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Catalogue A

The Dated Reliefs


1.
The collection of tribute
IG I3 68 Athens, EM 6595 426/25 Plate 1

Thirteen fragments, ten found on Akropolis and South Slope. Twelve fragments now EM 6595 and set in relative positions in plaster reconstruction (photo, AJP 88 [1967] pl. 2): I (a + b, c), II (d, e + f + m), III (g + i + j + l, h). Position of fragment K (EM 2494) uncertain. Both edges preserved. Fragment I b preserves part of left edge of relief and inscription, otherwise broken all around. Relief separated from inscription by taenia and cyma reversa. Moulding and inscription extend 0.115 beyond edge of relief. Surface battered, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. Restored minimum dimensions of stele without relief: h. 1.40, w. 0.592, th. 0.163. Relief: p.h. 0.13, p.w. 0.195, th. 0.115, relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.009.

The stele records two decrees containing a number of provisions for the collection and enforcement of the tribute, with emphasis upon the personal responsibility of the local tribute collectors. It is assumed that these decrees are the result of provisions made in the second Methone decree (no. 2, lines 51-56), which is dated to the first prytany of 426/25. The stele was to have been set up on the Akropolis while Kekropis was in prytany (lines 24-25); Kekropis held the second prytany in 426/25 (IG I3 369, line 6).

All that remains of the relief is a small fragment of the lower left corner depicting containers, which must represent the collected tribute. Standing at the left is a hydria and above and behind it perhaps another. Pots were convenient storage containers for coins; the accounts of the treasury at Delos list stamnoi containing money (F. Durrbach, Inscriptions de Délos, comptes des Hiéropes [1929] no. 399 and 63), and Raubitschek (TAPA 72 [1941] 356-62) has argued that the tribute collected at the time of the City Dionysia was displayed, one talent per hydria, in the theatre (see also Isok. 8.82). Next to the pots are a number of bulging sacks tied at the top, which resemble those on the nearly contemporary frieze of the Ilissos Temple (NM 1780: C. Picon, AJA 82 [1978] 51, fig. 1) and must also represent tribute. There may originally have been at least one figure, perhaps Athena, in the missing part of the relief.

K. S. Pittakys, L'ancienne Athènes (1835) 315-16; ArchEph (1838) 134 no. 85, fig. 85 (drwg.); ArchEph (1939) 180 no. 163; Rangabé I, 347 nos. 263, 264; 351-52 no. 269; 361 no. 283; Pittakys, ArchEph (1855) 1319 no. 2652; ArchEph (1856) 1432 no. 2911; ArchEph (1860) 1961 no. 3809, 1964 no. 3817; IG I 38; IG I Suppl. I, 25 no. 116m; H. Lolling, ArchDelt (1889) 52 no. 4; IG I Suppl. III, 141 no. 39a; W. Bannier, AM 27 (1902) 301-2; A. Wilhelm, AnzWien (1909) 53-56, pl. opp. 54; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl 14 (1911) 59; IG I2 65; Binneboeßel, 3 no. 4, 27-28; A. Hess, Klio 28 (1935) 27, pl. I; B. D. Meritt, Documents on Athenian Tribute (1937) 3-42, figs. 1-7; ATL I, 123-26, 166-67 D8, 213, figs. 178-84; A. E. Raubitschek, AJP 61 (1940) 475-77; TAPA 72 (1941) 356-62; P. Jacobsthal, AJA 47 (1943) 308; ATL II, 52-58; SEG 10.72; ATL III, 133; SEG 13.10; N. Platon, ArchDelt 19 B.I (1964) 22, pl. II; B. Meritt, AJP 88 (1967) 29-32, pls. I, 2 SEG 23.18; Meiggs and Lewis, 184-88 no. 68; SEG 25.29; Meyer, 265 A 3.


2.
Athens and Methone
IG I3 61 Athens, EM 6596 424/23 Plate 1

Found in Theatre of Dionysos. Upper part of relief and bottom of inscription broken, edges badly chipped. Surface very worn, corroded, with several vertical cracks. Grey-white, medium-grained marble. p.h. of stele 1.00, p.w. of stele 0.53 (top), 0.55 (bottom), th. 0.11, p.h. of relief 0.21, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.015 (lines 1-2), 0.01 (lines 3 ff.).

The stele recorded at least four decrees concerning Methone, an Eretrian colony on the Thermaic gulf, probably a tributary ally of the Athenian empire by this time, and favoured by Athens for its strategic position in an area of Macedonian influence. Only the first two decrees, setting forth financial and trading privileges and warning Perdikkas of Macedon of Athenian support for Methone, are well-preserved. The decrees were not passed in the same year, and the date of the first (between 430 and 426) in particular is problematic, but the stele itself was carved in the eighth prytany of 424/23, when Phainippos was secretary of Akamantis (Thuc. 4.118.11). He is named at the top of the inscription (line 2), in addition to the secretaries of the first three decrees, and so must have been the secretary of the last decree, which is lost (ATL III, 133).

The relief depicts Athena seated on a rock at the far right, facing another figure in the centre of the relief. She extends her right hand toward the somewhat smaller figure and rests her left elbow on part of the rock (or once-painted shield?) behind her. She wears a sleeved chiton, a mantle wrapped around her lower body, and an aegis, its small gorgoneion barely visible. Her head is almost entirely broken away. The seated Athena is a popular type in late fifth- and early fourth-century document reliefs (see nos. 11, 71, 72, 87, 90, 91). The other figure, whose upper half is almost completely destroyed, wears a short, belted chiton and extends her right hand toward Athena; she is accompanied on the left by a dog, and there are further unidentifiable traces of relief on the far left. The dress of the figure, the dog, and the probability of the figure's dexiosis with Athena make Artemis, a major Eretrian deity, a likely symbol of her colony; cf. NM 1783 B, a late fifth-century votive relief dedicated to Hermes and the Nymphs with a similar figure of Artemis wearing a short chiton (Svoronos, pl. 28; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, fig. 186). The disparity in the scale of the two figures, which has sometimes been cited as an objection to this identification, is no more than the conventional difference in size between standing and seated figures grouped together. The relief is very worn, but Athena's position and the prominent modelling lines across her legs bring to mind the drapery of the seated Athena of the east frieze of the Hephaisteion (Hesperia 31 [1962], pl. 77b, fig. 6; Ridgway, fig. 50).

Pittakys, ArchEph (1838) 96-98 no. 45, fig. 45 (drwg.) opp. p. 114; Rangabé I, 313-28 no. 250, pl. 7 (drwg.); Müller and Schöll, 53-58 no. 31, 76, 82; Schöne, 24-25 no. 50, pl. 8 (drwg.); A. Dumont, Monuments Grecs 1 (1873) 37-38; IG I 40; Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 563, 566; P. Gardner, JHS 9 (1888) 54-55; Le Bas, pl. 34 (drwg.); Farnell I, 351; Kern, xi no. 15, pl. 15; Matz, 55; SIG3 75; Walter, Beschreibung, 20; IG 12 57, Add. p. 302; Kjellberg, 139; W. R. Halliday, The Greek Questions of Plutarch (1928) 64-65; Diepolder, 18; Binneboeßel, 3 no. 3, 20, 25-29, 36, 52; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 90; Svoronos, 664 no. 428, pl. 205.1; Walter, ÖJh 30 (1937) 53-54; ATL I, 120, 162-63, 209, 212 D3-6; Picard II.2, 838; Tod I, 129-32 no. 61; ATL II, 48-49, pl. 1; ATL III, 133-37; SEG 10.66; Lippold, 198 n. 6; SEG 21.40; Meiggs and Lewis, 176-80 no. 65; SEG 25.27; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 172 no. 5, fig. 77; SEG 26.17; SEG 31.2; SEG 32.8; Meyer, 265 A , pl. 4.1; SEG 38.3.


3.
Rheitos bridge decree
IG I3 79 Eleusis, Archaeological Museum E 958 422/21 Plate 2

Found in fortification wall near Greater Propylaia in Eleusis in 1887. Back and top rough-picked, sides smooth, bottom broken. Badly chipped taenia and cyma reversa above. Relief bordered below by taenia with first line of inscription and cyma reversa, together 0.09 wide. Surface uniformly weathered, with corrosion and red-brown iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. of stele 0.90, w. 0.53 (relief and inscription), 0.57 (top moulding), th. 0.10 (relief), 0.12 (inscription), relief h. 0.02, h. of letters 0.018.

The decree, dated to the first prytany of 422/21 by its secretary Prepis (lines 1-4), provides for the construction of a stone footbridge over one of the Rheitoi, the pair of lakes that stood at the border between Athens and Eleusis, to be constructed from blocks taken from the demolished Archaic Telesterion at Eleusis. The bridge formed part of the Sacred Way taken by Athenians going to Eleusis for initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries.

The relief depicts Demeter, Kore, a young male probably to be identified as Triptolemos, and Athena, all standing on a ground line slightly raised above the moulding. Athena stands on the right. She wears a belted peplos, shoulder mantle, aegis with gorgoneion, and an Attic helmet. Her left arm is raised high to hold her spear, which was originally shown in paint. She looks toward the smaller male figure, who wears a himation. His left hand is raised with the fingers turned inward as though holding a slender object. His right hand crosses Athena's right hand but probably does not grasp it; the angle of their arms seems too low, the gesture too inconsequential for dexiosis. In age and gesture the youth resembles the male figure in the Great Eleusinian Relief (NM 126: L. Schneider, AntP 12 (1973) 103-22, pls. 31-41) and like him is often identified as Triptolemos holding once-painted stalks of grain. Triptolemos often appears with Demeter and Kore in votive reliefs of this period and is therefore a likely representative of their cult. Although he is almost always shown in his chariot (cf. no. 161), the stalks of grain would have been sufficient to identify him.

Further left stand Demeter and Kore, to whom the Rheitoi were said to be sacred (Paus. 1.38.1; Hesych. s.v. Rheitoi). Kore carries one torch cradled in her left arm and a second torch held upside down in her extended right hand. She wears a peplos and a himation. Demeter wears a belted peplos with unbelted overfall and a shoulder mantle, one end of which she holds up in her left hand. Figures very similar to these appear in contemporary votive reliefs (cf. the figures identified by inscription on a relief in the Catania Mus. Communale: Neumann, Weihreliefs pl. 32a) and may have been inspired by the figures of Demeter and Kore on the east frieze of the Nike Temple (Blümel, pl. 7, figs. 20, 21); cf. also no. 165. The style of the document relief is also closely comparable to that of the frieze; figures in both relief and frieze have the same clear distinction between the weight leg obscured by heavy folds and the free leg revealed by clinging cloth.

D. Philios, AM 19 (1894) 163-73, pl. 7; M. Ruhland, Eleusinischen Göttinnen (1901) 19-27, 40, pl. 2.1 (det.); Farnell III, 237, pl. 14; Matz, 56; SIG3 86; IG I2 81 and Add. p. 302; Kjellberg, 87, 89, 93, 120, 132-33, 137, 140, 144, pl. 12 no. 39; A. Hekler, JdI 42 (1927) 70-73, Beil. 2 to p. 71; Diepolder, 21; Binneboeßel, 4 no. 5, 20, 23, 28-31, 33-34, 37-38, 50; F. Poulsen, ActaA 3 (1932) 242-46, fig. 10; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 24-25, 90, pls. 8.1, 8.2 (dets.), 9.1; V. Müller, AJA 39 (1935) 250; K. Kourouniotes, Eleusis, Guide to the Excavations and Museum (1936) 85-86, frontispiece; Curtius, Antike Kunst, 237, 265, 315, 324, 428, fig. 410; Süsserott, 19 n. 27, 27 n. 5, 29, 32 n. 20, 33-34, 37 n. 33, 38 n. 39, 39, 45 n. 63, 54, 94-95, 130, 197 n. 4, 216; Picard II.2, 838; SEG 10.94; Lippold, 198 n. 6, pl. 73.3; Dohrn, 17, 21, 24, 26-29, 41; Hausmann, 41-42, pl. 20; G. Mylonas, Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (1961) 84 n. 17, 193-94, fig. 69; F. Eckstein, AntP 4 (1965) 31, figs. 3-6 (casts); E. Berger, AntK 10 (1967) 85, pl. 24.2 (det.); B. D. Meritt and M. F. McGregor, Phoenix 21 (1967) 85-91; Schefold, Classical Greece, 111, 151, 158-59, 248 no. 30, app. pl. 30; Guarducci, 592-93, fig. 185; G. M. A. Richter, Sculptors and Sculpture of the Greeks4 (1970) 69, 255; Schmaltz, 22 n. 26, 23, 43; Hiller, 21-23, 27, 49, 54, 56, 62, fig. 23 (det.); Rauscher, 149-50; A. Peschlow-Bindokat, JdI 87 (1972) 112-13, 130-34, 150, fig. 34; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 172-73 no. 9, fig. 83; K. Kanta, Eleusis: Myth, Mysteries, History, Museum (1979) 47 no. 5093, fig. 10; Neumann, Weihreliefs, 57; T. L. Shear, Jr., Studies in Athenian Architecture, Sculpture and Topography presented to Homer A. Thompson, Hesperia, Suppl. 20 (1982) 130-31, pl. 18b; LIMC II, 1013 no. 606, pl. 763, s.v. Athena (P. Demargne); J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: the Classical Period (1985) 186-87, fig. 178; L.J. Roccos, AJA 90 (1986) 208; LIMC III, 378-79 no. 42, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); LIMC IV, 881 no. 446, s.v. Demeter (L. Beschi); Meyer, 266 A 5; SEG 36.13 and 137.


4.
The sanctuary of Kodros, Neleus, and Basile
IG I3 84 Athens, EM 10616 418/17 Plate 2

Complete stele found in winter of 1884-85 in house construction some distance south-east of Akropolis on left bank of railway to Phaleron. All edges, tenon at bottom preserved. Mouldings above and below relief, most of sculpted surface rough-picked. White, medium-grained marble. h. 1.49, h. of relief 0.41, w. of relief 0.59 (top), 0.605 (bottom), w. of inscription 0.59 (top), 0.64 (bottom), th. 0.195 (top), 0.16 (bottom), h. of letters 0.01.

The decree, passed in the ninth prytany of the archonship of Antiphon (lines 2-3), concerns provisions for enclosing and leasing various parts of the sanctuary of Kodros, Neleus, and Basile in Athens. The stele was to have been set up at public expense in the Neleion, by the ikria (lines 27-28). (For other probable references to this shrine, see Pl. Charmides 1 53a and Agora I 4138: B.D. Meritt, Hesperia 7 (1938) 123-26 no. 25.)

Although the entire stele is preserved, the relief has been systematically rough-picked, probably for reuse of the stone. Only two small areas of very low relief survive undamaged, but the general outline of the original composition is still to some extent visible. At the left a seated figure faces right, its left arm raised high as though holding a spear or sceptre. Both that hand and what appears to have been the crest of the figure's helmet overlapped the moulding above the relief. The figure is usually described as bearded, but this may be only the impression created by damage to the area around the head. At the right, facing the figure on the left, is a figure on a rearing horse whose head and forelegs are clearly visible in outline. The end of the horse's tail and part of the rider's chlamys are still preserved in very low relief at the far right. The chlamys flies out behind the rider in several folds ending in omega-shaped loops at the hem, a motif that occurs in some figures of the Nike Temple frieze (Blümel, pls. V, VI) and on the gently fluttering veil of Hera on no. 5.

Because so little is known about the cult and the relationship between Kodros, Neleus, and Basile, and because both figures are so badly damaged, any reconstruction of the relief must be conjectural. It has sometimes been assumed that the sanctuary was chiefly associated with Neleus because the inscription refers variously to the ‘the Neleion’ (lines 27-28), ‘payments to Neleus’ (lines 21-22), and the ‘temenos of Neleus and Basile’ (lines 12, 29, 32), but it is clear from the text as a whole that these are references only to various parts of the sanctuary and the provisions for them; Kodros is always mentioned first in references to the sanctuary as a whole (lines 4, 14, 30-31).

Neleus is a shadowy figure and difficult to characterize. Most representations of him come from Italy, where he often appears with his mother Tyro and his twin Pelias in the recognition scene from Sophokles' Tyro (L. Séchan, Études sur la tragédie grecque dans ses rapports avec la céramique [1926] 224 n. 9), but he is not depicted as a rider, and these scenes can have nothing to do with the relief in question. It is unclear whether in Athens he was equated with the Pylian Neleus, father of Nestor and ancestor of Kodros, or with the Neleus who was a son of Kodros and founder of Ionian cities (Hdt. 10.97). H. A. Shapiro (Ancient Greek Art and Iconography) has suggested the possible political significance of the Neleids to their descendants the Peisistratids in the Archaic period, but the only Attic representation of Neleus is a late fifth-century vase fragment of the recognition scene (Hesperia 24 [1955] 78-79 and pl. 34a).

Basile, sometimes confused with Basileia, is also obscure; the only fifth-century representation of her is a labelled figure on a late fifth-century rf pyxis that has not yet been fully published (O. Alexandri, ArchDelt 31 B.1 [1976] 30, pl. 35a). She is certainly also the female figure in the relief of a deme decree of Eitea of 332/31 (no. 43), which was to have been set up in a sanctuary of Basile, and she is listed in the sacrificial calendar of Erkhia of ca. 375-50 (G. Daux, BCH 87 [1963] 621). There is nothing in these sources to associate her with either of the figures in the document relief. (The inscription of the so-called Echelos-Basile relief [NM 1783] clearly reads ‘Iasile’: O. Walter, ArchEph [1937] A 113; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia 11 [1942] 284-85. For the distinction between Basile and Basileia, see Shapiro, ZPE.)

Kodros, in contrast, seems to have been a more popular figure in fifth-century Athens. He appears with the Eponymous and Marathonian heroes in Phidias' Marathon monument at Delphi, probably dating from the 450s (Paus. 10.10.1; Kron, Phylenheroen, 215-17; E. B. Harrison, ‘Eponymous Heroes’, 81-83), and as a fully armed warrior on the name vase of the Codrus Painter of ca. 430 (Bologna, Mus. Civ. PU 273: ARV2 1268.1; Kron, Phylenheroen, pls. 15.1, 16.1 and 2). In the late fifth century it is possible that the importance of Kodros, the Athenian king who sacrificed himself to the Peloponnesians in order to save Athens (Lykourg. Leokr. 84- 87), had eclipsed that of Basile and Neleus and that, as the most politically significant of the three cult personages, he would have been the most likely subject for a type of relief that had largely political associations. If the rider in the relief is Kodros, the figure opposite him is as likely to be Athena as either Basile or Neleus. She is present in most fifth-century document reliefs, and the general outline of the figure on the left resembles that of the seated Athenas that were so common in document reliefs of the late fifth and early fourth centuries (cf. nos. 2, 11, 71, 72, 87, 90, 91).

S. A. Koumanoudes, ArchEph (1884) 161-66, pl. 10 (drwg.); A. Frothingham, AJA 1 (1885) 228, 469; E. Curtius, SBBerl (1885) 437 = Gesammelte Abhandlungen I (1894) 459-64; J. R. Wheeler, AJA 3 (1887) 38-49; IG I Suppl. pp. 66-67 no. 53a, 165; IG I2 94, Add. p. 302; SIG3 93; Binneboeßel, 4 no. 8, 20, 23, 32, 43; B. D. Meritt, AJP 57 (1936) 180-82; O. Walter, ArchEph (1937) A 114 n. 1; M. Giffler, Hermes 75 (1940) 215-22; Meritt, CQ 40 (1946) 45-46; SEG 10.103; Dohrn, 17; R. E. Wycherley, BSA 55 (1960) 60-66; SEG 19.18; Sokolowiki, Lois sacrées des cités grecques (1969) 28-30 no. 14; D. Behrend, Attische Pachturkunden (1970) 55-61; A. Kaloyeropoulou, ArchDelt 25 A (1970) 209 n. 14; Travlos, 332-35, figs. 435, 436; SEG 25.36; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 173 no. 10, fig. 84; H.A. Shapiro, in W. Moon (ed.), Ancient Greek Art and Iconography (1983) 87-96; SEG 33.14; SEG 35.7 and 110; Shapiro, ZPE 63 (1986) 134-36; LIMC III, 674-75, s.v. Echelos (A. Kossatz-Deissmann); SEG 36.15 and 38; N. D. Robertson, GRBS 29 (1988) 224-30; Meyer, 267 A 7, pl. 6.1; SEG 38.5.


5.
Athens and Argos
IG
13 86 Athens, AM 2980 + 2431 + 2981 + EM 6588a 417/16 Plate 3

Ten fragments, all but g (found in 1937 in Agora section R 19) from Akropolis: a + b (EM 6588a + d), c + d + g (EM 6588 + EM 6588e + Agora I 5026), e (EM 6588g), f (EM 6588b), relief (AM 0980 + 2431 + 2981). EM 6588a has small section of relief joining AM fragments. Left edge and top preserved, back rough-picked. Relief broken at upper left corner and right side. Upper moulding 0.07 wide, badly chipped. Relief separated from inscription by taenia bearing first line of inscription and ovolo, together 0.095 wide. Two modern dowel holes in bottom of relief: one trefoil-shaped, 0.04 diam., 0.14 from left edge; the other round, 0.035 diam., 0.04 from vertical break along second figure from left. Much of surface flaked, corroded. Relief background has conspicuous tool marks, with surface smoothed only around contours of figures. White, medium-grained marble. AM fragments: p.h. 0.62, p.w. 0.70, th. 0.155, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.015 (line 1), 0.01 (lines 2 ff.).

Argos, with its long history of anti-Spartan sentiment, was an important ally for Athens at this point in the Peloponnesian War. The decree is a renewal of an alliance of 420 between Athens and Argos, resumed after the brief period of oligarchic control in Argos that followed the Spartan victory in the Battle of Mantineia (Thuc. 5.40-47, 82). It is securely dated to the prytany of Aiantis in the archonship of Euphemos (lines 2-3), which Meritt has shown to have been the spring of 417/16 (Hesperia 14 [1945] 125).

The relief depicts Hera, the pre-eminent deity of Argos, with her consort Zeus looking on (cf. nos. 24, 96, probably no. 41) as she clasps the right hand of another figure, undoubtedly Athena, on the right. Hera stands in the centre of the relief and faces right. Her fluttering veil is caught up daintily with the thumb and forefinger of her left hand in the gesture of unveiling characteristic of Hera as bride of Zeus. The animated drapery with the omega-shaped fold at the end occurs on the contemporary decree concerning the sanctuary of Kodros, Neleus, and Basile (no. 4) and on the Nike Temple frieze (Blümel, pls. V, VI). All that remains of Athena are the outline of her extended hand and the damaged profile of her face. Zeus is seated at the far left; the eagle at his side and the front leg of his throne are preserved on the small fragment of relief on EM 6588. He leans back in his seat, draping his right arm over the back of it, and raises his left arm high in front of him to hold his sceptre, which was shown in paint. Walbank has suggested that this inscription and the honorary decree for Proxenides of Knidos (no. 68) were carved by the same mason, but the reliefs do not appear to be by the same hand.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1840) 305 no. 364, fig. 364 (drwg.); Rangabé I, 334-36 no. 256, 352 no. 270, 360 no. 280; Pittakys, ArchEph (1853) 1038 no. 1951; ArchEph (1854) 1124-25 no. 2160; IG I 50; Sybel, 442 no. 7137; A. Wilhelm, ÖJhBeibl 1 (1898) 43; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl 14 (1911) 59; ÖJhBeibl 18 (1915) 87-90, fig. 33; Beschreibung, 1-3 no. 2, fig. 2; IG I2 96 and Add. p. 302; Kjellberg, 136, 137, 139; F. Eichler, ÖJh 24 (1929) 12 1-22; J. Geerlings, CP 24 (1929) 239-44; W. Kolbe, CP 25 (1930) 105-16; B. D. Meritt, CP 26 (193 1) 70-84; Binneboeßel, 4-5 no. 9, 20, 32-33, 36, 37; F. Poulsen, ActaA 3 (1932) 246-47; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 90; V. Müller, AJA 39 (193 5) 250; Svoronos, 664 no. 431 (1), pl. 207.1 (frag. c); Süsserott, 34 n. 25; Picard II.2, 838; Meritt, Hesperia 14 (1945) 122-27; SEG 10.104; Lippold, 198 n. 6; S. Charitonides, ArchEph (1957) 86-87; Dohrn, 24; Bengtson, 134-36 no. 196; SEG 21.49; Schmaltz, 23 n. 28, 43 n. 58; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 173 no. 11, fig. 125; Walbank, 348; LIMC IV, 691 no. 294, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 267 A 8, pl. 3.


6.
Repayments to Athena
IG I3 99 Athens, EM 6605 410/9 Plate 4

Found on Akropolis in 1864. Left edge of relief and inscription preserved. Taenia with first two lines of inscription and ovolo below relief. Inscribed surface battered but not worn, relief severely damaged. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.37, p.h. of relief 0.08, p.w. 0.33, th. 0.085, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.015 (lines 1-2), 0.018 (lines 3-7), 0.009 (lines 8ff.).

The inscription concerns the repayment of money borrowed from the treasury of Athena in the course of the Peloponnesian War and the creation of a reserve fund on the Akropolis. It was passed in the third prytany of the archon [Glauk]ippos of 410/9 (lines 4-7).

The relief is almost completely destroyed. At the far left are the feet of a figure wearing a long garment. The figure is turned toward the right, shifting its weight on to the left foot and extending the right foot to the side. Further right are the feet of another figure also turned toward the right. There is space for at least one more figure in the restored width of the stele. Athena would almost certainly have been one of the figures in the relief, and Erechtheus, who appears on other documents concerning Athena's treasury (nos. 8, 14, 20), would also be appropriate.

Pervanoglu, AZ 22 (1864) 298; IG I 58; A. Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 566 n. 8; IG I2 109; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 16, 20, 40; W. S. Ferguson, Treasurers, 34; ATL I, 126, 168, 213-14 D 9, figs. 187, 188; SEG 10.122; W. E. Thompson, ClMed 28 (1967) 228-29; Meyer, 269 A 14.


7.
Athens and Thracian Neapolis
IG I3 101 Athens, EM 6598 410/9 Plate 4

Nine fragments, all from Akropolis and South Slope: EM 6598, eight fragments reconstructed in BSA 46 (1951) pl. 23, and EM 6589, location in text uncertain. Left edge of inscription, right edge of relief preserved, back rough-picked. Three fragments preserve parts of relief; two join and constitute right half of relief, the third joins left side of inscription. Surface battered. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. of restored stele 1.36, p.h. of relief 0.345, w. 0.58, th. 0.065, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.025 (lines 2-3), 0.01 (lines 4-38), 0.007 (lines 39 ff.).

The stele records two decrees concerning Athens and Thracian Neapolis, a strategically important ally who in this period remained loyal to Athens in her struggles with Neapolis' mother city Thasos. The first decree (lines 4-46), passed in the sixth prytany of the archonship of [Gl]aukippos and therefore in the winter of 410/9 (lines 4-6), honoured the people of Neapolis for supporting Athens in its battle with Thasos, which had been in revolt after the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. 8.64). Two copies of this decree were to have been set up at the expense of the Neapolitans, one apparently on the Akropolis and the other in Neapolis in the sanctuary of the Parthenos (lines 42-45). The second decree (lines 48-64), passed after the recovery of Thasos in 407 (Diod. 13.72, 1; Xen. Hell. 1.4.9), praises Neapolis for its continued loyalty. Both the second decree and a line recording an expenditure late in 410/9 (line 47) were carved by different hands and must therefore be later additions to the stone. The stele was originally carved and set up in the sixth prytany of 410/9.

On the right side of the relief stands an Athena of the angelehnte type (cf. nos. 65, 76, 98) facing left, leaning on her shield and extending her right hand, which is broken off at the wrist. On the left side of the relief stood a figure of whom only the right foot is preserved. The ball of the foot rests on the ground and the heel is raised, suggesting that the figure turned toward Athena and clasped her extended right hand. The figure is probably the Parthenos of Neapolis, who is specifically mentioned in the inscription and who appears on an Athenian decree of 356/55 concerning the same city (no. 28). The elastic pose of Athena's body and the transparency of her drapery are typical of works ca. 410, but the drapery does not cling like the drapery of the accounts of the treasurers of Athena of 410/9 (no. 8).

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1839) 224 no. 244; Rangabé I, 354-55 no. 273; IG I 51; F. von Duhn, AZ (1877) 158 no. 52; S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 5 (1876/77) 86-89 no. 5; A. Milchhüfer, AM 5 (1880) 206 n. 1; Sybel, 288 no. 3997; Studniczka, 11-13, pl. A on p. 12 (drwg.); IG I Suppl. pp. 15-18; SIG3 107; Walter, Beschreibung, 17; IG I2 108; A. Hekler, JdI 42 (1927) 71, fig. 9; A. Praschniker, Antike Plastik, W. Amelung zum sechzigsten Geburtstag (1928) 176-81, fig. 5; Diepolder, 21; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 15, 20, 22, 23, 25, 38-41, 43, 50, 57; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 28, 90; P. Collart, Philippes, ville de Macédoine, depuis des origines jusqu'à la fin de l'époque romaine (1937) 127-30, pl. 22.1; Svoronos, 663 no. 427, pl. 204; Süsserott, 16, 30 n. 12, 198, 199 n. 11, 200, 201 n. 20; Picard II.2, 838; J. Marcadé, RA 17 (1941) 219; Tod I, 207-10 no. 84; SEG 10.124; B. D. Meritt and A. Andrewes, BSA 46 (1951) 200-9, pl. 23; Andrewes, JHS 73 (1953) 6-8; Pouilloux, Cultes de Thasos I, 155-60, pl. 14.1; SEG 12.37; Dohrn, 18, 39; Picard IV.2, 1256 n. 2, fig. 492; Karouzou, 153-59, fig. 8; F. Eckstein, AntP 4 (1965) 31, fig. 7; E. Berger, AntK 10 (1967) 85, pl. 24.4 (det.); Meiggs and Lewis, 271-75 no. 89; Schmaltz, 22 n. 26, 23; Hiller, 54, 63; Bradeen and McGregor, 125-26; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 174 no. 14, fig. 159; Meyer, 269 A 15, pl. 5.2; SEG 36.17 and 44.


8.
Accounts of the treasurers of Athena in 410/9
IG I3 375 Paris, Louvre MA 831 409/8 Plate 5

Entire opisthographic stele found in Athens in 1788, taken to Paris the next year by the Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier. Sculpted panel on obverse separated from inscription by badly chipped moulding. Back of panel smooth, with inscription beginning at level of obverse moulding. Inscription extends 0.08 beyond relief panel on either side. Mouldings, edges, hands, and heads of figures chipped. Vertical crack runs length of centre of stone. Reportedly Pentelic marble. h. 1.18, h. of relief 0.56, w. 0.62 (relief), 0.78 (inscription), th. 0.17 (top), 0.173 (bottom), h. of letters 0.007-0.008 (obverse), 0.005-0.01 (reverse). Not examined.

The stele, often referred to as the Choiseul Marble, is inscribed on both sides with accounts of the treasurers of Athena. The distribution and interpretation of the accounts are controversial, but the general sequence of the work is clear. The accounts on the obverse are for the year 410/9 and were carved at the beginning of 409/8. The relief was carved at the same time. The generally accepted date for the accounts on the reverse (IG 13 377) is 407/6, but Pritchett has argued that the accounts of 408/7 were also inscribed there. Because the accounts on the reverse were inscribed by a different mason, they must have been a later addition to the stone.

The relief depicts Athena and a bearded male figure, probably Erechtheus, standing on either side of a bare tree that probably once had painted leaves. Athena is identified only by her characteristic dress, a belted peplos, and her spear, held in her left hand and resting on her left shoulder. She turns slightly toward the male figure on the right. He wears a himation and holds a staff crutch-like under his left arm. He extends his right hand in a gesture of recognition or welcome. Unlike Athena, he is barefoot. This figure and others like him on later records of the treasurers of Athena have often been identified as Demos, but there are no certain examples of the Athenian Demos in document reliefs until well into the fourth century, and the figures on the treasurers' documents do not closely resemble the fourth-century figures, whose longer hair and fuller beards make them seem considerably older (cf. nos. 38, 49, 54, 149, 167). In general type and stance the figure is very like some of the eponymous heroes on the east frieze of the Parthenon (figures 18-28 and 43-46: Brommer, 255-56, pls. 168, 171, 183, 184; Kron, Phylenheroen, 202-13, pls. 30, 31). E. B. Harrison has identified the only barefoot hero there as Erechtheus, his bare feet emphasizing his relationship to his mother Ge (‘Eponymous Heroes’, 71, 79). The tree between the two figures in the document relief, so emphasized by the composition that it is surely Athena's sacred olive tree , also supports the identification of the figure as Erechtheus; the tree grew in the shrine shared by Athena and Erechtheus on the Akropolis (Paus. 1.27.1-2; for another representation of Erechtheus standing by a tree, see the fragmentary pelike of ca. 460 by Hermonax: Agora P 8959: ARV2 486, 34; N. Weill, BCH 86 (1962) 83-85, abb. 12, 13). As the autochthonous king of Athens reared by Athena, Erechtheus would be an especially appropriate guardian of Athena's treasury. On the inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods of 398/97 (no. 14), a similar figure appears again with Athena, and on the inventory of the treasurers of Athena of 377/76 (no. 20), Erechtheus may have been shown with his daughters.

The transparent drapery of the relief, particularly the delicate web of folds rhythmically slung across Erechtheus' body, is closely related to the style of the Sandalbinder from the Nike Temple Parapet (Carpenter, pl. XXVII). The opposing bowed curves at Athena's bent knee also occur in the Erechtheion korai (Ridgway, 106-7, fig. 82).

F. de Clarac, Musée de sculpture . . . du Louvre (1841) II.1, 711-13 no. 265, II.2, 857-66 no. 447, Atlas II, pl. 152 (drwg.); Müller and Schöll, 74; W. Fröhner, Les inscriptions grecques . . . du Louvre (1865) 90 no. 46, drwg. opp. p. 90; Schöne, 20; IG I 188; P. Foucart, BCH 2 (1878) 37-40; Fröhner, Notice de la sculpture du Louvre I (1889) 152 no. 124; G. Geffrou, La sculpture au Louvre (1908) 42, fig. p. 42; M. Bieber, AM 35 (1910) 12, pl. 4.2; Matz, 56 n. 7; SIG3 109; Catalogue sommaire des marbres antiques du Louvre (1922) 10 no. 831; IG I2 304A; Kjellberg, 137; Diepolder, 22-24, fig. 4; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 14, 20, 29-31, 37-39, 41 H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 27-28, 38, 40, 44, 90, pl. 10.3; V. Müller, AJA 39 (1935) 251-52, fig. 1; Svoronos, 602-4, fig. 260 (drwg.); Süsserott, 27-37, 40 n. 47, 45-46, 49, 57-59, 94-99, 130-31, 198 n. 10, pl. 1.1; Picard II.2, 838; Tod I, 202-7 no. 83, 224-26 no. 92; SEG 10.232; Alscher III, 19, fig. 70; Dohrn, 18, 30, 32, 35, 39, 56-57, 62, III; Schuchhardt, Epochen, 92, fig. 68; P. Reuterswänd, Studien zu Polychromie der Plastik Griechenland und Rom (1960) 54, fig. 6; J. Charbonneaux, Sculpture grecque et romaine au Musée du Louvre (1963) 124 no. 831, fig. 831; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254(a); B. D. Meritt, TAPA 95 (1964) 204-12; SEG 21.79; Schefold, Classical Greece, 145, 151, 248 no. 31, app. pl. 31; SEG 22.49; SEG 23.36; Fuchs, 521, fig. 608; Guarducci, 609-10, fig. 202; Meiggi and Lewis, 255 - 58 no. 84; SEG 24.43; W. K. Pritchett, Choiseul Marble (1970); G. M. A. Richter, Sculptors and Sculpture of the Greeks4 (1970) 69, 255, fig. 323; Schmaltz, 22-23; Hiller, 21, 50, 54, 63, fig. 17 (det.); Robertson, 373, fig. 123a; Kron, Phylenheroen, 208-10, 259 E75, pl. 29; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 174-75 no. 17, fig. 162; SEG 26.30; Palagia, Euphranor, 58, 62; SEG 30.22; SEG 31.25; LIMC II, 1013 no. 608, pl. 763, s.v. Athena (P. Demargne); J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: the Classical Period (1985) 186-87, fig. 179; LIMC III, 379 no. 43, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); IV, 941 n. 76, s.v. Erechtheus (U. Kron); K. Jeppesen, The Theory of the Alternative Erechtheion, Acta Jutlandica 63: I Humanities Series 60 (1987) 45-46, figs. 11-13; Meyer, 270 A 16; SEG 36.28 and 300; SEG 38.12; LIMC VI, 1089 no. 37, s.v. Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).


9.
Athens and Kios
IG I3 124 Athens, EM 6928 406/5 Plate

Found by the Propylaia in 1837. Right, left edges, and top preserved, back rough-picked. Taenia with first line of decree and ovolo separate relief from inscription. Upper corners of relief broken, upper moulding badly chipped. Surface uniformly weathered, with crack down centre. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.33, p.h. of relief 0.185, w. 0.245, th. 0.145, relief h. 0.025, h. of letters 0.006 (Kios), 0.013 (lines 1-2), 0.01 (line 3).

Only three lines of the heading of the document are preserved, but the name Kios inscribed over the head of the male figure on the relief almost certainly indicates that the inscription concerned Bithynian Kios, which appears regularly in the Tribute Lists. (Close examination of the stone reveals no trace of an Ι or Σ in the crack to the left of the Κ, suggested by Müller, Schöll, and Schöne.) The inscription is securely dated to the year 406/5 by its eponymous archon, [K]allias of Angele (line 3). The editors of ATL suggested that it may have been related to the Athenian ambassadors who had been held by the Persians and returned via Kios in that year (Xen. Hell. 1.4.7; ATL I, 502).

The relief depicts the dexiosis of Athena and the bearded figure identified as Kios, probably the companion of Herakles and founder of the city that bears his name (Strab. 12.4.3). Athena, turned in profile view toward the right, wears a peplos, aegis, shoulder mantle, and Attic helmet, and carries her shield in her left hand (cf. nos. 14, 69, 83). Kios, an older man wearing a himation, is depicted in the somewhat smaller scale often used in document reliefs for heroes and personifications. The figures are stiffer than those of the previous decade, their drapery plain and sober in contrast to the earlier rich transparency.

A. Rangabé, ArchEph (1837) 52 no. 24, fig. 25 (drwg.); Müller and Schöll, 61 no. 37, 83-84; Rangabé II, 518-19 no. 835; U. Köhler, Hermes 5 (1871) 16-17; Schöne, 27-28 no. 53, pl. 9 (drwg.); A. Dumont, Monuments Grecs 1 (1873) 38; IG II 22; Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 563, 567; Sybel, 434 no. 7021; Friederichs and Wolters, 384 no. 1160; Le Bas, pl. 35.2 (drwg.); Matz, 55-56; Walter, Beschreibung, 1; IG 12 124; Binneboeßel, 7 no. 19, 20, 23, 43, 47, 57; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 55, 91 Svoronos, 665 no. 435 (2), pl. 210.2 ATL I, 501-02; Süsserott, 28-32, pl. 1.2; SEG 10.141; Dohrn, 33-34, 37-38; Hamdorf, 91 no. 216; E. Tsirivakos, ArchDelt 23 A (1968) 75, pl. 34a; Guarducci, 608, fig. 200; J. Frel, ArchDelt 25 A (1970) 2, Rauscher, 153-54; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 175 no. 18, fig. 175; Zagdoun, FdD IV.6, 57 n. 2; Meyer, 272 A 22, pl. 8.1; LIMC VI, 48 no. 1, s.v. Kios (P. Weiss).


10. Athens honours Epikerdes of Kyrene IG I3 125 Athens, EM 7010 405/4 Plate 6

Three non-joining fragments: a (EM 7010) found east of Theatre of Dionysos, b (EM 7006) from Akropolis, c (Agora I 7065) found built into wall north of tracks of electric railway through Agora (J 5). Right and left edges preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by taenia with first line of decree and ovolo. Surface worn, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.35, p.h. of relief 0.20, p.w. 0.18, th. 0.14, relief h. 0.02, h. of letters 0.011.

The decree honours Epikerdes of Kyrene for his gifts to the Athenian people. Demosthenes (20.41-45) cites Epikerdes as an example of a patriotic benefactor who came to the aid of Athens in times of need, both after the Syracusan disaster and in the period before the rule of the Thirty. This decree may concern the later gift. It is securely dated to the year 405/4 by its eponymous archon Alexias (lines 5-6).

Epikerdes is the small figure on the left side of the relief who raises his right hand in the gesture of a worshipper. The drapery of his himation clearly reveals his body, but the material is more substantial and less transparent than that of the previous decade. Epikerdes faces a larger, apparently frontal figure on the right, probably Athena, who alone bestows honours for Athens in this period. Only a small part of the very regular, tubular folds and zigzag edge of her peplos are preserved. There might have been room for at least one more figure, perhaps a patron deity or hero for Epikerdes, to the right.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1853) 902-3 no. 1448; Rangabé II, 158 no. 465; S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 6 (1877/78) 480-81; Athenaion 7 (1878/79) 213; Sybel, 307 no. 4251; IG II 85; IG II.5 85; IG II2 174; SEG 3.80; Binneboeßel, 5 no. 12, 35-36; Svoronos, 664 no. 430 (2), pl. 206.2; E. Weston, AJP 61 (1940) 353-54; SEG 10.115; Dohrn, 18, 39; SEG 24.13; Pečírka, Enktesis, 39-41, pl. 8; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia 39 (1970) 111-14, pl. 31; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 175 no. 20, fig. 178; Walbank, 488; SEG 33.17; Meyer, 272 A 24, pl. 8.2.


11.
Athens honours [P]oly[p]os
IG I3 126 Athens, EM 2552 + 3169 405/4 Plate 6

Three joining fragments: a (EM 2552), found near Tower of the Winds, + b (EM 3169) + c (EM 2792), provenance unknown. Left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Possible traces of border at lower left corner of relief. Surface somewhat corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.42, p.h. of relief 0.15, p.w. 0.59, th. 0.13, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.02 (line 1), 0.016 (lines 2-3), 0.012 (lines 4 ff.).

The inscription, which is securely dated to the year 405/4 by its eponymous archon Alexias (line 1), honours a proxenos whose name is probably to be restored as Polypos Menestheus; Wilhelm first suggested the restoration of the ethnic Gortynios. The inscription was apparently set up on the Akropolis (lines 8-10).

On the right side of the relief is Athena, preserved only from the thighs down. She is seated on a rock facing left, with her shield lying on the ground beside her (cf. nos. 2, 71, 72, 87, 90, 91). In the centre of the relief are the feet of a smaller figure turned toward Athena, probably the honorand Polypos accepting honours from the goddess. On the left is a male figure, preserved only from the knees down, who turns toward the other figures. He is smaller than Athena and therefore perhaps a hero of the honorand's home (cf. no. 72). If Polypos is from Gortyna in Crete or Gortys in Arkadia, he may be the eponymous hero Gortys (Paus. 8.53.4); cf. no. 9, depicting the eponymous hero of Kios.

The drapery of the relief is plain, revealing the body in broad, uninterrupted expanses and falling away from it in very regular, tubular folds. The greater interest in space in the last decade of the century is evident in the shield at Athena's side, now considerably foreshortened, the motif probably suggested by the similar Athena on the Nike Temple Parapet (Carpenter, pl. XIX).

Sybel, 299 no. 4050; IG II 200; Wilhelm, UDA, 32-33; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl 14 (1911) 59; ÖJhBeibl 18 (1915) 98; IG I2 125: Binneboeßel, 7 no. 20, 20, 28, 33, 36, 37, 52; Svoronos, 671 no. 456 (2), pl. 227.2; Süsserott, 31 n. 14, 102 n. 54, 216; SEG 10.144; Dohrn, 33; Lambrechts, pl. 2; Schmaltz, 23 n. 28; Bradeen and McGregor, 126; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 175 no. 19, figs. 176, 177; Walbank, 469-74 no. 91, pl. 63; SEG 28.12; Meyer, 272 A 23, pl. 12.1.


12.
Athens and Samos
IG
13 127,
IG
II2 I Athens, AM 1333 403/2 Plate 7

Nearly complete stele consisting of four joining fragments: fragment a found on Akropolis, b and c found between Theatre of Dionysos and Odeion of Herodes Atticus, provenance of d unknown. Top and sides preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered by antae supporting taenia and cyma reversa. Ghosts of painted meander visible on taenia. Surface well-preserved, with some corrosion, iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 1.71, h. of relief 0.50, w. 0.56, th. 0.12, h. of letters 0.02-0.03 (lines 1-2), 0.013 (lines 3-4), 0.006 (lines 5 ff.).

The stele records three decrees concerning Athens and her important ally Samos. The first decree (lines 5-40), dated by its eponymous archon Alexias to 405/4, honours the Samians for their loyalty after the Athenian defeat at Aigospotamoi. The second (lines 41-55) and third (lines 56-75), voted two years later in the archonship of Eukleides, reaffirm privileges, including Athenian citizenship for the loyal Samians, granted in the first decree. The third also specifically honours the Samian Poses and his sons. The heading of the stele (lines 1-2) indicates that all three decrees were inscribed in 403/2, when Kephisophon was secretary. One copy of the first decree was to have been set up on the Akropolis in Athens, and the Samians were to inscribe their own copy in Samos (lines 38-40). The Athenian stele that originally carried it was probably destroyed by the Thirty.

The relief, of which no. 13 is a copy, depicts the dexiosis of Athena and Hera, patron goddess of Samos. Athena stands on the right, wearing a peplos, himation, aegis with small gorgoneion, and an Attic helmet. In her left arm she cradles her spear pointed downward in front of her. Behind her to the right is her shield, resting against a bare tree stump, probably merely a prop rather than her olive tree; cf. no. 8. (For leafless trees and stumps as a convention of Greek relief, see M. Carroll-Spillecke, Landscape Depictions in Greek Relief Sculpture: Development and Conventionalization, European University Studies, Ser. 38, Vol. I I [Frankfurt am Main, Berne, New York 1985] 55.) Hera faces her on the left, her sceptre in her raised left hand. She wears a peplos, shoulder mantle, and stephane.

The stele is a good example of the heaviness and stiffness common in reliefs of the turn of the century. Although their left legs are drawn aside, the figures stand stiffly, with little shifting of their weight. The turn to three-quarter view in Hera's upper body stops abruptly at the waist, below which she is shown in strict profile. The drapery folds, even those of Hera's billowing mantle, have stiffened into hard, parallel patterns. The relief as a whole has considerable depth, created by the architectural frame, behind which Athena's helmet crest disappears, and the overlapping tree and foreshortened shield behind her.

S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 5 (1876/77) 92-94 no. 8; P. Kavvadias, ArchDelt (1888) 123-25, fig. 2 (drwg.); H. Lolling, ArchDelt (1889) 24-3 I; E. Petersen, RM 4 (1889) 68-69 (drwg.); IG II.5 Ib; Farnell I, 351, pl. 21b (drwg.); BrBr, pl. 475a; Collignon, 117 (drwg.); Kern, xii no. 19, pl. 19; Matz, 56-57; SIG3 116, 117; Casson, 234-37 no. 1333; G. Rodenwaldt, Das Relief bei den Griechen (1923) 69, 73, pl. 81; IG I2 126; Kjellberg, 138, 140; A. Hekler, JdI 42 (1927) 71-72, Beil. to p. 72; Diepolder, 21: Binneboeßel, 7 no. 22, 20, 22, 23, 35, 37, 38, 43-46, 47, 58: H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 28-30, 46, 91, pl. 13.2; V. Müller, AJA 39 (1935) 251; Curtius, Antike Kunst, 237, 306, 318, 320-21, 324, 397, 428, fig. 411; Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 360, 361, fig. 1; Süsserott, 17 n. 17, 28 n. 5, 31-36, 38 n. 37, 39 n. 44, 43 n. 56, 45 n. 64, 71, 98-102, 105, 131-32, 198 n. 8, 202 n. 22; Picard II.2, 838, fig. 334; Tod I, 231-34 no. 96; Kirchner, 18 no. 43, pl. 19; SEG 10.143; Lippold, 198 n. 11, fig. 73.4; Johansen, 151, fig. 76; SEG 12.42; Dohrn, 33; Hamdorf, 92 no. 239; Schefold, Classical Greece, 152, 159, 248 no. 32, app. pl. 32; Die Griechen und ihre Nachbarn (1967) 117, 187-88, pl. 94a; J. Frel and B. M. Kingsley, GRBS 11 (1970) 213 no. 57; Guarducci, 593, fig. 186; Meiggi and Lewis, 283-87 no. 94; Hiller, 66, 71, fig. 33 (det.); Rauscher, 150; SEG 25.40; Brouskari, 174-75 no. 1333, pl. 377; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 175-76 no. 21, fig. 179; Palagia, Euphranor, 21; Osborne, Naturalization, D4 and 5; SEG 31.271, 276; SEG 33.18; LIMC II, 1013 no. 607, pl. 763, s.v. Athena (P. Demargne); SEG 34.27; J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: the Classical Period (1985) 186-87, fig. 177; LIMC IV, 691 no. 296, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 273 A 26, pl. 10.1; SEG 36.23; G. Shipley, A History of Samos 800-188 B.C. (Oxford 1987) 130-31; SEG 37.20.


13.
Inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods in 400/399
IG II2 1374 Athens, EM 7862 399/98 Plate 7

Two joining fragments from Akropolis. Top, both edges of relief, left edge of inscription preserved, bottom broken. Relief bordered above by taenia and cyma reversa, together 0.135 wide. Surface worn, flaked, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.70, p.h. of relief 0.51, w. 0.53, th. 0.115, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.009.

The inscription is the inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods who served in the archonship of Laches, 400/399 (lines 1-3). It was inscribed after their year in office, when the treasurers turned over their inventories to their successors.

The relief is a copy of no. 12, which concerns Athens and Samos and appropriately depicts Athena and Hera. Scholars have been reluctant to accept the figure on the left in this relief as Hera (see, for example, Süsserott, 17 n. 17, who called her ‘eine nicht sicher benennbare Göttin im Typus der Hera des Reliefs von 403/02’;), because she does not seem particularly appropriate to the inscription, but she must have been intended here as a neutral representative of the Other Gods. The full explanation for her presence in this relief lies in the sculptor's decision, itself puzzling, to copy the earlier relief; the relief of 399 is the only example of duplication in document reliefs. The motif of dexiosis on the inventory may refer to the amalgamation, probably in 406/5, of the previously separate boards of treasurers of Athena and of the Other Gods.

Although the treasurers' relief closely follows the original, it lacks antae, and it is apparently by the hand of another sculptor, whose Hera, with the exception of her too-high breasts, looks masculine.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1837) 64 no. 26, fig. 26 (drwg.); Müller and Schöll, 59-60 no. 34, 74-75; Atlas, pl. III.6; Rangabé II, 473-75 no. 824; F. G. Welcker, AZ 15 (1857) 100; Schöne, 28-30 no. 54, pl. 10 (drwg.); A. Dumont, Monuments Grecs 1 (1873) 36-37; F. von Duhn, AZ 35 (1877) 169-70; IG II 643; Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 562, 566; P. Foucart, BCH 2 (1878) 39-40; Sybel, 441 no. 7127; Friederichs and Wolters, 382-83 no. 1158; P. Gardner, JHS 9 (1888) 50; Le Bas, pl. 42 (drwg.); E. Petersen, RM 4 (1889) 68-69 (drwg.); Collignon, 117; F. Eichler, ÖJh 24 (1929) 122; Binneboeßel, 7 no. 23, 20, 35, 43-45, 46, 47, 53, 58; Ferguson, Treasurers, 116 n. 1; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 28-30, 40, 91, pl. 12.2; V. Müller, AJA 39 (1935) 251; Svoronos, 663 no. 426, pl. 203; Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 360, 362; Süsserott, 17 n. 17, 27 n. 5, 35 n. 28, 98, 102 n. 55, 198 n. 8, 202 n. 22; Picard II.2, 838 n. 6; Dohrn, 33; J. Frel and B. M. Kingsley, GRBS 11 (1970) 209 n. 14; Schmaltz, 22 n. 24; Hiller, 51, 63; LIMC IV, 691 no. 297, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 273-74 A 27, pl. 10.2.


14.
Inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods in 398/97
IG II2 1392 Athens, NM 1479 397/96 Plate 8

Two non-joining fragments: a (NM 1479) from 1876-77 excavations on South Slope, b (EM 7801) found on Akropolis in 1887. Top, both edges of relief, and left edge of inscription preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered above by taenia and ovolo, together 0.04 5 wide. Surface fairly well-preserved, with some chipping, yellow-brown stains. Grey-blue, fine-grained marble. p.h. 0.395, h. of relief 0.265, w. 0.39 5 (relief), 0.43 (inscription), th. 0.09, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.01.

The inscription records the inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods who served in the archonship of Euthykles, 398/97 (lines 2-3). It would have been inscribed immediately after their year in office. Athena turns slightly toward the left, clasping the right hand of a male figure of the same scale, probably Erechtheus. She wears a peplos, aegis with gorgoneion, and an Attic helmet, and carries her shield in her left hand (for the shield-carrying type of Athena, see also nos. 9, 69, 83). The male figure closely resembles several of the eponymous heroes on the east frieze of the Parthenon (Brommer, pl. 183) and the figure, also apparently Erechtheus, on two other records of the treasurers of Athena (nos. 8, 20). He wears a himation and leans on a staff propped crutch-like under his left arm, while raising his left hand to his chin. Of all the eponymous heroes Erechtheus, the autochthonous king of the Athenians who shared a shrine on the Akropolis with Athena, is the most appropriate guardian of her treasury. It is strange that there was no attempt in this relief to include a representative of the Other Gods (cf. no. 13, in which Hera apparently served that role).

Although the figures transfer most of their weight to their right legs, like other figures from reliefs of this period they remain stiffly upright (cf. nos. 12, 13, 16). The folds over the upper bodies of both figures have the rounded, doughy quality of drapery of the Erechtheion frieze. M. B. Walbank, Classical Views 26 (1982) 262, attributes this inscription to the mason of no. 96, but the reliefs are not the work of the same sculptor.

F. von Duhn, AZ 35 (1877) 169-70 no. 98; IG II 653; A. Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 566, 569; P. Foucart, BCH 2 (1878) 37-40, pl. 10; Mélanges d'épigraphie grecque (1878) 67-69; Sybel, 294 no. 4012; Friederichs and Wolters, 383; K. Mylonas, BCH 12 (1888) 150-52 no. 13; IG II.5 653; Collignon, 144-45, fig. 71 (drwg.); Kastriotis, 264 no. 1479; Matz, 56; EA 5 (1902) 2-3 no. 1212 (Löwy); Kjellberg, 133, 140-41; Binneboeßel, 8 no. 24, 20, 34, 36, 38, 43, 47-48, 50, 51, 58; Ferguson, Treasurers, frontispiece; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 51, 91, pl. 15.4; Svoronos, 601-5 no. 247, pl. 107.2; O. Walter, ÖJh 30 (1937) 55 n. 16; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 360-62, fig. 3; Süsserott, 30 n. 10, 32 n. 21, 33, 40, 42 n. 54, 43 n. 57, 45-46, 47 n. 71, 62, 71 n. 145, 72, 98, 100-4, 106, 132, 199 n. 11, 202 n. 22, pl. 1.4; Picard III, 19, fig. 3; Lippold, 229, pl. 88.1; Dohrn, 33; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254(b); E. Berger, AntK 10 (1967) 85 no. 15, pl. 24.5 (det.); Schefold, Classical Greece, 152, 182, 248 no. 33, app. pl. 33; Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes, 25 no. 102; Guarducci, 610-11, fig. 203; Schmaltz, 22, 23, 29, 38; Hiller, 51, 63, fig. 48 (det.); Kron, Phylenheroen, 261-62 K 28; Palagia, Euphranor, 62; LIMC III, 379 no. 44, pl. 274, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); Meyer, 275-76 A 36, pl. II.1; LIMC VI, 1089 no. 38, s.v. Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).


15.
Athens and Eretria
IG II2 16 Athens, EM 6885 394/93 (or 404/3?) Plate 8

Two non-joining fragments: a (EM 6885) found on Akropolis, b (EM 6887), provenance unknown. Parts of both edges preserved. First two lines of heading above plain ovolo separating relief and inscription. Fragment a worn, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.215, p.h. of relief 0.13 5, p.w. 0.29, p. th. 0.11 (back in plaster), relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.007 (lines 3 ff.).

The document is a decree of the Athenian boule concluding an alliance between Athens and Eretria. The heading of the decree is usually restored to make the Euboulide[s] of line 5 the eponymous archon, placing the alliance in 394/93, when forces from Euboia fought on the Athenian side in the Corinthian War (Xen. Hell. 4.2.17; 3.1 5). Krentz has recently suggested an alternative, that this was a decree of the Thirty in 404/3 and that Euboulides should be restored as epistates rather than archon. The two dates are too close together and the relief too poorly preserved for the sculpture to contribute anything to the argument.

Only the lower left corner of the relief is preserved. Just above the moulding are the sandalled feet of a seated figure facing right. The balls of the feet rest on the flat surface of the ground; the heels are raised. The figure appears to be seated on a rock. A seated type of Athena is popular in reliefs of the late fifth and early fourth centuries (see nos. 2, I I, 71, 72, 87, 90, 91), and she could appropriately face a representative of Eretria in this relief. The position of the feet is very similar to that of the Athena of the late fifth-century document concerning Athens and Samos (no. 71).

U. Köhler, AM2 (1877) 212-13; A. Wilhelm, AEM 15 (1892) 1-4 no. 1; IG II.5 7b; SIG3 123; Binneboeßel, 8 no. 26, 48; Svoronos, 667 no. 441 (2), pl. 216.2; Tod II, 16-18 no. 103; Bengtson, 176-77 no. 229; SEG 21.222; P. Krentz, AJP 100 (1979) 398-400; SEG 29.84; D. Knoepfler, AJP 101 (1980) 462-69; SEG 30.55; SEG 35.53; Meyer, 276 A 37.


16.
Athens honours Dionysios I of Syracuse
IG II2 18 Athens, EM 6899 394/93 Plate 9

Found in Theatre of Dionysos in 1862. Left edge of inscription preserved. Plain narrow taenia and ovolo below relief. Possible traces of anta at lower left. Surface badly worn, corroded, with vertical cracks. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.58, p.h. of relief 0.32, p.w. 0.47, th. 0.10, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.015.

The document is a resolution of the Athenian boule honouring Dionysios I of Syracuse, his brothers Leptines and Thearides, and his brother-in-law Polyxenos. (Leptines is perhaps the adopted Syracusan father of the Alketas honoured in no. 21.) The inscription is securely dated to the sixth prytany of the archonship of Euboulides, 394/93 (lines 1-2). None of the provisions of the decree are preserved. Because the proposer of the decree was apparently the poet Kinesias and because it was passed at the time of the Lenaea and according to its find-spot apparently set up in or near the Theatre of Dionysos, Köhler suggested that the honours were in some way connected with Dionysios' well-known patronage of poets. It comes from the beginning of a brief period of rapprochment between Dionysios and Athens that was marked by Dionysios' increasing involvement with Athenian literary figures.

The relief depicts the dexiosis of Athena and a female figure representing Syracuse or Sicily, a subject more appropriate for an alliance than an honorary decree. It is possible that, although framed as an honorary decree, the document contained interstate agreements of some sort, but it was not until the early 360s that Dionysios was given Athenian citizenship (IG II2 103) and contracted an alliance with Athens (IG II2 105). The Athena is an adaptation of the Parthenos type, with her left hand resting on the rim of her shield and a large snake coiled behind her (cf. nos. 30, 65, 106, 132, 164). The figure opposite her apparently wears a peplos and in her left hand holds an object that thickens toward the top like a torch. She has often been identified as Demeter, but the possibility that the object she holds is a torch and her somewhat smaller scale relative to Athena suggest that she is Persephone, whose head appears on the coins of Syracuse.

The relief is very badly worn, but the figures, like others in reliefs of this period, remain stiffly upright, the drapery over their weight legs falling in thick, undifferentiated folds (cf. nos. 12, 13).

S. A. Koumanoudes, Philistor 4 (1862) 542 no. 2; U. Köhler, Hermes 3 (1869) 156-59 no. 2; Schöne, 24 no. 49, pl. 7 (drwg.); A. Dumont, Monuments Grecs 1 (1873) 35; J. Overbeck, Griechische Kunstmythologie III (1873) 509 no. 7; Heydemann, 256-58; Köhler, AM I (1876) 4-5; IG II 8; Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 563, 566, 569 n. 2; Sybel, 280 no. 3907; Friederichs and Wolters, 383-84 no. 1159; P. Gardner, JHS 9 (1888) 60; Matz, 57; SIG3 128; Binneboeßel, 8 no. 27, 20, 34, 47, 49, 50; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 54, 91 Svoronos, 664 no. 429, pl. 205.2; Süsserott, 32 n. 21, 35 n. 28, 38-42, 43 n. 57, 47 n. 71, 71, 98 n. 8, 199 n. 11, pl. 2.1; Tod II, 24-26 no. 108; Lippold, 230 n. 2; Hamdorf, 92 no. 241(a); Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes, 19; Frel and B.M. Kingsley, GRBS 11 (1970) 210 no. 44; A. Peschlow-Bindokat, JdI 87 (1972) 122, 152 R39; C. J. Sanders, Dionysios I of Syracuse and Greek Tyranny (1987) 1-25; LIMC IV, 881 no. 447, s.v. Demeter (L. Beschi); Meyer, 276 A 38, pl. 11.2; SEG 37.66.


17.
Athens and Klazomenai
IG II2 28 Athens, EM 6917 387/86 Plate 9

Three joining fragments, all from vicinity of the Asklepieion. Right and left edges preserved, back rough-picked. Surface slightly weathered. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.45, p.h. of relief 0.13, w. 0.50, th. 0.085, relief h. 0.02, h. of letters 0.008.

Klazomenai had been a member of the Delian League and was again under Athenian influence, for at this time it was subject to the eikoste, the new tribute imposed by the Athenian commander Thrasyboulos in 389. In this decree, Athens commends Klazomenai for its loyalty, resolves not to interfere in its trade or other treaties, but confirms that it is still subject to the tax. The decree is securely dated by its eponymous archon Theodotos to the year 387/86 (line 1). It is usually placed in the fall of that year, for Klazomenai was claimed by Persia in the Peace of Antalkidas of 386 (Xen. Hell. 5.1.31).

The relief depicts two animals, probably rams, facing each other. A walking or recumbent ram or a ram's head is the dominant device on the reverse of Klazomenian bronze coins between ca. 387 and 300 (B. V. Head, BMC: Creek Coins of Ionia [1892] 21-26, pl. 4, nos. 14, 15, 16). Only three feet of the animal on the right are preserved. The animal on the left, missing its head and part of its back, has a rather shapeless body with tufts of hair indicated by a bumpy-textured surface punctuated by short, sharp incisions. Its tail is long and full, the hair indicated by diagonal lines.

S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 5 (1876/77) 89-90 no. 6; IG II Add. 14b p. 397, Add. 14b p. 423; Koumanoudes, Athenaion 10 (1881/82) 68-71; H. Swoboda, AM 7 (1882) 174-90; IG II.5 14b; Kern, xii-xiii no. 23, pl. 23a; SIG3 136; Binneboeßel, 8 no. 29, 80; Svoronos, 665 no. 432 (1), pl. 208.1; Kirchner, 19 no. 49, pl. 23; Tod II, 39-41 no. 114; T. Ritti, MemLinc 14 (1969/70) 322 no. 1a, pl. XV fig. 2; R. Merkelbach, ZPE 5 (1970) 32-36; SEG 31.59; Meyer, 277 A 41; SEG 38.54.


18.
Athens honours Hebryzelmis, king of the Thracian Odrysai
IG II2 31 Athens, EM 6941 386/85 Plate 10

Found on the Akropolis in 1889. Left edge of relief and inscription preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on left by 0.045 wide anta, below by 0.06 wide moulding, profile completely chipped away. Surface very weathered, flaked, with iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.71, p.h. of relief 0.25 5, p.w. 0.405, th. 0.11, relief h. 0.005, h. of letters 0.02 (line 1), 0.008 (lines 2 ff.).

The decree honours Hebryzelmis, the king of the Odrysai, for his loyalty, and praises several others, including his strategos. The Athenians had a history of friendly relations with this Thracian kingdom, and Hebryzelmis is here given all the honours that Athens had previously awarded his ancestors. The stele was to have been set up on the Akropolis at public expense and a cost of thirty drachmai (lines 12-17). It is securely dated to the year 386/85 by its eponymous archon Mystichides (line 1).

The very poorly preserved relief depicts two horsemen, one on either side of a frontal female figure. The Athenians generally associated Thracians with horses, and depicted horses or horses and riders on the reliefs on most of their documents concerning Thrace (nos. 27, 30, 46). The female figure, whose identity is unknown, is preserved only from the chest down; she wears a belted peplos or chiton and a veil or shoulder mantle which flies out behind her on both sides. The horse on the left is cut off in the middle by the anta on the left side of the relief and above by the break at the top of the fragment; only slight traces of its rider and his chlamys are preserved. On the right, only the forelegs of the horse and its rider's left foot remain.

IG II.5 14c; SIG3 138; Binneboeßel, 9 no. 30, 20, 21, 50-51; Svoronos, 672 no. 460, pl. 230.1; A. Billheimer, AJA 42 (1938) 466; O. Walter, ÖJh 32 (1940) 15 n. 49; Tod II, 47-50 no. 117; SEG 33.78; Meyer, 277 A 42, pl. 15.1.


19.
Athens and Chios
IG II2 34 Athens, EM 6907a 384/83 Plate 10

Five fragments: a + b + c + d (together EM 6907), from Akropolis, e (EM 6907a), provenance unknown. Left edge of relief, right edge of inscription preserved; left edge of relief has narrow anta. Surface very worn, corroded, with iron stains all over. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.50, p.h. of relief 0.34, p.w. 0.22, th. 0.14, relief h. 0.005, h. of letters 0.010.

Chios had been one of the wealthiest members of the Delian League, and in this document, securely dated to the first prytany of the archonship of [Diei]t[r]ephes, 384/83 (lines 1-3), it again enters into alliance with Athens. The stele was to have been set up on the Akropolis by the agalma (lines 20-22), which is usually taken to be the Athena Promachos (cf. no. 84).

On the left side of the relief is a frontal female figure, preserved from the shoulders down. She wears a chiton or peplos with a himation over it and stands with her weight on her left leg, her right leg drawn aside. Her very worn right hand is apparently held at her breast; her left hand, enveloped in drapery, disappears behind her hip. In pose and dress she resembles the unidentified figure in no. 140. At the broken right edge of the fragment is part of the foot of another figure.

The resemblance of the female figure to the figure in no. 140 and the presence of the foot at the break prompted Walter to suggest that this fragment joins no. 131, the right half of a relief in the British Museum depicting Athena crowning a smaller male figure whose left foot is not preserved at the broken left edge. However, the British Museum relief, if it has not been cut at the back, is not as thick as the Chios relief, and it apparently had a moulding beneath and wider antae at the sides. The composition resulting from the association of the two fragments would be more appropriate to an honorary decree for a single individual than for an alliance with Chios.

The relief is very worn, but the peculiar position of the figure's arms, her shifting weight, and the slight torsion in her upper body are early indications of the freer movement and complex poses that appear more frequently in the second quarter of the century (cf. no. 24).

S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 5 (1876/77) 520-21 no. 4; IG II 15; U. Köhler, AM 2 (1877) 138-42; IG II.5 15c; A. Wilhelm, CGA (1903) 782; IG II2 35; SIG3 142; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl 18 (1915) 91 Beschreibung, 12-13; Binneboeßel, 9 no. 31, 20, 22, 51 Süsserott, 46-48, 50-51, 75, 109, 140, pl. 3.1; Tod II, 50-52 no. 118; Dohrn, 78; Bengtson, 196-98 no. 248; SEG 21.225; Hiller, 27, 66; SEG 31.61; Meyer, 278 A 43, pl. 14.2.


20.
Inventory of the treasurers of Athena in 377/76
IG II2 1410 Athens, EM 7859 376/75 Plate II

Found west of Erechtheion in 1858. Top, right edge preserved. Relief bordered above and below by 0.065 wide moulding consisting of taenia and ovolo. Surface somewhat worn, chipped, corroded, with red-brown iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.55, h. of relief 0.45, p.w. 0.355, th. 0.12, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.007.

The inscription is the inventory of the treasurers of Athena in 377/76; the board had been separated from the amalgamated boards of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods (nos. 13, 14) in 386/85. Only part of the heading is preserved, but the restoration of the eponymous archon Kalleas in line 1 is certain. The inventory would have been inscribed immediately after the end of the treasurers' term.

Seated on a rock at the right is a bearded figure, probably Erechtheus. His left elbow rests on the rock behind him, and he cradles a sceptre in his left arm. He wears a himation and a fillet around his head. Further to the left is a female figure, of whom only part of the left arm and leg are preserved. She moves swiftly toward the left as the ends of her himation fly out behind her.

In general type the male figure resembles the other figures, apparently Erechtheus, on an earlier record of the treasurers of Athena (no. 8) and on an inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods (no. 14). The rocky seat of this relief, like the olive tree of the treasurers' accounts of 410/9 (no. 8), may refer to his rocky home on the Akropolis, where he shared a shrine with Athena and guarded her treasury. The fragmentary female figure resembles the last figure in the dancing triads of Nymphs and Charites on late fifth- and early fourth-century Attic votive reliefs (Mitropoulou, Corpus I, figs. 151, 152) and the dancing figures related to them, usually identified as Horai and Aglaurids, on neo-Attic reliefs (E. B. Harrison, AJA 81 (1977) figs. 4-7, 10, 11). The iconography of the dancing triads was already flexible in the late fifth century, however, and the figures could also represent the daughters of Erechtheus. The restoration of the first lines of the treasurers' inventory leaves room for all three dancers in the missing left half of the relief.

The drapery of Erechtheus, particularly the parallel, rounded folds over his lap and the folds falling between his legs, resembles late fifth-century drapery and probably looks back to the models upon which the figures were based (cf. no. 5).

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1858) 1768-69 no. 3375; Schöne, 39-41 no. 71, pl. 15 (drwg.); F. von Duhn, AZ (1877) 170 no. 100; IG II 670; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl 18 (1915) 90; Diepolder, 35; Binneboeßel, 9 no. 33, 20, 51-53, 66, 71; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 55, 91, pl. 19.2; Svoronos, 665 no. 435 (1), pl. 210.1; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 362; Süsserott, 50 n. 82; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254(c); J. Frel, Eirene 5 (1966) 85; Les sculpteurs anonymes, 27 no. 120; W. Childs, RA (1976) 286 n. 1; Kron, Phylenheroen, 262, K29; Palagia, Euphranor, 63; LIMC III, 381 no. 71, pl. 277, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); Meyer, 279 A 49, pl. 16.1; LIMC VI, 1089 no. 36, s.v. Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).


21.
Athens honours Alketas of Syracuse
IG II2 101 Athens, AM 1349 373/72 Plate 11

Two joining fragments from Akropolis. Broken along right edge and bottom. Relief crowned by plain pediment with badly damaged akroteria. Horizontal sima of pediment inscribed with name of archon; remainder of heading inscribed in three lines on upper part of relief. Narrow, rounded band separates relief from crown carved immediately below. Surface somewhat worn, with vertical cracks. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.1, p.w. 0.335, th. 0.08, relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.011.

The document is an honorary decree for Alketas, son of Leptines of Syracuse, undoubtedly the same Leptines who was honoured along with his brother Dionysios in no. 16. Foucart suggested that his son was named after Alketas I, king of the Molossians, who was an exile in Syracuse (Diod. 15.13), but it is more likely, as Kirchner following Dittmar believed, that this Alketas is the Molossian king himself, who in exile had been adopted by Leptines. The date of the inscription, set at 373/72 by its eponymous archon Asteios (line 1), also points to the Molossian Alketas, for early in 373 Alketas, who apparently by this time had joined the Second Athenian League (IG II2 43, line B 13), assisted an Athenian force sent to Korkyra (Xen. Hell. 6.2.10), and that winter he went on to Athens to support the general Timotheus at his trial (Dem. 49.22).

The arrangement of the text, with three lines of the heading inscribed on the relief, is unusual. In the centre of the relief, facing left, is a large horse standing quietly on the narrow band representing the ground line. Below the band is the upper part of a fragmentary olive crown. Walter believed that the horse, depicted in such close association with the crown, was a reference to an equestrian victory of Alketas rather than a symbol of Syracuse or Epiros. The reliefs of the decree honouring the Molossian Alketas' son Arybbas (no. 122) apparently also refer to equestrian victories.

P. Foucart, BCH 12 (1888) 177-79 no. viii; A. M. Dittmar, De Atheniensium more exteros coronis publice ornandi quaestiones epigraphicae (1890) 196; IG II.5 50b; P. Perdrizet, BCH 20 (1896) 550-51 no. 1. fig. 1 (drwg.); SIG3154; Casson, 255-56 no. 1349; Binneboeßel, 10 no. 35, 80; O. Walter, ÖJh 32 (1940) 8-9. fig. 3; Epitumbion Christou Tsounta (1941) 410, 412 n. 22; Tod II, 217-18; Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes, 32 no. 183, pl. 16 Guarducci, 597-98, fig. 189; Frel and B. M. Kingsley, GRBS 11 (1970) 202 no. 13; T. Ritti, MemLinc 14 (1969/70) 265-66 no. 2, pl. 1 fig. 2; Brouskari, 172 no. 1349, fig. 370; Meyer, 2 80 A 52.


22.
Athenian dedications to Zeus Ammon and others
SEG
21.241 Tunis, Musée National du Bardo D 1139 363/62 Plate 12

Found in 1907 in a shipwreck of ca. 100 BC off Mahdia, Tunisia. Relief bordered by antae and entablature with pediment and side akroteria. Right edge broken away. Surface worn and badly pitted. Marble. p.h. 1.30, h. of relief 0.25, p.w. 0.40. Not examined.

The inscription records a decree of the boule and demos ordering a list of dedications of the Athenians to Zeus Ammon, Paralos, Athena, and Hera. It is securely dated to the year 363/62 by its eponymous archon Charik[leides] (line 1). It was probably set up in the sanctuary of Zeus Ammon in Piraeus.

Only the bare outlines of the relief are still intelligible. On the left is Zeus, seated facing right. His left arm is raised and probably held a painted sceptre (for similar figures of Zeus, see nos. 5, 24, 96, possibly no. 41). Before him is a low, rectangular altar, approached from the right by two small worshippers. The first holds an object; the second is barely visible. There may have been an additional figure or figures further to the right.

A. Merlin, CRAI (1909) 661, 669; Catalogue du Musée Alaoui, Suppl. 11 (1921) 46 no. 1201, 85 no. 1139; A. Dain, REG 44 (1931) 292; Inscriptions grecques du Musée du Bardo (1936) 12-21 no. 1, pl. opp. p. 16 (woodcut); W. Fuchs, Der Schiffsfund von Mahdia (1963) 42 no. 58, pl. 66.1; Picard IV.6, 1256 n. 2, 1265; M. Yacoub, Musée du Bardo (1982) 85-86; LIMC I, 671 no. 14, s.v. Ammon (J. Leclant and G. Clerc); Meyer, 282 A 57, pl. 19.1.


23.
Athens honours Menelaos of Pelagonia
IG II2 110 Athens, EM 7024 363/62 Plate 12

Found on Akropolis in 1860. Both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by taenia with first line of heading and ovolo, together 0.065 wide. Surface worn. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.51, p.h. of relief 0.12, w. 0.42, th. 0.12, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.006 (lines 4 ff.).

In the 360s Athens made a sustained attempt to recover the strategically important city of Amphipolis, which had maintained its independence after Athens lost control of it at the end of the fifth century; members of the Chalcidian League who had earlier seceded from the Athenian League allied with Amphipolis. This decree, securely dated to the sixth prytany of the archonship of Charikleides of 363/62 (lines 2-3), honours Menelaos the Pelagonian for his assistance in the war against the Chalkidians and Amphipolis. He was probably a king or prince of the Lynkestians, and it is likely that he was the same Menelaos who fought Philip in Thrace in 351 (Dem. 4.27). He was apparently later made an Athenian citizen (Tod II, no. 148).

On the left is a small male figure, probably Menelaos; only his lower legs remain. He turns right, toward a larger male figure in a himation, probably Demos or a patron deity, who is preserved only from the knees down. At the far right is Athena, of whom only a small fragment of drapery and the bottom of her shield are preserved. The relief is rather crudely cut, the drapery falling in coarse, heavy folds indicated by sharp, deeply cut lines.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1860) 2028-30 no. 4046; IG II 55; A. Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 567 n. 4; Kern, xiii no. 23, pl. 23; SIG3 175; Binneboeßel, 10 no. 36, 54; Svoronos, 665 no. 434 (2), pl. 209.2; Kirchner, 20 no. 54, pl. 25; Süsserott, 52 n. 90, 53 n. 92, 54; Tod II, 132-34 no. 143; SEG 32.60; SEG 33.80; Meyer, 281 A 56, pl. 17.1; SEG 38.58.


24.
Athens and Arkadia, Achaia, Elis, and Phleious
IG II2 112 Athens, NM 1481 362/61 Plate 13

Two non-joining fragments: a (NM 1481) found on South Slope of Akropolis in 1876, b (EM 857) from Akropolis. Both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered by 0.035 wide antae. Surface fairly well-preserved, with some chipping, cracks. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.47, p.h. of relief 0.215, w. 0.49, th. 0.145, relief h. 0.005, h. of letters 0.012 (line 1), 0.006 (lines 2 ff.).

When Sparta refused to sign the peace treaty after the battle of Mantineia in 362, the Peloponnesian states that had alliances with the Athenian League through their own alliances with Sparta had to deal with Athens separately. This decree is an alliance between Athens and Arkadia, Achaia, Elis, and Phleious, securely dated by its eponymous archon Molon to the year 362/61 (line 1). The relief, which is very similar to that of the alliance between Athens and Korkyra (no. 96), depicts three figures, of whom two are certainly Athena and Zeus. On the right is Zeus, enthroned facing left; his feet rest on a low stool. His left hand, which is broken away, holds a thunderbolt, of which only the end is preserved. His right hand, also missing, was raised and probably held a sceptre, of which a trace may be just visible above his right thigh. The central figure turns toward him. Her right hand is raised and holds the edge of her mantle in an unveiling gesture. Her left hand holds her sceptre. Her head is completely destroyed, but a long lock of hair hangs over her right shoulder. Further left stands Athena, turned toward the others, holding her spear in her raised left hand. Her right hand rests on her hip. Her shield stands at her left side.

Scholars have long identified the central figure in this relief as a personification of the Peloponnese, the name used to refer to the allies in one place in the inscription, but place personifications in document reliefs are rare (nos. 66, 120), and both the dress and the gesture and position of the figure with respect to Zeus strongly suggest that the figure is Hera (cf. nos. 5, 96, perhaps no. 41). Zeus and Hera would be appropriate representatives of the Peloponnesian allies, for the sanctuary of Zeus and Hera at Olympia was the major sanctuary not only of the signatory Elis but also of the entire Peloponnese. The enthroned, thunderbolt-wielding Zeus is Zeus Olympios who with Athena Polias heads the list of deities invoked in the alliance.

Although the figures of Zeus and Hera appear to have been based upon late fifth-century models (cf. no. 5), the higher-waisted proportions of the female figures and the interest in such relatively naturalistic effects as the buckling material at the knees of Zeus and Hera and the pulling of drapery across Hera's breasts are indicative of a new style phase. Hera closely resembles copies of the approximately contemporary Eirene of Kephisodotos (Palagia, Euphranor, fig. 42).

U. Köhler, AM 1 (1876) 197-205; F. von Duhn, AZ 35 (1877) 171 no. 102, pl. 15.1 (drwg.); IG II 112; IG II Add. 57b; S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 5 (1876/77) 101-2; A. Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 559-69, pl. 11; Sybel, 285-86 no. 3989; Friederichs and Wolters, 385 no. 1162; P. Gardner, JHS 9 (1888) 50-51; IG II.5 57b; Farnell I, 351; P. Arndt in BrBr, pl. 533.2; Kastriotis, 265 no. 1481; Matz, 57-58; SIG3 181; Walter, Beschreibung, 2, 3; F. Studniczka, Artemis und Iphigenie (1926) 91 fig. 73; Diepolder, 39-42; Binneboeßel, 10 no. 37, 20, 32, 41, 48, 52, 54-5 5, 63, 71 H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 57-58, 92, pl. 21.1; Svoronos, 598-99 no. 245, pl. 106.1; V. Müller;ller, ArtB 20 (1938) 366-67, 377, fig. 9; Süsserott, 52-57, 79, 113, 148-50, pl. 4.1; Tod II, 134-38 no. 144; Lippold, 247, pl. 88.3; Dohrn, 79-80, 157, 162, 168-69, 175, 180, 181, 214-16; Bengtson, 250-52 no. 290; Picard IV.6, 1262 n. 6; SEG 21.242; Schefold, Classical Greece, 187, 219-20, 249 n. 49, app. pl. 49; Schmaltz, 37 n. 49, 39 n. 51; Hiller, 24, 57, 63; Brown, 26, fig. 81; H. Jung, JdI 91 (1976) 123-30, fig. 6; S. Dušanić, AM 94 (1979) 128-35, pl. 38; Palagia, Euphranor, 58 n. 332; SEG 29.90; SEG 32.61; Eschbach, pl. 10.4 (det. Athena); LIMC IV, 688 no. 257, pl. 420, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 282 A 58, pl. 17.2.


29.
Athens honours Sochares of Apollonia
IG II2 130 +
SEG
19.49 Palermo, Museo Nazionale NI 1549 + Athens, EM 5415 355/54 Plate 15

Two fragments: EM 5415, with slight trace of relief, provenance unknown, + Palermo NI 1 549, found in Ilissos area and taken to Palermo with collection of English consul Robert Faghan. NI 1549: Preserves right edge, top. Relief bordered by antae supporting entablature with antefixes, below by taenia inscribed with first line of heading and ovolo. Surface worn, battered. White marble. p.h. 0.76, p.h. of relief 0.36, p.w. 0.44, th. 0.07, h. of letters 0.007. Not examined. EM 5415: Preserves part of left edge. Surface very worn. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.08, p.h. of relief 0.015, p.w. 0.147, p.th. 0.04.

The decree honours the proxenos Sochares, son of Chares of Pontic Apollonia, for his assistance in the battle for Methone, which fell to Philip in the summer of 354 (Diod. 16.31.6; 34.4-5). The decree is securely dated to the fifth prytany of the archonship of [Kalli]stratos, 355/54 (lines 2-4). Sochares himself was to pay for the stele, which, like the decree for Philiskos of Sestos of the same year (no. 30), was to have been set up within ten days, apparently on the Akropolis (lines 15-19).

Apollo, the patron deity of Sochares' Apollonia, is seated on an omphalos at the far right, with a female figure, probably his mother Leto, beside and slightly behind him on the left. Leto's right hand is raised to her shoulder as though holding or adjusting her mantle (cf. the similarly posed figure with Artemis in the Villa Albani metope, Ridgway, fig. 11); her left hand rests on her hip. Athena, who wears a peplos, aegis with gorgoneion, and helmet, turns away from them toward the left. She extends her right hand, perhaps holding a crown, toward the broken left side of the relief where Sochares must have once stood; the foot of another figure is preserved beside the anta of the fragment in Athens.

Although Athena still has a curved fold running along the contour of her bent left leg, her drapery otherwise falls in straight, heavy folds. Leto's himation is bunched around her waist in a manner resembling the drapery of the standing figure in the decree of 347/46 honouring the Bosporan kings (no. 35).

E. Dodwell, A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece 1 (1819) 470, 471 (drwg.); CIG6 90; Müller and Schöll, 73-74, 76; A. Salinas, Del Real Museo di Palermo (1873) 11; IG II 70; A. Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 567 n. 5, 569 n. 1; EA 2 (1895) 52 no. 560; IG II.5 70; Matz, 57; Diepolder, 40-43, fig. 10; Binneboeßel, 11 no. 41, 20-22, 32, 36, 56, 58-59; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 58-60, 92, pl. 21.4; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 367, 377, fig. 11; Süsserott, 390.43, 54-59, 63 n. 117, 79, 81 n. 173, 115-17, 152-53, 155, 199 n. 12, 201, pl. 4.2; O. Walter, Serta Hoffilleriana 18-21 (1937-40) 101-3; S. Dow, CP 52 (1957) 106-7; Lambrechts, pl. 8; SEG 19.49; Picard IV.2, 1256 n. 2; Pečírka, Enktesis, 35-36, pls. 6, 7; Schefold, Classical Greece, 187, 249 no. 51, app. pl. 51; SEG 22.88; SEG 24.85; Schmaltz, 37, 38, 48, 49; Brown, 26, fig. 80; M. Manni Piraino, Iscrizioni Creche Palermo (1973) 167-69 no. 128, pls. LXXVI, LXXVII; Zagdoun, FdD IV.6, 51, 60 n. 8; Palagia, Euphranor, 17, 45; SEG 32.66; LIMC II, 299 no. 970, s.v. Apollon (O. Palagia); Meyer, 285 A 69, pl. 22.2.


34.
Content unidentified
IG II2 209 Eleusis, Archaeological Museum E 88 349/48 Plate 18

From Eleusis. Right edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on right by anta, below by taenia inscribed [ΘΕ]ΟΙ and ovolo, together 0.045 wide. Surface worn, with iron stains, accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.26, p.h. of relief 0.145, p.w. 0.19, th. 0.09 (relief), 0.08 (inscription), relief h. 0.012, h. of letters 0.008 (line 1), 0.005 (lines 2 ff.).

The fragmentary inscription is an Athenian decree, securely dated by its secretary Dieuches of Phrearrhioi (lines 2-3), who served in the archonship of Kallimachos, 349/48 (IG II2 206). Its find-spot and the subject of its relief suggest that it concerned Eleusinian matters (cf. no. 3). All that remains of the relief is a figure of Demeter, preserved only from the waist down, seated on a kiste facing left. Kore and perhaps another figure or figures probably originally stood on the left. The figure resembles figures of Demeter who appear with Kore on other document reliefs from Eleusis (nos. 127, 152), on fourth-century votive reliefs (e.g. Neumann, Weihreliefs, pl. 47a; Walter, Beschreibung, fig. 114), and on Panathenaic amphorae (Jucker, figs. 22-24; Eschbach, 71-90, pls. 20, 21). Kern and Jucker suggested that the types were modelled after an Eleusinian cult group, but details of the various versions of the type differ considerably.

D. Philios, ArchEph (1890) 81-84 no. 50, 171-72; O. Kern, AM 17 (1892) 131, fig. 8 (drwg.); E. Bielefeld, Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universität Greifswald 1 (1951/52) 7 no. 7; A. Peschlow-Bindokat, JdI 87 (1972) 154 R 58; I. Jucker, AA 95 (1980) 462-63, figs. 22-24; LIMC IV, 858 no. 127, s.v. Demeter (L. Beschi); Meyer, 288 A 78, pl. 24.1.


35.
Athens honours Spartokos II, Pairisades I, and Apollonios of the Crimean Bosporos
IG II2 212 Athens, NM 1471 347/46 Plate 18

Joining fragments a and b found in 1877 between Church of St Spyridon and Customs House in Piraeus. Top, both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Broken bottom set in plaster. Relief bordered by 0.055 wide antae supporting entablature with antefixes, below by 0.09 wide moulding consisting of taenia and ovolo. One rectangular cutting in right edge of relief, another in right edge of moulding. Surface worn, with accretions, iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 2.17, h. of relief 0.69, w. 0.615 (relief), 0.55 (inscription), th. 0.165, relief h. 0.09, h. of letters 0.025 (lines 1-2), 0.0075 (lines 3ff.).

The Bosporan kingdom, an important source of grain, had had friendly relations with Athens since the second half of the fifth century. After the death of its king Leukon, his sons Spartokos II and Pairisades I sent envoys to Athens with a letter seeking assurance that the relationship would continue, and this decree is the Athenian response. In return for the export of wheat and other unspecified services, Athens extends to them all the privileges granted their father Leukon and grandfather Satyros, and promises to crown each of them with a 1000-drachmai gold crown at each Greater Panathenaia. A rider provides that their brother Apollonios be crowned as well. The decree is securely dated to the eighth prytany of the archonship of Themistokles, 347/46 (lines 3 - 5). It was to have been erected by the stele honouring Leukon and Satyros at public expense and a cost of thirty drachmai (lines 44-49); decrees concerning Leukon were set up in Piraeus (Dem. 20.36), where this stele was found.

The relief of the huge stele is unusual in its strong characterization of the honorands and the deferential absence of any representative of Athens. The two figures on the left, probably the rulers Spartokos and Pairisades, are seated together on a large, claw-footed throne. The standing figure leaning on a staff would be Apollonios, who did not share in their rule. The brothers are depicted with beards, and Spartokos and Pairisades have long hair falling over their shoulders, an attempt at characterizing them as foreigners that originally might have extended to their facial features as well; in type and style, they resemble the freestanding figures from the Mausoleion of Halikarnassos and a mid-fourth-century colossal statue found at Kertch, site of the Bosporan capital, possibly representing one of the Bosporan kings (G. B. Waywell, The Free-Standing Sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus in the British Museum (London 1978), 68, 97-105 nos. 26, 27, pls. 13-15; 108-10 no. 33, pl. 17; O. Waldhauer, JHS 44 (1924) 45, 51-52, fig. 5; Die Antiken Skulpturen der Hermitage I (Berlin and Leipzig 1928) 50 no. 36, pl. XVIII). In its high relief, monumental figures disposed comfortably within the deep space of the frame, and its voluminous drapery with deeply carved folds, the relief more closely resembles the better contemporary grave reliefs than other mid-century document reliefs (cf. Diepolder, pls. 45, 46).

S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 6 (1877/78) 152-57; A. Schaefer, RhM 33 (1878) 418-33; M. Homolle, BCH 5 (1881) 194-96, pl. 5; Friederichs and Wolters, 386 no. 1165; IG II 109b; BrBr, pl. 475b; Collignon II, 370; Kastriotis, 262 no. 1471; E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (1913) 576-78, 651 no. 28; SIG3 206; Diepolder, 45-46, fig. 11; Binneboeßel, 13 no. 53, 20, 21, 23, 60-63, 64; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 59-61, 92, pl. 22.1; Svoronos, 591-92 no. 241, pl. 104; Curtius, Antike Kunst, 337, 428-29, fig. 488; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 368-69, 377, 384; Süsserott, 19 n. 27, 30 n. 10, 33 n. 23, 36 n. 31, 39 n. 43, 55, 58-60, 63 n. 117, 79-82, 117, 150, 158, 199 n. 12, 201, pl. 4.3; O. Walter, ÖJh 32 (1940) 14 n. 42; Tod II, 193-98 no. 167; Lippold, 247, pl. 88.4; Alscher III, 53-54, 184 n. 69, fig. 76; SEG 17.22; Picard IV.2, 1257-58, fig. 494; F. W. Mitchel, Hesperia 33 (1964) 343, pl. 65c; Schefold, Classical Greece, 188, 249 no. 52, app. pl. 52; SEG 22.92; Guarducci, 595, fig. 188; Schmaltz, 29, 37-38, 48, 49; Brown, 26, fig. 82; Robertson, 380-81; Fuchs, 530, 533-34, fig. 624; SEG 26.74; SEG 32.75; SEG 34.66; Meyer, 290 A 88, pl. 28.1; SEG 36.148.


36.
Athens honours Phokinos, Nikandros, and Dexi[ppos]
IG II2 231 Avignon, Musée Calvet 28 340/39 Plate 19

Entered collection of the Venetian Nani in eighteenth century; acquired by Musée Calvet in 1841. Both edges preserved, broken top and bottom. Antae support moulding with first line of inscription, pediment. Surface worn. Reportedly Pentelic marble. p.h. 0.41, w. 0.41, th. 0.07, h. of letters 0.007 (line 1), 0.005 (lines 2 ff.). Not examined.

The decree, of which only the heading is preserved, is a grant of proxeny to Phokinos, Nikandros, and a man whose name is probably to be restored as Dexippos. Their dress suggests that they are being honoured in connection with military activity. Phokinos may have been related, as Reinach suggested, to the fourth-century Megarian strategos Phokinos. The decree is securely dated to the ninth prytany of the archonship of [Theophra]st[os] I of 340/39 (lines 2-3) by the coincidence of its secretary to that of IG II2 233.

The relief depicts the three men as warriors being honoured by Athena. Athena stands on the far right, her right hand holding a crown that she is about to place on the head of the figure nearest her. She wears a peplos and Corinthian helmet; her left hand rests on the rim of the shield standing beside her. The three smaller honorands all wear hoplite corselets over short tunics. The first, tallest figure wears a helmet with a crest. The position of his left hand suggests that he carried a painted shield which is not preserved. His right hand is raised, as are those of the other two figures, in a gesture of adoration. The second figure is slightly smaller and wears a helmet without a crest. His raised left hand holds a spear which is lightly incised on the relief ground. The third, still smaller figure wears a cap-like helmet with a spike on top and in his left hand carries a bow which is also incised on the background. It is not clear whether the differences in the scale of the honorands or their helmet types are significant. The relief is very crudely carved, with details of the honorands sharply gouged in the relief and cursorily incised into the relief ground. In its low relief, flat frame, and figure types, it resembles a number of reliefs of the third quarter of the fourth century (nos. 38, 143-148).

P. M. Paciaudi, Monumenta Peloponnesia (1761) II, 153; B. Stark, AZ II (1853) 367-68; C. Bötticher, AZ 15 (1857) 70; P. Pervanoglu, AZ 25 (1867) 45, 47 no. 10; IG II 198; A. Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 568 n. 3; T. Reinach, REG 13 (1900) 158-69, pl. 2; Binneboeßel, 13 no. 55, 20, 58-59, 63-64; Süsserott, 85, pl. 5.1; Lambrechts, pl. 11; Picard IV.2, 1262; Frel, Les sculpteurs anonymes, 35 no. 216; Guarducci, 595, fig. 187; Schmaltz, 50 n. 64; Rauscher, 157-58, fig. 41; Meyer, 291 A 91, pl. 27.2; C. Habicht, Festschrift für Nikolaus Himmelmann (1989) 321-22.


37.
Athens honours Alkimachos
IG II2 239 Athens, EM 7063 337/36 Plate 19

Found on Akropolis in 1838. Left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by taenia inscribed [Θ]Ε[ΟΙ] and ovolo, together 0.045 wide. Surface very worn, flaked, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.31, p.h. of relief 0.125, p.w. 0.21, th. 0.14, relief h. 0.025, h. of letters 0.009 (lines I, 2), 0.008 (lines 3 ff.).

The very fragmentary document is apparently an honorary decree for Alkimachos, possibly the son of Agathokles of Pella, an envoy and general of Philip II and Alexander of Macedonia (Arr. Anab. 1.18.1; Harp., s.v. Alkimachos). The decree is securely dated to the sixth prytany of the archonship of Phryni[chos], 337/36 (lines 3-4). Only the badly damaged lower left corner of the relief is preserved, depicting the lower part of a seated figure, perhaps Athena, facing right. It is possible to distinguish part of the seat, the foot rest, and her lower right leg where bunched folds emerge from beneath her himation. Alkimachos may have stood facing her on the right.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1839) 222 no. 240, fig. 240 (drwg.); Rangabé II, 85 no. 412; IG II 123; A. Wilhelm, ÖJh 11 (1908) 91; Binneboeßel, 13 no. 56, 20, 64; Svoronos, 667 no. 441 (5), pl. 216.5; Tod II, 236-37 no. 180; SEG 21.267; Schwenk, 27-30 no. 4; SEG 32.78; SEG 35.239; Meyer, 293 A 96.


40.
Ephebic dedication
IG II2 2970 Athens, EM 2802a 334/33 Plate 21

Provenance unknown. Left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on left by 0.045 wide anta, below by taenia inscribed with first two lines of inscription and ovolo, together 0.06 wide. Surface badly weathered, flaked, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.57, p.h. of relief 0.26, p.w. 0.24, th. 0.12, relief h. 0.03, h. of letters 0.009 (lines 1-2), 0.004 (lines 3 ff.).

Only a few fragmentary lines of this inscription, a dedication by a group of ephebes who had been honoured by the state, are preserved, but it is securely dated to the year 334/33 by its eponymous archon K[te]si[kles] (line 1). At the left is Athena, turned toward the right, her left hand resting on the rim of the shield beside her. Her raised right hand originally held a painted spear. She wears a peplos, aegis with gorgoneion, and a shoulder mantle. There is room for another figure or figures, perhaps a representative of the ephebes and their patron, in the missing right side of the relief. The frontality of the figure and her high-waisted proportions, with the part of the overfall below the belt longer than the part above, are typical of figures from the third quarter of the century. The billowing shoulder mantle resembles that of the approximately contemporary Athena in no. 142.

Schöne, 30 no. 60, pl. 12 (drwg.); Sybel, 441 no. 7126; J. Kirchner, AM 52 (1927) 197-98, 204, Beil. 23.1; Binneboeßel, 13 no. 58, 20, 58-59, 60, 64, 66-67; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 94; Svoronos, 669 no. 448 (1), pl. 221.1; Süsserott, 27 n. 5, 84-86, pl. 5.3; O. Walter, ÖJh 32 (1940) 23 n. 68; F. Mitchel, Hesperia 33 (1964) 349-51; SEG 22.148; O. W. Reinmuth, The Ephebic Inscriptions of the Fourth Century B.C., Mnemosyne, Suppl. 14 (1971) 13-15, 124, pl. 5 (det.); B. Holtzmann, BCH 96 (1972) 74 n. 1; Zagdoun, FdD IV.6, 55, fig. 36; U. Kron, AM 94 (1979) 53-54; Meyer, 293-94 A 99, pl. 31.1; L. J. Roccos, Hesperia 60 (1991) 408-9 no. 3, pl. 109.


41.
Athens honours Archippos
IG II2 336 Athens, EM 7237 333/32 Plate 21

Two fragments: a (EM 7237), composed of four smaller fragments, found in 1836 between Propylaia and Parthenon, b (EM 7237a) found north of Parthenon in 1838. Left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by 0.05 wide moulding, profile destroyed, probably originally inscribed with missing first two lines of heading. Parts of surface well-preserved, parts corroded, with accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.45, p.h. of relief 0.05, p.w. 0.265, th. 0.135 (relief), 0.13 (inscription), relief h. 0.04, h. of letters 0.006.

The stele carried three decrees, all dealing with Archippos, probably the son of the Thasian Archippos honoured in no. 86. His citizenship is reaffirmed in the first two decrees; the third appears to restrict his choice of phratry. The detailed deliberations concerning the mechanics of Archippos' citizenship suggest that he actually intended to claim it; Osborne suggested that he moved to Athens when his pro-Athenian views became unpopular in Thasos. The first decree is dated by its secretary to the archonship of Ktesikles, 334/33 (line 1). Fragment b begins with the end of another decree that includes the provisions for its publication. Line 6 of fragment b begins a third decree with an abbreviated dating formula; the preceding decree would have had the complete one. The dating formula of 334/33 does not fit the third decree. Dow convincingly restored the secretary of 333/32 for the third and therefore also for the second decree. All three decrees, carved by the same mason, must have been inscribed together in 333/32. Osborne estimates that the stele was a very large one, similar in size to the stele honouring Herodoros (no. 59).

Only the bottom left half of the relief is preserved, depicting the feet of two figures who in their types and relationship to each other resemble representations of Zeus and Hera in other document reliefs (nos. 5, 24, 96). The standing Hera on the left turns toward the seated Zeus on the right, whose feet rest on a low stool. Their placement in the relief is awkward, with Zeus turning his back on the figure or figures who must have been on the right side of the relief, but it is probably dictated here, as elsewhere in document reliefs, by an apparent desire to emphasize the relationship between Zeus and Hera (cf. nos. 24, 96). The awkwardness may have been mitigated by the presence of Athena, perhaps bestowing the 1000-drachmai gold wreath awarded in the first decree; the restoration of the text indicates that the preserved relief fragment accounts for only about half the width of the stele. The pair would be appropriate patron deities if, as seems very likely, the Archippos in question was from Thasos. There was a sanctuary of Zeus Agoraios in Thasos, and the reliefs of Zeus and Hera on the city's gates must have been well-known (Pouilloux, Cultes de Thasos I, 227, 230-32; C. Picard, Études thasiennes VIII [Les murailles I: les portes sculptées à images divines] [1962] 150-76, pl. XLII; P. Bernard, BCH 89 [1965] 64-89).

The arrangement of the drapery, with its contrast of regular, rounded folds over Hera's weight leg and clinging drapery over her free leg, recalls that of late fifth-century peplophoroi, but the material is stiff and heavy.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1837) 64-65 no. 27, fig. 27 (drwg.); ArchEph (1839) 206 no. 211; ArchEph (1853) 1074-75 no. 2019; Rangabé II, 98-99 no. 426, 100-1 no. 427; IG II 230; IG II2 336, Add. p. 659; Binneboeßel, 16 no. 70, 20; Svoronos, 667 no. 442 (3), pl. 217.3; Pouilloux, Cultes de Thasos I, 197, 433, pl. 47.2, 3; S. Dow, Hesperia 32 (1963) 341-42; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia 32 (1963) 434-35; SEG 21. 273, 278; Osborne, Naturalization, D 17, D 23; SEG 31.271; Schwenk, 159-72 no. 31; SEG 32.82; SEG 33.87; SEG 35.239; Meyer, 294 A 101; SEG 36.153.


42.
Athens honours a Chian
IG II2 339a Athens, EM 7160 333/32 Plate 22

Found in Akropolis sanctuary of Brauronian Artemis in 1840. Broken all around, back rough-picked. Taenia below relief, 0.04 wide, has first line of inscription. Surface worn, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.26, p.h. of relief 0.11, p.w. 0.15, th. 0.115 (relief), 0.11 (inscription), relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.12 (line 1), 0.007 (lines 2ff.).

The document is a very fragmentary proxeny decree; the relief indicates that it is for a Chian. (IG II2 339b, a decree in honour of Lykos of Pydna long associated with it, does not belong.) The decree is securely dated to the second prytany of the archonship of [Ni]kokrates, 333/32 (lines 2-4).

The fragmentary relief depicts a sphinx and a Chian amphora, symbols associated with the island's famous wine, found on the coins, weights, and amphora stamps of Chios. (For Chian amphora stamps: V. R. Grace, Hesperia 3 [1934] 296-97, pl. 1, fig. 1; coins: J. Mavrogordato, NC 16 [1916] 281-95, pl. 10; weights: F. Studniczka, AM 13 [1888] fig. on p. 186.) The sphinx, of which only the head and chest are preserved, turns in profile view toward the pointed amphora. Several other foreign documents concerning Chios also carry these well-known symbols: Zagdoun, FdD IV.6, 69-74 no. 20, fig. 53; L. Robert, Fouilles de Claros (1954) 2I IG XI.4 599.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1840) 365 no. 464, fig. 464 (drwg.); P. Perdrizet, BCH 20 (1896) 549-62; Wilhelm, AU 1 (1911) 48-49, pl. 5; Binneboeßel, 13-14 no. 59, 20, 80, 81; W. K. Pritchett and O. Neugebauer, Calendars of Athens (1947) 47-48; D. Lewis, BSA 50 (1955) 27; Lambrechts, pl. 12; SEG 16.54; SEG 21.277; T. Ritti, MemLinc 14 (1969/70) 267 no. 4, pl. II fig. 1; Schwenk, 151-57 no. 29; Zagdoun, FdD IV.6, 69-74, fig. 54; SEG 26.75; SEG 35.239; Meyer, 294 A 100.


43.
The deme Eitea honours Hippokles Demokleous
SEG
28.102 Athens, EM 13461 332/31 Plate 22

Three joining fragments found in October 1961 at southern end of Attic village of Grammatiko. Top, both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Stele terminates above in plain palmette-shaped crown. Below it, recessed relief panel, upper corners rounded, with plain flat border on top and sides. Inscribed on border above relief: ΘΕΟΙ Surface worn, corroded. Deep horizontal cut, perhaps ancient attempt to separate relief and inscription, extends width of stele just below relief (cf. no. 38). Grey-white, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.67, h. of relief panel 0.178, h. of palmette 0.195, w. of relief panel 0.17, w. of stele 0.265 (top), 0.275 (bottom), th. 0.047, relief h. very low, h. of letters 0.005-0.006.

The decree of the deme Eitea honours Hippokles Demokleous for his services to the deme; he is awarded a 500-drachmai gold wreath. Whether the deme is Eitea of Akamantis or of Antiochis is not specified. Kaloyeropoulou suggested that Hippokles was the father of Samakion Hippokleous Eiteaiou, whose grave stele was found in the Kerameikos (IG II2 6007: A. Conze, Die attischen Grabreliefs III.1 (1906), no. 1430, pl. 295). The inscription is dated by reference to the treasurer of the deme as an officer serving in the archonship of Ni[ketes], 332/31 (lines 16-18). The treasurer was to have published it at the deme's expense, and it was to have been set up in the sanctuary of Basile (lines 15-20).

The relief depicts the small, bearded figure of Hippokles being crowned by a larger female figure who must be Basile, since the stele was to have been erected in her sanctuary. Hippokles stands opposite her on the left and raises his right hand in a gesture of adoration. Basile is about to place the crown on his head with her right hand. She wears a belted chiton and himation; her hair is pulled back in a short, high top knot.

There is little evidence for the character of Basile, often confused with Basileia. (For her cult in Athens and elsewhere in Attica, see no. 4 and Shapiro, ZPE.) Her role in the inscription and relief from Grammatiko suggests that hers was the major cult in the deme of Eitea at this time.

Kaloyeropoulou noted that the palmette was normally used as a terminus of grave stelai rather than official documents and that the stone was probably originally intended for funerary use. The figures appear hastily cut, superficially resembling the types and style of the relief of the Athenian anti-tyranny decree (no. 38).

A. Kaloyeropoulou, ArchDelt 25 A (1970) 204-14, pls. 70, 71; E. Vanderpool, ArchDelt 25 A (1970) 215-16; P. J. Bicknell, Historia 27 (1978) 369-74; Schwenk, 205-212 no. 42; H. A. Shapiro, ZPE 63 (1986) 134-36; SEG 35.239; Meyer, 295 A 104.


44.
Athens honours a Plataian
IG II2 345 Athens, EM 7167, 7168 332/31 Plate 23

Two non-joining fragments found on Akropolis in 1858: a (EM 7168), lower left corner of relief, b (EM 7167), fragment of inscription with small fragment of right corner of relief. Both edges preserved, back damaged. Relief bordered by 0.045 wide antae and below by 0.025 wide taenia. Surface of both fragments worn, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. Fragment a: p.h. 0.215, p.h. of relief 0.10, p.w. 0.18, p.th. 0.08, relief h. 0.03, h. of letters 0.007. Fragment b: p.h. 0.42, p.w. 0.145, p.th. 0.36, h. of letters 0.007.

The decree, proposed by Lykourgos, honours a Plataian whose name is not preserved. It is securely dated to the eighth prytany of the archonship of Niketes, 332/3 1 (lines 2-3); it was passed on the same day as no. 45, but the hands of neither the masons nor the sculptors appear to have been the same. The figures in the relief are too poorly preserved for identification. At the left are the bare lower legs of a male figure, possibly the honorand, turned toward the right. Next to him on the right stands a female figure in a long garment, perhaps Athena, of whom only the lower legs are preserved. The figure appears nearly frontal, standing with her weight on her right leg. The tiny fragment of relief preserved on fragment b is probably part of the right anta.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1858) 1785 no. 3412; ArchEph (1859) 1843 no. 3534; IG II 173; Binneboeßel, 14 no. 60, 20, 64; Svoronos, 667 no. 441 (4), pl. 216.4; Schwenk, 187-90 no. 36; SEG 35.239; Meyer, 294 A 102.


45.
Athens honours Amphis of Andros
IG II2 347 Athens, EM 7155 332/31 Plate 24

Five fragments: a (with relief), found in vicinity of Asklepieion, + b, composed of three small fragments, found in Varvakeion (together EM 7155), c (EM 5119). Fragments a and b broken all around, backs rough-picked. Surface worn, with accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.575, p.h. of relief 0.17, p.w. 0.36, th. 0.13, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.007.

The decree honours Anphis (sic?) of Andros, whom Wilhelm identified as the poet Amphis of Middle Comedy. The Suda (s.v. Amphis) refers to him as an Athenian, but Wilhelm supposed that his citizenship was awarded at a later date. He is here awarded a crown of ivy, appropriate for a poet because of its association with Dionysos. The decree was passed on the same day as no. 44, in the eighth prytany of the archonship of [N]iketes, 332/31 (lines 1-3), but it does not appear to have been inscribed or sculpted by the same men.

The relief preserves the lower legs of two male figures wearing himatia. The smaller figure on the left turns in three-quarter view toward the right, advancing with his weight on his left leg. The larger figure approaches him from the right, with his weight on his right leg. The smaller figure undoubtedly represents Amphis, the large figure probably Demos, presenting a crown to the poet. The restoration of the inscription indicates that there was no room in the relief for another figure. The workmanship is rough and clumsy.

S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 6 (1877/78) 131-32 no. 6; A. Wilhelm, AM 15 (1890) 219-22; IG II.5 173b: Wilhelm, UDA, 129, 218; Walter, Beschreibung, 14; Binneboeßel, 14 no. 61, 20, 64; SEG 14.55; Svoronos, 666 no. 440 (1), pl. 215.1; Schwenk, 192-95 no. 38; SEG 35.239; Meyer, 294-95 A 103, pl. 50.2.


48.
Content unidentified
Hesperia
10 (1941) 50 no. 13 Athens, Agora I 4224a 324/23 Plate 25

Three fragments from Agora: Agora I 4224a (with relief) and Agora I 4224c, found together in grave xxxi in Byzantine to Turkish context in Hephaisteion (E 7) in 1939, Agora I 4224b, found in Turkish context in well (F 6) in 1936. Fragment a preserves left edge, top, and back, fragments b and c broken all around. Relief bordered at left by anta, above by 0.09 5 wide moulding, below by 0.09 wide moulding, profiles destroyed. Surface very badly battered, probably trimmed for reuse. Large crack runs diagonally from top to bottom. Grey-white, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.67, p.w. 0.26, th. 0.16, p. relief h. 0.025.

Only a few fragmentary lines of the inscription and the battered outlines of two figures on the left side of the relief are preserved. The document is securely dated to the sixth prytany of the archonship of Hegesios, 324/23 (lines 1-2). At the left, overlapping both the anta and the moulding above, stands Athena, turned in three-quarter view toward the right. Her left hand rests on the rim of her shield: her right hand hangs at her side. Next to her on the right stands a frontal male figure of the same or slightly smaller scale, but the fragmentary inscription does not provide a clue to his identity. He is bisected vertically by the straight right edge of the fragment. His right arm hangs at his side. He probably wore a himation; a bulge at his hip seems to indicate a bunch of drapery. The restored width of the inscription indicates that there could have been at least one more figure on the right side of the relief.

F. Brommer, AA (1939) 239; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia 10 (1941) 50-52 no. 13, fig. p. 51; Schwenk, 356-58 no. 72; SEG 35.239; Meyer, 300 A 124.


49.
Athens honours Asklepiodoros
IG II2 367 Athens, EM 2811 323/22 Plate 26

Four joining fragments: EM 2811 (with relief), composed of three fragments, + EM 7180, found in 1838 between Parthenon and Propylaia. Top and both edges preserved, back and top rough-picked. Relief bordered by antae supporting entablature, below by taenia inscribed ΘΕ[ΟΙ] and ovolo. Surface battered, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.62, h. of relief 0.35, w. 0.48. th. 0.175, relief h. 0.045, h. of letters 0.008.

The document is an honorary decree for Asklepiodoros, apparently an ambassador in treaty negotiations with Phokis, which joined the Greek revolt after the death of Alexander. The decree is often restored to include a second ambassador, but the inscription is too fragmentary for certainty on this point. The presence of a single honorand in the relief strongly implies that only one man is honoured, or at least that the honours for Asklepiodoros take precedence over any others that might have been given. The second crown is not significant in this respect, as other stelai with only one honorand and more than one crown attest (no. 53; IG II2 360). The decree is securely dated to the third prytany of the archonship of [Kephisodoros], 323/22 (lines 1-3) by the coincidence of its secretary with that of the first decree of IG II2 448.

At the left stands Athena, holding a crown in both hands. On the right a small male figure representing Asklepiodoros is being crowned simultaneously by two figures, almost certainly Demos and Boule, who are slightly larger than the honorand yet smaller than Athena. Boule conforms very closely to the type attested for her by the inscription on no. 142. The unusual arrangement of her himation, drawn over her head like a veil, with a distinctive curved edge of drapery running straight from the right shoulder to the triangular overfold at the waist, is shared by both figures. Demos also closely resembles a standing type confirmed for him by inscription (no. 117), which appears more frequently in document reliefs (nos. 54, 149, 150, 172) than figures of Boule,

The relief is roughly carved, but the very high-waisted female figures and the pronounced swing in Demos' stance are consistent with stylistic developments of the late fourth century.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1839) 228 no. 265; ArchEph (1842) 558 no. 953; Müller and Schöll, 62-63 no. 42, 89; Rangabé II, 70-71 no. 395; P. Pervanoglu, AZ 16 (1860) 24 no. 3, 26; AZ 25 (1867) 46 no. 5; R. Förster, AdI 42 (1870) 219; Schöne, 41 no. 75, pl. 16 (drwg.); IG II 182; Sybel, 430 no. 6978; Friederichs and Wolters, 388 no. 1171; P. Gardner, JHS 9 (1888) 79; Le Bas, pl. 41.1 (drwg.); Matz, 55; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl 18 (1915) 91; Walter, Beschreibung, 4; Diepolder, 56; Binneboeßel, 15 no. 67, 42, 69, 75-76; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 63, 94, pl. 29.3; Svoronos, 666 no. 438, pl. 213; Walter, ÖJh 30 (1937) 54 n. 15, 55 n. 16; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 374, 377; Süsserott, 20, 64-68, 89-91, 96 n. 16, 119-20, 181, 184-85, 202 n. 22, pl. 9.3; E. Bielefeld, JdI 69 (1954) 140 n. 26; A. Giuliano, ASAtene 37/38 (1959/60) 399, 401, fig. 15; Hamdorf, 31, 94 n. 254(n), 95 no. 258(c); F. Mitchel, Phoenix 18 (1964) 17; SEG 21.295; Schmaltz, 50 n. 65; Rauscher, 162-63; Kron, Phylenheroen, 237-38, 281 (7); Mitropoulou, Contributions, 52-53, fig. 9; C. Schwenk, AntK 19 (1976) 64-66, pl. 14; SEG 26.81; Palagia, Euphranor, 62; Hesperia 51 (1982) 109 n. 58; A. N. Oikonomides, AncW 5 (1982) 123-27; Schwenk, 394-401 no. 81; SEG 32.91; LIMC III, 146 no. 3, s.v. Boule (V. Komninos); 380 no. 57, pl. 275, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); SEG 35.239; Meyer, 300-I A 125, pl. 35.2.


50.
Athens honours several Bosporans
SEG
21.298 (IG II2 369 + 414b + c +) Athens, EM 7333 323/22 Plate 26

Eleven fragments: b (EM 7333 = IG II2 369), with relief; j (EM 12572 = IG II2 414c) and k (EM 7332 = IG II2 414b) found on North Slope of Akropolis; a, c (joins j), e, f (Agora I 4935 e, b, c, d) found in 1938 in Agora (T 26-27); d (Agora I 4935a) found in Agora in 1937 (T 26-27); h (Agora I 4935f) found in 1938 in modern house in Agora (O-P 22-23); i (Agora I 2752) found in 1935 in late wall in Agora (N 11). Fragment a preserves left edge, h preserves back and right edge, others broken all around. Relief separated from inscription by cyma reversa and ovolo. White, medium-grained marble. Fragment b: p.h. 0.18, p.w. 0.135, p.th. 0.105, h. of letters 0.008.

The very fragmentary inscription records two decrees honouring several people, apparently Bosporans, who have given grain and some other gift or assistance needed by Athens, perhaps to alleviate shortages caused by the Lamian War. It is securely dated to the eighth prytany of the archonship of Ke[phisod]oros, 323/22 (lines 2-3). Athens had earlier honoured the kings of the Crimean Bosporos (no. 35) for their role in providing Athens with grain.

The wide, well-cut moulding above the inscription must have supported a large, ambitious relief, but all that remains is the foot of a single figure turned toward the left in the centre of the panel.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1853) 901 no. 1445; Rangabé II, 988 no. 2316; IG II 290; E. Schweigert, Hesperia 8 (1939) 27-30 no. 7, pl. 28; Hesperia 9 (1940) 335-39 no. 42, pl. p. 337; J. Brashinsky, Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Kratkie Soobshcheniya 74 (1959) 6, pl. 2; J. and L. Robert, REG 75 (1962) 146-47 n. 108; SEG 21.298; SEG 24.102; Brashinsky, Acta of the Fifth International Congress of Greek and Latin Epigrapby, Cambridge 1967 (1971) 119-23; Osborne, Naturalization, D 25; SEG 31.271; Schwenk, 426-32 no. 85; SEG 35.239; Meyer, 301 A 126.


51.
Content unidentified
IG II2 376 Athens, EM 88 322/21 Plate 27

Found in Theatre of Dionysos. Broken all around, back. Relief separated from inscription by 0.045 wide taenia bevelled back to surface of inscription. Surface very worn. Grey, fine-grained marble. p.h. 0.18, p.h. of relief 0.055, p.w. 0.18, p.th. 0.11, p. relief h. negligible, h. of letters 0.007.

The very fragmentary decree is dated to the archonship of [Philokle]s, 322/21 (line 1). All that remains of the relief is a small section from the centre with what appears to be a horse's hoof pointing toward the right.

B. D. Meritt, The Athenian Year, 110; Schwenk, 451-52 no. 90; SEG 35.239.


52.
Content unidentified
SEG
21.303 Athens, Agora I 6496 321/20 Plate 27

Found in 1952 Agora excavations in wall of medieval house above east end of South Stoa II (O 15). Right edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by plain 0.02 wide taenia ending 0.015 from edge of relief. Surface somewhat worn, corroded. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.205, p.h. of relief 0.09 5, p.w. 0.19, th. 0.07, relief h. 0.005, h. of letters 0.005.

The content of the inscription is not known; little more than the heading is preserved. Meritt has shown that the only year in which the lunar and conciliar dates given in the inscription coincide is that of the archonship of [Archipp]os, 321/20 (line 2); the inscription belongs to the fifth prytany (line 4). On the right stands a female facing right, of whom only the lower legs are preserved. Opposite her on the left is a large dolphin with its snout down and its back arched; most of the body and tail are broken away. The stance and dress of the figure are archaistic. Her weight is evenly distributed, the folds between her legs are bunched in the central gathering common in the dress of Archaic statues, and the diagonal line of zigzag folds on her left side indicates the open side of her peplos or end of her long diagonal mantle. The archaizing style must have been used here to indicate that the figure is a statue, presumably of the patron goddess of the person, city, or cult with which the decree is concerned (cf. no. 28, which depicts an archaistic figure representing the Parthenos of Neapolis). The dolphin must be one of her attributes or a symbol of the party she represents.

B. D. Meritt, Hesperia 30 (1961) 289-92 no. 184, pl. 59; S. Dow, HSCP 67 (1963) 44-45; Hesperia 32 (1963) 344-45; E. B. Harrison, Agora XI: The Archaic and Archaistic Sculpture (1965) 64, 67, 85 no. 133, pl. 31; T. Ritti, MemLinc 14 (1969/70) 269-70 no. 8, pl. II fig. 4; B. Ridgway, The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture (1977) 312; Meyer, 301 A 127.


53.
Honours for unidentified
epimeletai IG II2 2842 Athens, NM 2964 321/20 or 318/17 Plate 28

Provenance unknown. Right edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on right by 0.03 wide anta, below by plain taenia and ovolo, together 0.04 wide. Surface very worn. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.28, p.w. 0.30, th. 0.10 (relief), 0.08 5 (inscription), relief h. 0.02, h. of letters ca. 0.007.

The very slight remains of inscription indicate that it concerns honours for a number of epimeletai whose names are not preserved; it was probably a decree of a phyle (cf. nos. 107, 128, 138, 145, 157, possibly no. 148). The document belongs either to 321/20 or to 318/17, the two years with eponymous archons named Archipp[os] (line 3).

Athena or another figure holding a shield stood to the left; only the shield is preserved. If the document is a phyle decree and the figure with the shield is Athena, the phyle hero may have stood further to the left (cf. no. 138). The epimeletai are depicted on the right as three small bearded men wearing himatia. The first man turns toward Athena and raises his right hand. The second figure is largely frontal. The third man leans with his right arm on the shoulder of the second, his right leg casually crossing the left. His left hand rests on his hip.

The small figures are crudely carved and very worn, but the variety and combination of their positions echo the relative complexity of composition in better reliefs of the late fourth century (cf. nos. 47, 54).

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1854) 1193 no. 2314; Rangabé II, 628; IG II 1210; Le Bas, pl. 41.2 (drwg.); O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl 18 (1915) 92; Beschreibung, 22; W. B. Dinsmoor, The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age (1931) 375; Binneboeßel, 16 no. 69, 20; Svoronos, 659 no. 417, pl. 193.9; Kron, Phylenheroen, 237 n. 1155; Meyer, 302 A 132, pl. 37.2.


54.
Athens honours Euphron of Sikyon
IG II2 448 Athens, NM 1482 318/I7 Plate 28

Complete stele found in Late Roman fortifications near Stoa of Attalos during 1891 extension of Athens-Piraeus railway. Top, sides preserved, bottom set in modern base, back smooth. Relief bordered by antae (0.0475 wide on left, 0.04 wide on right) supporting entablature with antefixes, below by taenia and ovolo, together 0.085 wide. Surface worn, particularly on right side, with accretions, iron stains; stele had been used as drain cover. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 2.35, h. of relief 0.60, w. of relief 0.66, w. of inscription 0.60 (top), 0.65 (bottom), th. 0.30 (relief), 0.25 (top of inscription), 0.29 (bottom of inscription), relief h. 0.06, h. of letters 0.007.

The stele carries two decrees, the first a republication of a decree granting Euphron, son of Adeas of Sikyon, and his descendants Athenian citizenship for his alliance with Athens in the Lamian War, the second reaffirming the first and authorizing the republication. Euphron had been responsible for ridding Sikyon of a Macedonian garrison and establishing democracy there shortly before his trip to Athens. The first decree (lines 2-34) was passed in the fifth prytany of the archonship of Kephisodoros of 323/22 (lines 1-2), but was rescinded and the original stele recording it probably destroyed by the oligarchy which came into power later that year. The second (lines 35-87) is a resolution passed by the restored democracy in the fourth prytany of the archonship of Archippos, 318 (lines 35-36). Euphron had since been killed resisting the Macedonians, but the reaffirmation was necessary to ensure that the original honours would be extended to his son. Two copies of the stele were to have been set up, one on the Akropolis, the other by Zeus Soter, a reference to the statue of Zeus Eleutherios/Soter in the Agora (lines 68-70); copies of the original decree were apparently set up in the same locations (lines 26-28). The stele in the National Museum must be the Agora copy; a fragmentary, now lost inscription found on the Akropolis (IG II2 575) may have been a copy of the original decree set up there (Osborne, Naturalization, D 41). Both decrees stipulate that the treasurer of the demos is to pay fifty drachmai for the publication (lines 29-31, 85 - 87), but the second decree has the unusual provision that the friends and relatives of Euphron contribute to the publication of the decrees (lines 72-73), probably because the honorand was deceased and the decrees were being published in their interest.

On the left stands Athena, wearing a chiton under a belted peplos, a mantle over her raised left and lowered right arms, a collar aegis with gorgoneion, and a helmet. Her raised left hand held her painted spear. Next to Athena is a bearded figure who turns toward the much smaller Euphron at the right. His extended right hand probably held a crown representing the 1000-drachmai gold crown awarded Euphron in the decree. The figure has often been identified as Zeus Soter because one copy of the decree was to have been set up by his statue, but the figure is slightly smaller than Athena, suggesting that he is Demos (cf. nos. 38, 49, 117, 133, 149, 150, 167, 172). Since Euphron was the leader of the democrats in Sikyon who had once before freed his city from Macedonia and established a democracy there, Demos would be an appropriate representative of the democracies he had served in Sikyon and Athens.

In an unusual instance of anecdote in a document relief, Euphron is depicted as just having arrived in Athens with his offer of alliance, the action for which he is praised in the first decree. He stands before Athena and Demos wearing a short chiton, a sword on a strap fastened diagonally across his chest, and a mantle thrown over his left shoulder. Behind him on the right are his horse, just emerging from behind the anta, and a small groom or servant actively restraining it. The horse's metal reins originally were attached to the hole near its mouth. The groom wears a chlamys. His right leg is missing; a small hole in the break at his groin may be the result of an ancient repair.

The figure of Athena in this relief is usually cited as a copy of the original of the Castra Praetoria Athena (Rome, Museo Nuovo Capitolino inv. 1829: Helbig4, 510-11 no. 1732; M. Bieber, The Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age2 (1961) figs. 210-I 2). Her pose, proportions, and the mantle worn over both shoulders resemble details of the Castra Praetoria statue, but other differences in details of her drapery, the position of her left arm, and her helmet type indicate that the relationship is not very close.

Although Euphron's relief is unusually large and elaborate for a document relief, with metal attachments and figures carved in such high relief that some of their limbs are entirely detached from the relief ground, the figures appear small within their deep frame, lacking the monumentality of the Bosporans of no. 35 and many figures in contemporary grave reliefs. The fans of roughly parallel, round, and revealing ridge-folds in the himation of Demos are typical of much earlier works, but the way that they stretch diagonally from ankle to hip is typical of the late fourth century. Athena's high-waisted proportions, with her belt beneath her breasts, are characteristic of female figures of the end of the century (no. 59).

H. Lolling, ArchDelt (1892) 56-71; IG II.5 231b; P. Arndt in BrBr, pl. 533.1; L. Mariani, BullComm 35 (1907) 20, fig. 5; L. Savignoni, Ausonia 2 (1907) 36; Kastriotis, 265 no. 1482; RE 6 (1909) 1218 s.v. Euphron 2 (H. Swoboda); SIG3 310, 317; Walter, 13; F. Studniczka, Artemis und Iphigenie (1926) 92, fig. 74; Diepolder, 56; Binneboeßel, 15 no. 68, 20, 21-23, 58, 59, 66, 67, 71, 76, 77; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 62-63, 70-71, 88, 94, pl. 29.1; L. Lerat, BCH 58 (1934) 169, 171; Svoronos, 607-16 no. 249, pl. 108; A. Billheimer, AJA 42 (1938) 475-77; Curtius, Antike Kunst, 340, 410, 416, 432, fig. 494; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 374, 377; Süsserott, 28 n. 5, 36 n. 31, 67-68, 91, 184, 188, 192, 202 n. 22, pl. 9.4; O. Walter, ÖJh 32 (1940) 15 n. 49, 21 Lippold, 275 n. 5, 276 n. 9, pl. 94.4; Wycherley, Agora III, 29 no. 42; Picard IV.2, 1266, fig. 496; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254 (o); SEG 21.297, 317; Schefold, Classical Greece, 185-86, 188-89, 222, 250 no, 58, app. pl. 58; SEG 22.95; SEG 23.59, 61; Schmaltz, 50, 58 n. 80; Rauscher, 163-64; G. B. Waywell, BSA 66 (1971) 378; Langenfaß-Vuduroglu, 42 no. 86, 45, 61, 92-93, 96; F. T. van Straten, BABesch 49 (1974) 184-87; Zagdoun, FdD IV.6, 54-55; Palagia, Euphranor, 62; SEG 26.82; Osborne, Naturalization, D 24, D 38, D 41; SEG 31.79, 271; Schwenk, 407-18 no. 83; SEG 32.90; Eschbach, 125-28, pl. 32.3 (det. Athena); LIMC II, 1013 no. 613, s.v. Athena (P. Demargne); III, 380 no. 58, pl. 275, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); SEG 35.239; Meyer, 303 A 134, pl. 39.1; SEG 36.158; SEG 37.81.


55.
Honorary decree
SEG
26.90 (IG II2 734 +) Athens, EM 7323 303/2 Plate 29

Two joining fragments: a (EM 7323) with relief, found between Theatre of Dionysos and Odeion of Herodes Atticus, + b (EM 4614), provenance unknown. Broken all around. Relief separated from inscription by moulding consisting of broad taenia, ovolo, and narrow lower taenia, together 0.047 wide. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.33, p.w. 0.20, p. th. 0.165, relief h. 0.04, h. of letters 0.005-0.006,

The fragmentary inscription apparently reaffirms a citizenship grant for a person whose name is not preserved. It is securely dated to the ninth prytany of the archonship of Leostratos, 303/2 (lines 1-2) by the coincidence of its secretary with that of IG II2 489, 493-497. All that remains of the relief is the foot of a figure standing on the right and turning toward the left, where another figure, Athena or Demos, probably originally stood.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1856) 1372-73 no. 2743; IG II 280; A. Reusch, Hermes 15 (1880) 345-46 no. 280; A. Wilhelm, Hermes 24 (1889) 151; IG II2 734, Add. p. 666; A. C. Johnson, AJP 34 (1913) 404-5; CP 9 (1914) 433; B. D. Meritt, Hesperia 7 (1938) 142-43; Meritt, Epigraphica Attica, 54-55; C. Karapa, ArchDelt 29 A (1974) 159-63 no. 2, pl. 90; A. G. Woodhead, Ancient Macedonian Studies in Honor of Charles F. Edson (1981) 364-65; SEG 30.71; Osborne, Naturalization, D 46; SEG 31.82, 271; Meyer, 308 A 150.


60.
Athens honours an archon
Hesperia
37 (1968) 273 no. 12 Athens, Agora I 2165 145/44 Plate 31

Found in Agora in 1934 in wall of modern house east of southern part of Odeion (N-O 11). Right edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered on right by 0.035 wide anta, below by taenia inscribed [ΘΕ]ΟΙ and ovolo, together 0.045 wide. Surface worn. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.27, p.w. 0.30, th. 0.128, relief h. 0.04, h. of letters 0.013 (line 1), 0.009 (lines 2 ff.).

The decree honours a man whose name is not preserved who served as an archon, perhaps as Meritt suggested, in one of the ‘Athenian overseas dependencies’. The man is honoured for his services in the archonship of Eukrates, 146/45 (line 4). The decree dates from the following year, after his term had been reviewed. On the right stands a figure, probably male, preserved only from the knees down. He turns in three-quarter view toward the left, where there is an altar, of which two steps and part of a triglyph of the superstructure are preserved. The figure may be a deity or the honorand himself. What remains of the relief appears to have been relatively high and carefully carved.

B. D. Meritt, Hesperia 37 (1968) 273 no. 12, pl. 79; Meyer, 315 C 1.


61.
The
orgeones of Aphrodite honour Serapion of Herakleia
AM 66
(1941) 228 no. 4 Athens, NM 3876 138/37 Plate 32

Three fragments found in Athens in 1933, in work on Leoforos Syngrou near Church of Hagios Sostos. Top, both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Considerable part of relief missing between two joining top fragments and fragment with bottom of relief and inscription. In back, two large, round holes, 0.08 diam., 0.04 deep, probably for reuse of stone. Relief bordered by architectural frame consisting of 0.055-0.06 wide antae supporting 0.06 wide taenia and 0.12 high pediment with akroteria. Relief somewhat worn, chipped, with accretions on upper fragment. Grey, medium-grained marble. p.h. (as restored) 0.82, w. 0.54 (top), 0.525 (bottom), th. 0.12 (top), 0.13 (bottom), relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.005-0.007.

The decree of the orgeones of Aphrodite honours their epimeletes Serapion for his service to the cult and to the demos of the Athenians. It is securely dated to the archonship of Timarchos, 138/37 (line 1). The stele was to have been set up in the sanctuary of Aphrodite (lines 19-20).

The figure on the right side of the relief is larger than the other figures and thus probably Aphrodite; only her legs and a trace of the top of her head are preserved. She turns toward the left and in her left hand holds a sceptre, apparently resting on her shoulder. The two figures on the left are slightly smaller in scale and therefore probably mortals, Serapion and his wife or perhaps a priestess. Serapion, who wears a wreath, is a portrait of a middle-aged man with a round face, large nose, and short, curly hair. The female figure wears a peplos or chiton and a mantle pulled up over the back of her head like a veil. She appears to raise her right hand almost to her chin. In the centre of the relief is an altar and behind it a pillar supporting a very small figure, intended as a statue in the distance. The figure turns toward the right and holds a crown or phiale in her extended right hand. In her left hand she holds a spear. She wears a chiton, himation, and diagonally draped aegis. Perched beside her on the pillar is a small bird or animal.

The individualization of the honorand and the suggestion of deep space in the distant pillar reflect Hellenistic interest in portraiture and the depiction of illusionistic space in relief.

N. Kyparissis and W. Peek, AM 66 (1941) 228-32 no. 4, pls. 75, 76; J. and L. Robert, REG 55 (1942) 329; G. Daux, Hesperia 16 (1947) 55 - 57; W. S. Ferguson, Commemorative Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear, Hesperia, Suppl. 8 (1949) 163; Meyer, 316 C 3.


62.
Athens honours the
prytaneis of Pandionis
SEG
21.478 Athens, Agora I 6422 118/17 Plate 32

Found 1 February 1952 in wall of modern house south of Church of Holy Apostles (O-Q 16-17). Left edge preserved, back rough-picked. Relief separated from inscription by ovolo. Surface chipped. Grey, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.26, p.h. of relief 0.07, p.w. 0.20, th. 0.14, relief h. ca. 0.02, h. of letters 0.007.

The prytaneis of Pandionis are praised for their celebration of a pannychis during their term of office. Meritt suggested that the goddess honoured was Athena Ergane and that the festival was the Chalkeia. The decree is securely dated to the archonship of Lennaios, 118/17 (line 1). Only a small section of relief is preserved near the left edge of the inscription, showing vertical drapery folds of a figure in a long garment turned toward the right. Reliefs on prytany inscriptions are rare (see no. 97).

B. D. Meritt, Hesperia 32 (1963) 22-23 no. 23, pl. 5; Meritt and J. S. Traill, Agora XV: Inscriptions: The Athenian Councillors (1974) 202 no. 253; Meyer, 316 C 4.

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