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35.
Athens honours Spartokos II, Pairisades I, and Apollonios of the Crimean Bosporos
IG II2 212 Athens, NM 1471 347/46 Plate 18

Joining fragments a and b found in 1877 between Church of St Spyridon and Customs House in Piraeus. Top, both edges preserved, back rough-picked. Broken bottom set in plaster. Relief bordered by 0.055 wide antae supporting entablature with antefixes, below by 0.09 wide moulding consisting of taenia and ovolo. One rectangular cutting in right edge of relief, another in right edge of moulding. Surface worn, with accretions, iron stains. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 2.17, h. of relief 0.69, w. 0.615 (relief), 0.55 (inscription), th. 0.165, relief h. 0.09, h. of letters 0.025 (lines 1-2), 0.0075 (lines 3ff.).

The Bosporan kingdom, an important source of grain, had had friendly relations with Athens since the second half of the fifth century. After the death of its king Leukon, his sons Spartokos II and Pairisades I sent envoys to Athens with a letter seeking assurance that the relationship would continue, and this decree is the Athenian response. In return for the export of wheat and other unspecified services, Athens extends to them all the privileges granted their father Leukon and grandfather Satyros, and promises to crown each of them with a 1000-drachmai gold crown at each Greater Panathenaia. A rider provides that their brother Apollonios be crowned as well. The decree is securely dated to the eighth prytany of the archonship of Themistokles, 347/46 (lines 3 - 5). It was to have been erected by the stele honouring Leukon and Satyros at public expense and a cost of thirty drachmai (lines 44-49); decrees concerning Leukon were set up in Piraeus (Dem. 20.36), where this stele was found.

The relief of the huge stele is unusual in its strong characterization of the honorands and the deferential absence of any representative of Athens. The two figures on the left, probably the rulers Spartokos and Pairisades, are seated together on a large, claw-footed throne. The standing figure leaning on a staff would be Apollonios, who did not share in their rule. The brothers are depicted with beards, and Spartokos and Pairisades have long hair falling over their shoulders, an attempt at characterizing them as foreigners that originally might have extended to their facial features as well; in type and style, they resemble the freestanding figures from the Mausoleion of Halikarnassos and a mid-fourth-century colossal statue found at Kertch, site of the Bosporan capital, possibly representing one of the Bosporan kings (G. B. Waywell, The Free-Standing Sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus in the British Museum (London 1978), 68, 97-105 nos. 26, 27, pls. 13-15; 108-10 no. 33, pl. 17; O. Waldhauer, JHS 44 (1924) 45, 51-52, fig. 5; Die Antiken Skulpturen der Hermitage I (Berlin and Leipzig 1928) 50 no. 36, pl. XVIII). In its high relief, monumental figures disposed comfortably within the deep space of the frame, and its voluminous drapery with deeply carved folds, the relief more closely resembles the better contemporary grave reliefs than other mid-century document reliefs (cf. Diepolder, pls. 45, 46).

S. A. Koumanoudes, Athenaion 6 (1877/78) 152-57; A. Schaefer, RhM 33 (1878) 418-33; M. Homolle, BCH 5 (1881) 194-96, pl. 5; Friederichs and Wolters, 386 no. 1165; IG II 109b; BrBr, pl. 475b; Collignon II, 370; Kastriotis, 262 no. 1471; E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (1913) 576-78, 651 no. 28; SIG3 206; Diepolder, 45-46, fig. 11; Binneboeßel, 13 no. 53, 20, 21, 23, 60-63, 64; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 59-61, 92, pl. 22.1; Svoronos, 591-92 no. 241, pl. 104; Curtius, Antike Kunst, 337, 428-29, fig. 488; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 368-69, 377, 384; Süsserott, 19 n. 27, 30 n. 10, 33 n. 23, 36 n. 31, 39 n. 43, 55, 58-60, 63 n. 117, 79-82, 117, 150, 158, 199 n. 12, 201, pl. 4.3; O. Walter, ÖJh 32 (1940) 14 n. 42; Tod II, 193-98 no. 167; Lippold, 247, pl. 88.4; Alscher III, 53-54, 184 n. 69, fig. 76; SEG 17.22; Picard IV.2, 1257-58, fig. 494; F. W. Mitchel, Hesperia 33 (1964) 343, pl. 65c; Schefold, Classical Greece, 188, 249 no. 52, app. pl. 52; SEG 22.92; Guarducci, 595, fig. 188; Schmaltz, 29, 37-38, 48, 49; Brown, 26, fig. 82; Robertson, 380-81; Fuchs, 530, 533-34, fig. 624; SEG 26.74; SEG 32.75; SEG 34.66; Meyer, 290 A 88, pl. 28.1; SEG 36.148.

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