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5.
Athens and Argos
IG
13 86 Athens, AM 2980 + 2431 + 2981 + EM 6588a 417/16 Plate 3

Ten fragments, all but g (found in 1937 in Agora section R 19) from Akropolis: a + b (EM 6588a + d), c + d + g (EM 6588 + EM 6588e + Agora I 5026), e (EM 6588g), f (EM 6588b), relief (AM 0980 + 2431 + 2981). EM 6588a has small section of relief joining AM fragments. Left edge and top preserved, back rough-picked. Relief broken at upper left corner and right side. Upper moulding 0.07 wide, badly chipped. Relief separated from inscription by taenia bearing first line of inscription and ovolo, together 0.095 wide. Two modern dowel holes in bottom of relief: one trefoil-shaped, 0.04 diam., 0.14 from left edge; the other round, 0.035 diam., 0.04 from vertical break along second figure from left. Much of surface flaked, corroded. Relief background has conspicuous tool marks, with surface smoothed only around contours of figures. White, medium-grained marble. AM fragments: p.h. 0.62, p.w. 0.70, th. 0.155, relief h. 0.015, h. of letters 0.015 (line 1), 0.01 (lines 2 ff.).

Argos, with its long history of anti-Spartan sentiment, was an important ally for Athens at this point in the Peloponnesian War. The decree is a renewal of an alliance of 420 between Athens and Argos, resumed after the brief period of oligarchic control in Argos that followed the Spartan victory in the Battle of Mantineia (Thuc. 5.40-47, 82). It is securely dated to the prytany of Aiantis in the archonship of Euphemos (lines 2-3), which Meritt has shown to have been the spring of 417/16 (Hesperia 14 [1945] 125).

The relief depicts Hera, the pre-eminent deity of Argos, with her consort Zeus looking on (cf. nos. 24, 96, probably no. 41) as she clasps the right hand of another figure, undoubtedly Athena, on the right. Hera stands in the centre of the relief and faces right. Her fluttering veil is caught up daintily with the thumb and forefinger of her left hand in the gesture of unveiling characteristic of Hera as bride of Zeus. The animated drapery with the omega-shaped fold at the end occurs on the contemporary decree concerning the sanctuary of Kodros, Neleus, and Basile (no. 4) and on the Nike Temple frieze (Blümel, pls. V, VI). All that remains of Athena are the outline of her extended hand and the damaged profile of her face. Zeus is seated at the far left; the eagle at his side and the front leg of his throne are preserved on the small fragment of relief on EM 6588. He leans back in his seat, draping his right arm over the back of it, and raises his left arm high in front of him to hold his sceptre, which was shown in paint. Walbank has suggested that this inscription and the honorary decree for Proxenides of Knidos (no. 68) were carved by the same mason, but the reliefs do not appear to be by the same hand.

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1840) 305 no. 364, fig. 364 (drwg.); Rangabé I, 334-36 no. 256, 352 no. 270, 360 no. 280; Pittakys, ArchEph (1853) 1038 no. 1951; ArchEph (1854) 1124-25 no. 2160; IG I 50; Sybel, 442 no. 7137; A. Wilhelm, ÖJhBeibl 1 (1898) 43; O. Walter, ÖJhBeibl 14 (1911) 59; ÖJhBeibl 18 (1915) 87-90, fig. 33; Beschreibung, 1-3 no. 2, fig. 2; IG I2 96 and Add. p. 302; Kjellberg, 136, 137, 139; F. Eichler, ÖJh 24 (1929) 12 1-22; J. Geerlings, CP 24 (1929) 239-44; W. Kolbe, CP 25 (1930) 105-16; B. D. Meritt, CP 26 (193 1) 70-84; Binneboeßel, 4-5 no. 9, 20, 32-33, 36, 37; F. Poulsen, ActaA 3 (1932) 246-47; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 90; V. Müller, AJA 39 (193 5) 250; Svoronos, 664 no. 431 (1), pl. 207.1 (frag. c); Süsserott, 34 n. 25; Picard II.2, 838; Meritt, Hesperia 14 (1945) 122-27; SEG 10.104; Lippold, 198 n. 6; S. Charitonides, ArchEph (1957) 86-87; Dohrn, 24; Bengtson, 134-36 no. 196; SEG 21.49; Schmaltz, 23 n. 28, 43 n. 58; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 173 no. 11, fig. 125; Walbank, 348; LIMC IV, 691 no. 294, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 267 A 8, pl. 3.

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