previous next


12.
Athens and Samos
IG
13 127,
IG
II2 I Athens, AM 1333 403/2 Plate 7

Nearly complete stele consisting of four joining fragments: fragment a found on Akropolis, b and c found between Theatre of Dionysos and Odeion of Herodes Atticus, provenance of d unknown. Top and sides preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered by antae supporting taenia and cyma reversa. Ghosts of painted meander visible on taenia. Surface well-preserved, with some corrosion, iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 1.71, h. of relief 0.50, w. 0.56, th. 0.12, h. of letters 0.02-0.03 (lines 1-2), 0.013 (lines 3-4), 0.006 (lines 5 ff.).

The stele records three decrees concerning Athens and her important ally Samos. The first decree (lines 5-40), dated by its eponymous archon Alexias to 405/4, honours the Samians for their loyalty after the Athenian defeat at Aigospotamoi. The second (lines 41-55) and third (lines 56-75), voted two years later in the archonship of Eukleides, reaffirm privileges, including Athenian citizenship for the loyal Samians, granted in the first decree. The third also specifically honours the Samian Poses and his sons. The heading of the stele (lines 1-2) indicates that all three decrees were inscribed in 403/2, when Kephisophon was secretary. One copy of the first decree was to have been set up on the Akropolis in Athens, and the Samians were to inscribe their own copy in Samos (lines 38-40). The Athenian stele that originally carried it was probably destroyed by the Thirty.

The relief, of which no. 13 is a copy, depicts the dexiosis of Athena and Hera, patron goddess of Samos. Athena stands on the right, wearing a peplos, himation, aegis with small gorgoneion, and an Attic helmet. In her left arm she cradles her spear pointed downward in front of her. Behind her to the right is her shield, resting against a bare tree stump, probably merely a prop rather than her olive tree; cf. no. 8. (For leafless trees and stumps as a convention of Greek relief, see M. Carroll-Spillecke, Landscape Depictions in Greek Relief Sculpture: Development and Conventionalization, European University Studies, Ser. 38, Vol. I I [Frankfurt am Main, Berne, New York 1985] 55.) Hera faces her on the left, her sceptre in her raised left hand. She wears a peplos, shoulder mantle, and stephane.

The stele is a good example of the heaviness and stiffness common in reliefs of the turn of the century. Although their left legs are drawn aside, the figures stand stiffly, with little shifting of their weight. The turn to three-quarter view in Hera's upper body stops abruptly at the waist, below which she is shown in strict profile. The drapery folds, even those of Hera's billowing mantle, have stiffened into hard, parallel patterns. The relief as a whole has considerable depth, created by the architectural frame, behind which Athena's helmet crest disappears, and the overlapping tree and foreshortened shield behind her.

S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 5 (1876/77) 92-94 no. 8; P. Kavvadias, ArchDelt (1888) 123-25, fig. 2 (drwg.); H. Lolling, ArchDelt (1889) 24-3 I; E. Petersen, RM 4 (1889) 68-69 (drwg.); IG II.5 Ib; Farnell I, 351, pl. 21b (drwg.); BrBr, pl. 475a; Collignon, 117 (drwg.); Kern, xii no. 19, pl. 19; Matz, 56-57; SIG3 116, 117; Casson, 234-37 no. 1333; G. Rodenwaldt, Das Relief bei den Griechen (1923) 69, 73, pl. 81; IG I2 126; Kjellberg, 138, 140; A. Hekler, JdI 42 (1927) 71-72, Beil. to p. 72; Diepolder, 21: Binneboeßel, 7 no. 22, 20, 22, 23, 35, 37, 38, 43-46, 47, 58: H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 28-30, 46, 91, pl. 13.2; V. Müller, AJA 39 (1935) 251; Curtius, Antike Kunst, 237, 306, 318, 320-21, 324, 397, 428, fig. 411; Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 360, 361, fig. 1; Süsserott, 17 n. 17, 28 n. 5, 31-36, 38 n. 37, 39 n. 44, 43 n. 56, 45 n. 64, 71, 98-102, 105, 131-32, 198 n. 8, 202 n. 22; Picard II.2, 838, fig. 334; Tod I, 231-34 no. 96; Kirchner, 18 no. 43, pl. 19; SEG 10.143; Lippold, 198 n. 11, fig. 73.4; Johansen, 151, fig. 76; SEG 12.42; Dohrn, 33; Hamdorf, 92 no. 239; Schefold, Classical Greece, 152, 159, 248 no. 32, app. pl. 32; Die Griechen und ihre Nachbarn (1967) 117, 187-88, pl. 94a; J. Frel and B. M. Kingsley, GRBS 11 (1970) 213 no. 57; Guarducci, 593, fig. 186; Meiggi and Lewis, 283-87 no. 94; Hiller, 66, 71, fig. 33 (det.); Rauscher, 150; SEG 25.40; Brouskari, 174-75 no. 1333, pl. 377; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 175-76 no. 21, fig. 179; Palagia, Euphranor, 21; Osborne, Naturalization, D4 and 5; SEG 31.271, 276; SEG 33.18; LIMC II, 1013 no. 607, pl. 763, s.v. Athena (P. Demargne); SEG 34.27; J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: the Classical Period (1985) 186-87, fig. 177; LIMC IV, 691 no. 296, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 273 A 26, pl. 10.1; SEG 36.23; G. Shipley, A History of Samos 800-188 B.C. (Oxford 1987) 130-31; SEG 37.20.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: