previous next


24.
Athens and Arkadia, Achaia, Elis, and Phleious
IG II2 112 Athens, NM 1481 362/61 Plate 13

Two non-joining fragments: a (NM 1481) found on South Slope of Akropolis in 1876, b (EM 857) from Akropolis. Both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered by 0.035 wide antae. Surface fairly well-preserved, with some chipping, cracks. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.47, p.h. of relief 0.215, w. 0.49, th. 0.145, relief h. 0.005, h. of letters 0.012 (line 1), 0.006 (lines 2 ff.).

When Sparta refused to sign the peace treaty after the battle of Mantineia in 362, the Peloponnesian states that had alliances with the Athenian League through their own alliances with Sparta had to deal with Athens separately. This decree is an alliance between Athens and Arkadia, Achaia, Elis, and Phleious, securely dated by its eponymous archon Molon to the year 362/61 (line 1). The relief, which is very similar to that of the alliance between Athens and Korkyra (no. 96), depicts three figures, of whom two are certainly Athena and Zeus. On the right is Zeus, enthroned facing left; his feet rest on a low stool. His left hand, which is broken away, holds a thunderbolt, of which only the end is preserved. His right hand, also missing, was raised and probably held a sceptre, of which a trace may be just visible above his right thigh. The central figure turns toward him. Her right hand is raised and holds the edge of her mantle in an unveiling gesture. Her left hand holds her sceptre. Her head is completely destroyed, but a long lock of hair hangs over her right shoulder. Further left stands Athena, turned toward the others, holding her spear in her raised left hand. Her right hand rests on her hip. Her shield stands at her left side.

Scholars have long identified the central figure in this relief as a personification of the Peloponnese, the name used to refer to the allies in one place in the inscription, but place personifications in document reliefs are rare (nos. 66, 120), and both the dress and the gesture and position of the figure with respect to Zeus strongly suggest that the figure is Hera (cf. nos. 5, 96, perhaps no. 41). Zeus and Hera would be appropriate representatives of the Peloponnesian allies, for the sanctuary of Zeus and Hera at Olympia was the major sanctuary not only of the signatory Elis but also of the entire Peloponnese. The enthroned, thunderbolt-wielding Zeus is Zeus Olympios who with Athena Polias heads the list of deities invoked in the alliance.

Although the figures of Zeus and Hera appear to have been based upon late fifth-century models (cf. no. 5), the higher-waisted proportions of the female figures and the interest in such relatively naturalistic effects as the buckling material at the knees of Zeus and Hera and the pulling of drapery across Hera's breasts are indicative of a new style phase. Hera closely resembles copies of the approximately contemporary Eirene of Kephisodotos (Palagia, Euphranor, fig. 42).

U. Köhler, AM 1 (1876) 197-205; F. von Duhn, AZ 35 (1877) 171 no. 102, pl. 15.1 (drwg.); IG II 112; IG II Add. 57b; S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 5 (1876/77) 101-2; A. Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 559-69, pl. 11; Sybel, 285-86 no. 3989; Friederichs and Wolters, 385 no. 1162; P. Gardner, JHS 9 (1888) 50-51; IG II.5 57b; Farnell I, 351; P. Arndt in BrBr, pl. 533.2; Kastriotis, 265 no. 1481; Matz, 57-58; SIG3 181; Walter, Beschreibung, 2, 3; F. Studniczka, Artemis und Iphigenie (1926) 91 fig. 73; Diepolder, 39-42; Binneboeßel, 10 no. 37, 20, 32, 41, 48, 52, 54-5 5, 63, 71 H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 57-58, 92, pl. 21.1; Svoronos, 598-99 no. 245, pl. 106.1; V. Müller;ller, ArtB 20 (1938) 366-67, 377, fig. 9; Süsserott, 52-57, 79, 113, 148-50, pl. 4.1; Tod II, 134-38 no. 144; Lippold, 247, pl. 88.3; Dohrn, 79-80, 157, 162, 168-69, 175, 180, 181, 214-16; Bengtson, 250-52 no. 290; Picard IV.6, 1262 n. 6; SEG 21.242; Schefold, Classical Greece, 187, 219-20, 249 n. 49, app. pl. 49; Schmaltz, 37 n. 49, 39 n. 51; Hiller, 24, 57, 63; Brown, 26, fig. 81; H. Jung, JdI 91 (1976) 123-30, fig. 6; S. Dušanić, AM 94 (1979) 128-35, pl. 38; Palagia, Euphranor, 58 n. 332; SEG 29.90; SEG 32.61; Eschbach, pl. 10.4 (det. Athena); LIMC IV, 688 no. 257, pl. 420, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 282 A 58, pl. 17.2.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: