele carried three decrees, all dealing with
Archippos, probably the son of the Thasian Archippos
honoured in no. 86. His citizenship is reaffirmed in
the first two decrees; the third appears to restrict his
choice of phratry. The detailed deliberations concerning the mechanics of Archippos' citizenship suggest
that he actually intended to claim it; Osborne suggested that he moved to Athens when his pro-Athenian views became unpopular in Thasos. The first
decree is dated by its secretary to the archonship of
Ktesikles, 334/33 (line 1). Fragment b begins with the
end of another decree that includes the provisions for
its publication. Line 6 of fragment b begins a third
decree with an abbreviated dating formula; the preceding decree would have had the complete one. The
dating formula of 334/33 does not fit the third decree. Dow convincingly restored the secretary of 333/32 for the third and therefore also for the second decree. All three decrees, carved by the same mason,
must have been inscribed together in 333/32. Osborne
estimates that the stele was a very large one, similar
in size to the stele honouring Herodoros (no. 59).
Only the bottom left half of the relief is preserved,
depicting the feet of two figures who in their types
and relationship to each other resemble representations of Zeus and Hera in other document reliefs (nos.
5, 24, 96). The standing Hera on the left turns toward
the seated Zeus on the right, whose feet rest on a low
stool. Their placement in the relief is awkward, with
Zeus turning his back on the figure or figures who
must have been on the right side of the relief, but it
is probably dictated here, as elsewhere in document
reliefs, by an apparent desire to emphasize the relationship between Zeus and Hera (cf. nos. 24, 96). The awkwardness may have been mitigated by the presence of Athena, perhaps bestowing the 1000-drachmai
gold wreath awarded in the first decree; the restoration of the text indicates that the preserved relief fragment accounts for only about half the width of the stele. The pair would be appropriate patron deities if,
as seems very likely, the Archippos in question was
from Thasos. There was a sanctuary of Zeus Agoraios
in Thasos, and the reliefs of Zeus and Hera on the
city's gates must have been well-known (Pouilloux,
Cultes de Thasos I
, 227, 230-32; C. Picard, Études
[Les murailles I: les portes sculptées à
]  150-76, pl. XLII; P. Bernard,
89  64-89).
The arrangement of the drapery, with its contrast
of regular, rounded folds over Hera's weight leg and
clinging drapery over her free leg, recalls that of late
fifth-century peplophoroi, but the material is stiff and
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1837) 64-65 no. 27, fig. 27 (drwg.);
(1839) 206 no. 211; ArchEph
(1853) 1074-75 no.
2019; Rangabé II, 98-99 no. 426, 100-1 no. 427; IG
IG II2 336
, Add. p. 659; Binneboeßel, 16 no. 70, 20;
Svoronos, 667 no. 442 (3), pl. 217.3; Pouilloux, Cultes de
, 197, 433, pl. 47.2, 3; S. Dow, Hesperia
341-42; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
32 (1963) 434-35; SEG
273, 278; Osborne, Naturalization
, D 17, D 23; SEG
Schwenk, 159-72 no. 31; SEG
35.239; Meyer, 294 A 101; SEG
Athens honours a Chian IG II2 339a Athens, EM 7160 333/32 Plate 22
Found in Akropolis sanctuary of Brauronian Artemis in
1840. Broken all around, back rough-picked. Taenia below
relief, 0.04 wide, has first line of inscription. Surface worn,
corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.26, p.h. of
relief 0.11, p.w. 0.15, th. 0.115 (relief), 0.11 (inscription),
relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.12 (line 1), 0.007 (lines
The document is a very fragmentary proxeny decree;
the relief indicates that it is for a Chian. (IG II2 339
a decree in honour of Lykos of Pydna long associated with it, does not belong.) The decree is securely dated to the second prytany of the archonship of
[Ni]kokrates, 333/32 (lines 2-4).
The fragmentary relief depicts a sphinx and a Chian
amphora, symbols associated with the island's famous
wine, found on the coins, weights, and amphora
stamps of Chios. (For Chian amphora stamps: V. R.
3  296-97, pl. 1, fig. 1; coins:
J. Mavrogordato, NC
16  281-95, pl. 10; weights:
F. Studniczka, AM
13  fig. on p. 186.) The
sphinx, of which only the head and chest are preserved, turns in profile view toward the pointed amphora. Several other foreign documents concerning Chios also carry these well-known symbols:
IV.6, 69-74 no. 20, fig. 53; L. Robert,
Fouilles de Claros
(1954) 2I IG
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1840) 365 no. 464, fig. 464 (drwg.);
P. Perdrizet, BCH
20 (1896) 549-62; Wilhelm, AU
48-49, pl. 5; Binneboeßel, 13-14 no. 59, 20, 80, 81; W. K.
Pritchett and O. Neugebauer, Calendars of Athens
47-48; D. Lewis, BSA
50 (1955) 27; Lambrechts, pl. 12;
21.277; T. Ritti, MemLinc
267 no. 4, pl. II fig. 1; Schwenk, 151-57 no. 29; Zagdoun,
IV.6, 69-74, fig. 54; SEG
294 A 100.
The deme Eitea honours Hippokles
SEG 28.102 Athens, EM 13461 332/31 Plate 22
Three joining fragments found in October 1961 at southern
end of Attic village of Grammatiko. Top, both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Stele terminates above in plain
palmette-shaped crown. Below it, recessed relief panel, upper
corners rounded, with plain flat border on top and sides.
Inscribed on border above relief: ΘΕΟΙ
Surface worn, corroded. Deep horizontal cut, perhaps ancient attempt to separate relief and inscription, extends width of stele just below
relief (cf. no. 38). Grey-white, medium-grained marble. p.h.
0.67, h. of relief panel 0.178, h. of palmette 0.195, w. of
relief panel 0.17, w. of stele 0.265 (top), 0.275 (bottom), th.
0.047, relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.005-0.006.
The decree of the deme Eitea honours Hippokles
Demokleous for his services to the deme; he is
awarded a 500-drachmai gold wreath. Whether the
deme is Eitea of Akamantis or of Antiochis is not
specified. Kaloyeropoulou suggested that Hippokles
was the father of Samakion Hippokleous Eiteaiou,
whose grave stele was found in the Kerameikos (IG
: A. Conze, Die attischen Grabreliefs
(1906), no. 1430, pl. 295). The inscription is dated by
reference to the treasurer of the deme as an officer
serving in the archonship of Ni[ketes], 332/31 (lines
16-18). The treasurer was to have published it at the
deme's expense, and it was to have been set up in the
sanctuary of Basile (lines 15-20).
The relief depicts the small, bearded figure of
Hippokles being crowned by a larger female figure
who must be Basile, since the stele was to have been
erected in her sanctuary. Hippokles stands opposite
her on the left and raises his right hand in a gesture
of adoration. Basile is about to place the crown on
his head with her right hand. She wears a belted chiton
and himation; her hair is pulled back in a short, high
There is little evidence for the character of Basile,
often confused with Basileia. (For her cult in Athens
and elsewhere in Attica, see no. 4 and Shapiro, ZPE
Her role in the inscription and relief from Grammatiko suggests that hers was the major cult in the deme of Eitea at this time.
Kaloyeropoulou noted that the palmette was
normally used as a terminus of grave stelai rather than
official documents and that the stone was probably
originally intended for funerary use. The figures appear hastily cut, superficially resembling the types and style of the relief of the Athenian anti-tyranny decree (no. 38).
A. Kaloyeropoulou, ArchDelt
25 A (1970) 204-14, pls. 70,
71; E. Vanderpool, ArchDelt
25 A (1970) 215-16; P. J.
27 (1978) 369-74; Schwenk, 205-212 no.
42; H. A. Shapiro, ZPE
63 (1986) 134-36; SEG
Meyer, 295 A 104.
Athens honours a Plataian IG II2 345
Athens, EM 7167, 7168 332/31 Plate 23
Two non-joining fragments found on Akropolis in 1858: a
), lower left corner of relief, b (EM 7167
), fragment of inscription with small fragment of right corner of relief. Both edges preserved, back damaged. Relief bordered by 0.045 wide antae and below by 0.025 wide taenia. Surface of both fragments worn, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. Fragment a: p.h. 0.215, p.h. of relief 0.10, p.w. 0.18, p.th. 0.08, relief h. 0.03, h. of letters 0.007. Fragment b: p.h. 0.42, p.w. 0.145, p.th. 0.36, h. of letters 0.007.
The decree, proposed by Lykourgos, honours a
Plataian whose name is not preserved. It is securely
dated to the eighth prytany of the archonship of
Niketes, 332/3 1 (lines 2-3); it was passed on the same
day as no. 45, but the hands of neither the masons
nor the sculptors appear to have been the same. The
figures in the relief are too poorly preserved for identification. At the left are the bare lower legs of a male
figure, possibly the honorand, turned toward the right.
Next to him on the right stands a female figure in a
long garment, perhaps Athena, of whom only the
lower legs are preserved. The figure appears nearly
frontal, standing with her weight on her right leg.
The tiny fragment of relief preserved on fragment b
is probably part of the right anta.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1858) 1785 no. 3412; ArchEph
(1859) 1843 no. 3534; IG
II 173; Binneboeßel, 14 no. 60, 20,
64; Svoronos, 667 no. 441 (4), pl. 216.4; Schwenk, 187-90
no. 36; SEG
35.239; Meyer, 294 A 102.
Athens honours Amphis of Andros IG II2 347
Athens, EM 7155 332/31 Plate 24
Five fragments: a (with relief), found in vicinity of
Asklepieion, + b, composed of three small fragments, found
in Varvakeion (together EM 7155
), c (EM 5119
a and b broken all around, backs rough-picked. Surface
worn, with accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h.
0.575, p.h. of relief 0.17, p.w. 0.36, th. 0.13, relief h. 0.015,
h. of letters 0.007.
The decree honours Anphis (sic?) of Andros, whom
Wilhelm identified as the poet Amphis of Middle
Comedy. The Suda
(s.v. Amphis) refers to him as an
Athenian, but Wilhelm supposed that his citizenship
was awarded at a later date. He is here awarded a
crown of ivy, appropriate for a poet because of its
association with Dionysos. The decree was passed on
the same day as no. 44, in the eighth prytany of the
archonship of [N]iketes, 332/31 (lines 1-3), but it does
not appear to have been inscribed or sculpted by the
The relief preserves the lower legs of two male figures wearing himatia. The smaller figure on the left turns in three-quarter view toward the right, advancing with his weight on his left leg. The larger figure
approaches him from the right, with his weight on
his right leg. The smaller figure undoubtedly represents Amphis, the large figure probably Demos, presenting a crown to the poet. The restoration of the
inscription indicates that there was no room in the relief for another figure. The workmanship is rough and clumsy.
S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
6 (1877/78) 131-32 no. 6;
A. Wilhelm, AM
15 (1890) 219-22; IG
II.5 173b: Wilhelm,
, 129, 218; Walter, Beschreibung
, 14; Binneboeßel, 14
no. 61, 20, 64; SEG
14.55; Svoronos, 666 no. 440 (1), pl.
215.1; Schwenk, 192-95 no. 38; SEG
35.239; Meyer, 294-95 A 103, pl. 50.2.
Hesperia 10 (1941) 50
no. 13 Athens, Agora I 4224a 324/23 Plate 25
Three fragments from Agora: Agora I 4224a
and Agora I 4224c
, found together in grave xxxi in Byzantine to Turkish context in Hephaisteion (E 7) in 1939, Agora
, found in Turkish context in well (F 6) in 1936.
Fragment a preserves left edge, top, and back, fragments b
and c broken all around. Relief bordered at left by anta,
above by 0.09 5 wide moulding, below by 0.09 wide moulding, profiles destroyed. Surface very badly battered, probably trimmed for reuse. Large crack runs diagonally from top to bottom. Grey-white, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.67, p.w. 0.26, th. 0.16, p. relief h. 0.025.
Only a few fragmentary lines of the inscription and
the battered outlines of two figures on the left side of
the relief are preserved. The document is securely
dated to the sixth prytany of the archonship of
Hegesios, 324/23 (lines 1-2). At the left, overlapping
both the anta and the moulding above, stands Athena,
turned in three-quarter view toward the right. Her
left hand rests on the rim of her shield: her right hand
hangs at her side. Next to her on the right stands a
frontal male figure of the same or slightly smaller scale, but the fragmentary inscription does not provide a clue to his identity. He is bisected vertically by
the straight right edge of the fragment. His right arm
hangs at his side. He probably wore a himation; a
bulge at his hip seems to indicate a bunch of drapery.
The restored width of the inscription indicates that
there could have been at least one more figure on the
right side of the relief.
F. Brommer, AA
(1939) 239; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
(1941) 50-52 no. 13, fig. p. 51; Schwenk, 356-58 no. 72;
35.239; Meyer, 300 A 124.
Athens honours Asklepiodoros IG II2 367
Athens, EM 2811 323/22 Plate 26
Four joining fragments: EM 2811
(with relief), composed
of three fragments, + EM 7180
, found in 1838 between
Parthenon and Propylaia. Top and both edges preserved,
back and top rough-picked. Relief bordered by antae supporting entablature, below by taenia inscribed ΘΕ
ovolo. Surface battered, corroded. White, medium-grained
marble. p.h. 0.62, h. of relief 0.35, w. 0.48. th. 0.175, relief
h. 0.045, h. of letters 0.008.
The document is an honorary decree for Asklepiodoros, apparently an ambassador in treaty negotiations with Phokis, which joined the Greek revolt after the death of Alexander. The decree is often restored
to include a second ambassador, but the inscription is
too fragmentary for certainty on this point. The presence of a single honorand in the relief strongly implies that only one man is honoured, or at least that
the honours for Asklepiodoros take precedence over
any others that might have been given. The second
crown is not significant in this respect, as other stelai
with only one honorand and more than one crown
attest (no. 53; IG II2 360
). The decree is securely dated
to the third prytany of the archonship of [Kephisodoros], 323/22 (lines 1-3) by the coincidence of its secretary with that of the first decree of IG II2 448
At the left stands Athena, holding a crown in both
hands. On the right a small male figure representing
Asklepiodoros is being crowned simultaneously by
two figures, almost certainly Demos and Boule, who
are slightly larger than the honorand yet smaller than
Athena. Boule conforms very closely to the type
attested for her by the inscription on no. 142. The
unusual arrangement of her himation, drawn over her
head like a veil, with a distinctive curved edge of
drapery running straight from the right shoulder to
the triangular overfold at the waist, is shared by both
figures. Demos also closely resembles a standing type
confirmed for him by inscription (no. 117), which
appears more frequently in document reliefs (nos. 54,
149, 150, 172) than figures of Boule,
The relief is roughly carved, but the very high-waisted female figures and the pronounced swing in Demos' stance are consistent with stylistic developments of the late fourth century.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1839) 228 no. 265; ArchEph
558 no. 953; Müller and Schöll, 62-63 no. 42, 89; Rangabé
II, 70-71 no. 395; P. Pervanoglu, AZ
16 (1860) 24 no. 3, 26;
25 (1867) 46 no. 5; R. Förster, AdI
42 (1870) 219; Schöne, 41 no. 75, pl. 16 (drwg.); IG
II 182; Sybel, 430 no. 6978;
Friederichs and Wolters, 388 no. 1171; P. Gardner, JHS
(1888) 79; Le Bas, pl. 41.1 (drwg.); Matz, 55; O. Walter,
18 (1915) 91; Walter, Beschreibung
, 4; Diepolder,
56; Binneboeßel, 15 no. 67, 42, 69, 75-76; H. Speier, RM
47 (1932) 63, 94, pl. 29.3; Svoronos, 666 no. 438, pl. 213;
30 (1937) 54 n. 15, 55 n. 16; V. Müller, ArtB
20 (1938) 374, 377; Süsserott, 20, 64-68, 89-91, 96 n. 16,
119-20, 181, 184-85, 202 n. 22, pl. 9.3; E. Bielefeld, JdI
(1954) 140 n. 26; A. Giuliano, ASAtene
399, 401, fig. 15; Hamdorf, 31, 94 n. 254(n), 95 no. 258(c);
F. Mitchel, Phoenix
18 (1964) 17; SEG
21.295; Schmaltz, 50
n. 65; Rauscher, 162-63; Kron, Phylenheroen
, 237-38, 281
(7); Mitropoulou, Contributions
, 52-53, fig. 9; C. Schwenk,
19 (1976) 64-66, pl. 14; SEG
, 62; Hesperia
51 (1982) 109 n. 58; A. N.
5 (1982) 123-27; Schwenk, 394-401
no. 81; SEG
III, 146 no. 3, s.v. Boule (V.
Komninos); 380 no. 57, pl. 275, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); SEG
35.239; Meyer, 300-I A 125, pl. 35.2.
Athens honours several Bosporans
(IG II2 369 + 414b + c +) Athens, EM 7333
323/22 Plate 26
Eleven fragments: b (EM 7333
= IG II2 369
), with relief; j
= IG II2 414
c) and k (EM 7332
= IG II2 414
b) found on North Slope of Akropolis; a, c (joins j), e, f (Agora I 4935 e, b, c, d) found in 1938 in Agora (T 26-27); d
(Agora I 4935a
) found in Agora in 1937 (T 26-27); h (Agora
) found in 1938 in modern house in Agora (O-P
22-23); i (Agora I 2752
) found in 1935 in late wall in Agora
(N 11). Fragment a preserves left edge, h preserves back
and right edge, others broken all around. Relief separated
from inscription by cyma reversa and ovolo. White,
medium-grained marble. Fragment b: p.h. 0.18, p.w. 0.135,
p.th. 0.105, h. of letters 0.008.
The very fragmentary inscription records two decrees
honouring several people, apparently Bosporans, who
have given grain and some other gift or assistance
needed by Athens, perhaps to alleviate shortages
caused by the Lamian War. It is securely dated to the
eighth prytany of the archonship of Ke[phisod]oros,
323/22 (lines 2-3). Athens had earlier honoured the
kings of the Crimean Bosporos (no. 35) for their role
in providing Athens with grain.
The wide, well-cut moulding above the inscription
must have supported a large, ambitious relief, but all
that remains is the foot of a single figure turned
toward the left in the centre of the panel.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1853) 901 no. 1445; Rangabé II,
988 no. 2316; IG
II 290; E. Schweigert, Hesperia
27-30 no. 7, pl. 28; Hesperia
9 (1940) 335-39 no. 42, pl. p.
337; J. Brashinsky, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Kratkie
74 (1959) 6, pl. 2; J. and L. Robert, REG
(1962) 146-47 n. 108; SEG
Acta of the Fifth International Congress of Greek and Latin
Epigrapby, Cambridge 1967
(1971) 119-23; Osborne, Naturalization
, D 25; SEG
31.271; Schwenk, 426-32 no. 85; SEG
35.239; Meyer, 301 A 126.
Content unidentified IG II2 376 Athens, EM 88 322/21 Plate 27
Found in Theatre of Dionysos. Broken all around, back.
Relief separated from inscription by 0.045 wide taenia bevelled back to surface of inscription. Surface very worn. Grey,
fine-grained marble. p.h. 0.18, p.h. of relief 0.055, p.w. 0.18,
p.th. 0.11, p. relief h. negligible, h. of letters 0.007.
The very fragmentary decree is dated to the archonship of [Philokle]s, 322/21 (line 1). All that remains of the relief is a small section from the centre with
what appears to be a horse's hoof pointing toward the right.
B. D. Meritt, The Athenian Year
, 110; Schwenk, 451-52
no. 90; SEG
SEG 21.303 Athens, Agora I 6496 321/20 Plate 27
Found in 1952 Agora excavations in wall of medieval house
above east end of South Stoa II (O 15). Right edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by plain 0.02 wide taenia ending 0.015 from edge of relief. Surface somewhat worn, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.205, p.h. of relief 0.09 5, p.w. 0.19, th.
0.07, relief h. 0.005, h. of letters 0.005.
The content of the inscription is not known; little
more than the heading is preserved. Meritt has shown
that the only year in which the lunar and conciliar
dates given in the inscription coincide is that of the
archonship of [Archipp]os, 321/20 (line 2); the inscription belongs to the fifth prytany (line 4). On the right stands a female facing right, of whom only the
lower legs are preserved. Opposite her on the left is
a large dolphin with its snout down and its back
arched; most of the body and tail are broken away.
The stance and dress of the figure are archaistic. Her
weight is evenly distributed, the folds between her
legs are bunched in the central gathering common in
the dress of Archaic statues, and the diagonal line of
zigzag folds on her left side indicates the open side of
her peplos or end of her long diagonal mantle. The
archaizing style must have been used here to indicate
that the figure is a statue, presumably of the patron
goddess of the person, city, or cult with which the
decree is concerned (cf. no. 28, which depicts an
archaistic figure representing the Parthenos of
Neapolis). The dolphin must be one of her attributes
or a symbol of the party she represents.
B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
30 (1961) 289-92 no. 184, pl. 59; S.
67 (1963) 44-45; Hesperia
32 (1963) 344-45;
E. B. Harrison, Agora XI: The Archaic and Archaistic Sculpture
(1965) 64, 67, 85 no. 133, pl. 31; T. Ritti, MemLinc
14 (1969/70) 269-70 no. 8, pl. II fig. 4; B. Ridgway, The
Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture
(1977) 312; Meyer, 301 A
Honours for unidentified epimeletai IG II2
2842 Athens, NM 2964 321/20 or 318/17 Plate 28
Provenance unknown. Right edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on right by 0.03 wide anta, below by plain taenia and ovolo, together 0.04 wide. Surface very worn. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.28, p.w. 0.30,
th. 0.10 (relief), 0.08 5 (inscription), relief h. 0.02, h. of letters ca. 0.007.
The very slight remains of inscription indicate that it
concerns honours for a number of epimeletai whose
names are not preserved; it was probably a decree of
a phyle (cf. nos. 107, 128, 138, 145, 157, possibly no.
148). The document belongs either to 321/20 or to
318/17, the two years with eponymous archons named
Archipp[os] (line 3).
Athena or another figure holding a shield stood to
the left; only the shield is preserved. If the document
is a phyle decree and the figure with the shield is
Athena, the phyle hero may have stood further to the
left (cf. no. 138). The epimeletai are depicted on the
right as three small bearded men wearing himatia.
The first man turns toward Athena and raises his right
hand. The second figure is largely frontal. The third
man leans with his right arm on the shoulder of the
second, his right leg casually crossing the left. His left
hand rests on his hip.
The small figures are crudely carved and very worn,
but the variety and combination of their positions
echo the relative complexity of composition in better
reliefs of the late fourth century (cf. nos. 47, 54).
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1854) 1193 no. 2314; Rangabé II,
II 1210; Le Bas, pl. 41.2 (drwg.); O. Walter,
18 (1915) 92; Beschreibung
, 22; W. B. Dinsmoor,
The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age
Binneboeßel, 16 no. 69, 20; Svoronos, 659 no. 417, pl. 193.9;
, 237 n. 1155; Meyer, 302 A 132, pl.
Athens honours Euphron of Sikyon IG II2 448
Athens, NM 1482 318/I7 Plate 28
Complete stele found in Late Roman fortifications near Stoa
of Attalos during 1891 extension of Athens-Piraeus railway. Top, sides preserved, bottom set in modern base, back
smooth. Relief bordered by antae (0.0475 wide on left, 0.04
wide on right) supporting entablature with antefixes, below
by taenia and ovolo, together 0.085 wide. Surface worn,
particularly on right side, with accretions, iron stains; stele
had been used as drain cover. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 2.35, h. of relief 0.60, w. of relief 0.66, w. of inscription 0.60 (top), 0.65 (bottom), th. 0.30 (relief), 0.25 (top of inscription), 0.29 (bottom of inscription), relief h.
0.06, h. of letters 0.007.
The stele carries two decrees, the first a republication
of a decree granting Euphron, son of Adeas of Sikyon,
and his descendants Athenian citizenship for his alliance with Athens in the Lamian War, the second reaffirming the first and authorizing the republication.
Euphron had been responsible for ridding Sikyon of
a Macedonian garrison and establishing democracy
there shortly before his trip to Athens. The first decree (lines 2-34) was passed in the fifth prytany of
the archonship of Kephisodoros of 323/22 (lines 1-2), but was rescinded and the original stele recording
it probably destroyed by the oligarchy which came
into power later that year. The second (lines 35-87)
is a resolution passed by the restored democracy in
the fourth prytany of the archonship of Archippos,
318 (lines 35-36). Euphron had since been killed resisting the Macedonians, but the reaffirmation was
necessary to ensure that the original honours would
be extended to his son. Two copies of the stele were
to have been set up, one on the Akropolis, the other
by Zeus Soter, a reference to the statue of Zeus
Eleutherios/Soter in the Agora (lines 68-70); copies
of the original decree were apparently set up in the
same locations (lines 26-28). The stele in the National Museum must be the Agora copy; a fragmentary, now lost inscription found on the Akropolis
(IG II2 575
) may have been a copy of the original
decree set up there (Osborne, Naturalization
, D 41).
Both decrees stipulate that the treasurer of the demos
is to pay fifty drachmai for the publication (lines 29-31, 85 - 87), but the second decree has the unusual
provision that the friends and relatives of Euphron
contribute to the publication of the decrees (lines 72-73), probably because the honorand was deceased and
the decrees were being published in their interest.
On the left stands Athena, wearing a chiton under
a belted peplos, a mantle over her raised left and lowered right arms, a collar aegis with gorgoneion, and a
helmet. Her raised left hand held her painted spear.
Next to Athena is a bearded figure who turns toward
the much smaller Euphron at the right. His extended
right hand probably held a crown representing the
1000-drachmai gold crown awarded Euphron in the
decree. The figure has often been identified as Zeus
Soter because one copy of the decree was to have
been set up by his statue, but the figure is slightly
smaller than Athena, suggesting that he is Demos
(cf. nos. 38, 49, 117, 133, 149, 150, 167, 172). Since
Euphron was the leader of the democrats in Sikyon
who had once before freed his city from Macedonia
and established a democracy there, Demos would be
an appropriate representative of the democracies he
had served in Sikyon and Athens.
In an unusual instance of anecdote in a document
relief, Euphron is depicted as just having arrived in
Athens with his offer of alliance, the action for which
he is praised in the first decree. He stands before
Athena and Demos wearing a short chiton, a sword
on a strap fastened diagonally across his chest, and a
mantle thrown over his left shoulder. Behind him on
the right are his horse, just emerging from behind the
anta, and a small groom or servant actively restraining it. The horse's metal reins originally were attached
to the hole near its mouth. The groom wears a
chlamys. His right leg is missing; a small hole in the
break at his groin may be the result of an ancient repair.
The figure of Athena in this relief is usually cited
as a copy of the original of the Castra Praetoria
Athena (Rome, Museo Nuovo Capitolino inv. 1829:
Helbig4, 510-11 no. 1732; M. Bieber, The Sculpture
of the Hellenistic Age
2 (1961) figs. 210-I 2). Her pose,
proportions, and the mantle worn over both shoulders resemble details of the Castra Praetoria statue, but other differences in details of her drapery, the
position of her left arm, and her helmet type indicate
that the relationship is not very close.
Although Euphron's relief is unusually large and
elaborate for a document relief, with metal attachments and figures carved in such high relief that some
of their limbs are entirely detached from the relief
ground, the figures appear small within their deep
frame, lacking the monumentality of the Bosporans
of no. 35 and many figures in contemporary grave
reliefs. The fans of roughly parallel, round, and revealing ridge-folds in the himation of Demos are typical
of much earlier works, but the way that they stretch
diagonally from ankle to hip is typical of the late
fourth century. Athena's high-waisted proportions,
with her belt beneath her breasts, are characteristic of
female figures of the end of the century (no. 59).
H. Lolling, ArchDelt
(1892) 56-71; IG
II.5 231b; P. Arndt
, pl. 533.1; L. Mariani, BullComm
35 (1907) 20, fig.
5; L. Savignoni, Ausonia
2 (1907) 36; Kastriotis, 265 no.
6 (1909) 1218 s.v. Euphron 2 (H. Swoboda); SIG
3 310, 317; Walter, 13; F. Studniczka, Artemis und Iphigenie
(1926) 92, fig. 74; Diepolder, 56; Binneboeßel, 15 no. 68, 20,
21-23, 58, 59, 66, 67, 71, 76, 77; H. Speier, RM
62-63, 70-71, 88, 94, pl. 29.1; L. Lerat, BCH
169, 171; Svoronos, 607-16 no. 249, pl. 108; A. Billheimer,
42 (1938) 475-77; Curtius, Antike Kunst
, 340, 410,
416, 432, fig. 494; V. Müller, ArtB
20 (1938) 374, 377;
Süsserott, 28 n. 5, 36 n. 31, 67-68, 91, 184, 188, 192, 202 n.
22, pl. 9.4; O. Walter, ÖJh
32 (1940) 15 n. 49, 21 Lippold,
275 n. 5, 276 n. 9, pl. 94.4; Wycherley, Agora III
, 29 no. 42;
Picard IV.2, 1266, fig. 496; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254 (o); SEG
21.297, 317; Schefold, Classical Greece
, 185-86, 188-89,
222, 250 no, 58, app. pl. 58; SEG
Schmaltz, 50, 58 n. 80; Rauscher, 163-64; G. B. Waywell,
66 (1971) 378; Langenfaß-Vuduroglu, 42 no. 86, 45,
61, 92-93, 96; F. T. van Straten, BABesch
49 (1974) 184-87; Zagdoun, FdD
IV.6, 54-55; Palagia, Euphranor
, 62; SEG
26.82; Osborne, Naturalization
, D 24, D 38, D 41; SEG
31.79, 271; Schwenk, 407-18 no. 83; SEG
125-28, pl. 32.3 (det. Athena); LIMC
II, 1013 no. 613, s.v.
Athena (P. Demargne); III, 380 no. 58, pl. 275, s.v. Demos
(O. Alexandri-Tzachou); SEG
35.239; Meyer, 303 A 134,
pl. 39.1; SEG
SEG 26.90 (IG II2 734 +) Athens, EM 7323 303/2 Plate 29
Two joining fragments: a (EM 7323
) with relief, found
between Theatre of Dionysos and Odeion of Herodes
Atticus, + b (EM 4614
), provenance unknown. Broken all
around. Relief separated from inscription by moulding
consisting of broad taenia, ovolo, and narrow lower taenia,
together 0.047 wide. White, medium-grained marble. p.h.
0.33, p.w. 0.20, p. th. 0.165, relief h. 0.04, h. of letters 0.005-0.006,
The fragmentary inscription apparently reaffirms a
citizenship grant for a person whose name is not
preserved. It is securely dated to the ninth prytany of
the archonship of Leostratos, 303/2 (lines 1-2) by the
coincidence of its secretary with that of IG II2 489
493-497. All that remains of the relief is the foot of
a figure standing on the right and turning toward the
left, where another figure, Athena or Demos, probably originally stood.
K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph
(1856) 1372-73 no. 2743; IG
280; A. Reusch, Hermes
15 (1880) 345-46 no. 280; A.
24 (1889) 151; IG II2 734
, Add. p. 666; A. C. Johnson, AJP
34 (1913) 404-5; CP
9 (1914) 433; B. D.
7 (1938) 142-43; Meritt, Epigraphica Attica
, 54-55; C. Karapa, ArchDelt
29 A (1974) 159-63 no. 2,
pl. 90; A. G. Woodhead, Ancient Macedonian Studies in
Honor of Charles F. Edson
(1981) 364-65; SEG
, D 46; SEG
31.82, 271; Meyer,
308 A 150.
Athens honours an archon
Hesperia 37 (1968)
273 no. 12 Athens, Agora I 2165 145/44 Plate 31
Found in Agora in 1934 in wall of modern house east of
southern part of Odeion (N-O 11). Right edge preserved,
back rough-picked. Relief bordered on right by 0.035 wide
anta, below by taenia inscribed [ΘΕ
and ovolo, together
0.045 wide. Surface worn. White, medium-grained marble.
p.h. 0.27, p.w. 0.30, th. 0.128, relief h. 0.04, h. of letters
0.013 (line 1), 0.009 (lines 2 ff.).
The decree honours a man whose name is not preserved who served as an archon, perhaps as Meritt suggested, in one of the ‘Athenian overseas dependencies’. The man is honoured for his services in the
archonship of Eukrates, 146/45 (line 4). The decree
dates from the following year, after his term had been
reviewed. On the right stands a figure, probably male,
preserved only from the knees down. He turns in
three-quarter view toward the left, where there is an
altar, of which two steps and part of a triglyph of the
superstructure are preserved. The figure may be a deity
or the honorand himself. What remains of the relief
appears to have been relatively high and carefully
B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
37 (1968) 273 no. 12, pl. 79; Meyer,
315 C 1.
The orgeones of Aphrodite honour Serapion of
AM 66 (1941) 228 no. 4 Athens, NM 3876 138/37 Plate 32
Three fragments found in Athens in 1933, in work on
Leoforos Syngrou near Church of Hagios Sostos. Top, both
edges preserved, back rough-picked. Considerable part of
relief missing between two joining top fragments and fragment with bottom of relief and inscription. In back, two
large, round holes, 0.08 diam., 0.04 deep, probably for reuse of stone. Relief bordered by architectural frame consisting of 0.055-0.06 wide antae supporting 0.06 wide taenia and 0.12 high pediment with akroteria. Relief somewhat worn, chipped, with accretions on upper fragment. Grey,
medium-grained marble. p.h. (as restored) 0.82, w. 0.54 (top),
0.525 (bottom), th. 0.12 (top), 0.13 (bottom), relief h. 0.015,
h. of letters 0.005-0.007.
The decree of the orgeones of Aphrodite honours their
epimeletes Serapion for his service to the cult and to
the demos of the Athenians. It is securely dated to the
archonship of Timarchos, 138/37 (line 1). The stele
was to have been set up in the sanctuary of Aphrodite
The figure on the right side of the relief is larger
than the other figures and thus probably Aphrodite;
only her legs and a trace of the top of her head are
preserved. She turns toward the left and in her left
hand holds a sceptre, apparently resting on her shoulder. The two figures on the left are slightly smaller in
scale and therefore probably mortals, Serapion and
his wife or perhaps a priestess. Serapion, who wears
a wreath, is a portrait of a middle-aged man with a
round face, large nose, and short, curly hair. The
female figure wears a peplos or chiton and a mantle
pulled up over the back of her head like a veil. She
appears to raise her right hand almost to her chin. In
the centre of the relief is an altar and behind it a pillar
supporting a very small figure, intended as a statue in
the distance. The figure turns toward the right and
holds a crown or phiale in her extended right hand.
In her left hand she holds a spear. She wears a chiton,
himation, and diagonally draped aegis. Perched beside her on the pillar is a small bird or animal.
The individualization of the honorand and the suggestion of deep space in the distant pillar reflect Hellenistic interest in portraiture and the depiction of illusionistic space in relief.
N. Kyparissis and W. Peek, AM
66 (1941) 228-32 no. 4,
pls. 75, 76; J. and L. Robert, REG
55 (1942) 329; G. Daux,
16 (1947) 55 - 57; W. S. Ferguson, Commemorative Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear, Hesperia
Suppl. 8 (1949) 163; Meyer, 316 C 3.
Athens honours the prytaneis of Pandionis
SEG 21.478 Athens, Agora I 6422 118/17 Plate 32
Found 1 February 1952 in wall of modern house south of
Church of Holy Apostles (O-Q 16-17). Left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by ovolo. Surface chipped. Grey, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.26, p.h. of relief 0.07, p.w. 0.20, th. 0.14,
relief h. ca. 0.02, h. of letters 0.007.
The prytaneis of Pandionis are praised for their celebration of a pannychis during their term of office.
Meritt suggested that the goddess honoured was
Athena Ergane and that the festival was the Chalkeia.
The decree is securely dated to the archonship of
Lennaios, 118/17 (line 1). Only a small section of
relief is preserved near the left edge of the inscription,
showing vertical drapery folds of a figure in a long
garment turned toward the right. Reliefs on prytany
inscriptions are rare (see no. 97).
B. D. Meritt, Hesperia
32 (1963) 22-23 no. 23, pl. 5; Meritt
and J. S. Traill, Agora XV: Inscriptions: The Athenian Councillors
(1974) 202 no. 253; Meyer, 316 C 4.