Athens and Arkadia, Achaia, Elis, and Phleious
IG II2 112 Athens, NM 1481 362/61 Plate 13
Two non-joining fragments: a (NM 1481
) found on South
Slope of Akropolis in 1876, b (EM 857
) from Akropolis.
Both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered
by 0.035 wide antae. Surface fairly well-preserved, with some
chipping, cracks. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.47,
p.h. of relief 0.215, w. 0.49, th. 0.145, relief h. 0.005, h. of
letters 0.012 (line 1), 0.006 (lines 2 ff.).
When Sparta refused to sign the peace treaty after the
battle of Mantineia in 362, the Peloponnesian states
that had alliances with the Athenian League through
their own alliances with Sparta had to deal with Athens separately. This decree is an alliance between Athens and Arkadia, Achaia, Elis, and Phleious, securely dated by its eponymous archon Molon to the
year 362/61 (line 1). The relief, which is very similar
to that of the alliance between Athens and Korkyra
(no. 96), depicts three figures, of whom two are certainly Athena and Zeus. On the right is Zeus, enthroned facing left; his feet rest on a low stool. His
left hand, which is broken away, holds a thunderbolt,
of which only the end is preserved. His right hand,
also missing, was raised and probably held a sceptre,
of which a trace may be just visible above his right
thigh. The central figure turns toward him. Her right
hand is raised and holds the edge of her mantle in an
unveiling gesture. Her left hand holds her sceptre.
Her head is completely destroyed, but a long lock of
hair hangs over her right shoulder. Further left stands
Athena, turned toward the others, holding her spear
in her raised left hand. Her right hand rests on her
hip. Her shield stands at her left side.
Scholars have long identified the central figure in
this relief as a personification of the Peloponnese, the
name used to refer to the allies in one place in the
inscription, but place personifications in document
reliefs are rare (nos. 66, 120), and both the dress and
the gesture and position of the figure with respect to
Zeus strongly suggest that the figure is Hera (cf. nos.
5, 96, perhaps no. 41). Zeus and Hera would be appropriate representatives of the Peloponnesian allies,
for the sanctuary of Zeus and Hera at Olympia was
the major sanctuary not only of the signatory Elis
but also of the entire Peloponnese. The enthroned,
thunderbolt-wielding Zeus is Zeus Olympios who
with Athena Polias heads the list of deities invoked in
Although the figures of Zeus and Hera appear to
have been based upon late fifth-century models (cf.
no. 5), the higher-waisted proportions of the female
figures and the interest in such relatively naturalistic
effects as the buckling material at the knees of Zeus
and Hera and the pulling of drapery across Hera's
breasts are indicative of a new style phase. Hera closely
resembles copies of the approximately contemporary
Eirene of Kephisodotos (Palagia, Euphranor, fig. 42).
U. Köhler, AM
1 (1876) 197-205; F. von Duhn, AZ
(1877) 171 no. 102, pl. 15.1 (drwg.); IG
II 112; IG
57b; S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion
5 (1876/77) 101-2; A.
2 (1878) 559-69, pl. 11; Sybel, 285-86 no.
3989; Friederichs and Wolters, 385 no. 1162; P. Gardner,
9 (1888) 50-51; IG
II.5 57b; Farnell I, 351; P. Arndt
, pl. 533.2; Kastriotis, 265 no. 1481; Matz, 57-58;
3 181; Walter, Beschreibung
, 2, 3; F. Studniczka, Artemis und Iphigenie
(1926) 91 fig. 73; Diepolder, 39-42;
Binneboeßel, 10 no. 37, 20, 32, 41, 48, 52, 54-5 5, 63, 71 H.
47 (1932) 57-58, 92, pl. 21.1; Svoronos, 598-99
no. 245, pl. 106.1; V. Müller;ller, ArtB
20 (1938) 366-67, 377,
fig. 9; Süsserott, 52-57, 79, 113, 148-50, pl. 4.1; Tod II,
134-38 no. 144; Lippold, 247, pl. 88.3; Dohrn, 79-80, 157,
162, 168-69, 175, 180, 181, 214-16; Bengtson, 250-52 no.
290; Picard IV.6, 1262 n. 6; SEG
21.242; Schefold, Classical
, 187, 219-20, 249 n. 49, app. pl. 49; Schmaltz, 37 n.
49, 39 n. 51; Hiller, 24, 57, 63; Brown, 26, fig. 81; H. Jung,
91 (1976) 123-30, fig. 6; S. Dušanić, AM
94 (1979) 128-35, pl. 38; Palagia, Euphranor
, 58 n. 332; SEG
32.61; Eschbach, pl. 10.4 (det. Athena); LIMC
IV, 688 no.
257, pl. 420, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 282
A 58, pl. 17.2.