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Athens honours Euphron of Sikyon
IG II2 448 Athens, NM 1482 318/I7 Plate 28

Complete stele found in Late Roman fortifications near Stoa of Attalos during 1891 extension of Athens-Piraeus railway. Top, sides preserved, bottom set in modern base, back smooth. Relief bordered by antae (0.0475 wide on left, 0.04 wide on right) supporting entablature with antefixes, below by taenia and ovolo, together 0.085 wide. Surface worn, particularly on right side, with accretions, iron stains; stele had been used as drain cover. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 2.35, h. of relief 0.60, w. of relief 0.66, w. of inscription 0.60 (top), 0.65 (bottom), th. 0.30 (relief), 0.25 (top of inscription), 0.29 (bottom of inscription), relief h. 0.06, h. of letters 0.007.

The stele carries two decrees, the first a republication of a decree granting Euphron, son of Adeas of Sikyon, and his descendants Athenian citizenship for his alliance with Athens in the Lamian War, the second reaffirming the first and authorizing the republication. Euphron had been responsible for ridding Sikyon of a Macedonian garrison and establishing democracy there shortly before his trip to Athens. The first decree (lines 2-34) was passed in the fifth prytany of the archonship of Kephisodoros of 323/22 (lines 1-2), but was rescinded and the original stele recording it probably destroyed by the oligarchy which came into power later that year. The second (lines 35-87) is a resolution passed by the restored democracy in the fourth prytany of the archonship of Archippos, 318 (lines 35-36). Euphron had since been killed resisting the Macedonians, but the reaffirmation was necessary to ensure that the original honours would be extended to his son. Two copies of the stele were to have been set up, one on the Akropolis, the other by Zeus Soter, a reference to the statue of Zeus Eleutherios/Soter in the Agora (lines 68-70); copies of the original decree were apparently set up in the same locations (lines 26-28). The stele in the National Museum must be the Agora copy; a fragmentary, now lost inscription found on the Akropolis (IG II2 575) may have been a copy of the original decree set up there (Osborne, Naturalization, D 41). Both decrees stipulate that the treasurer of the demos is to pay fifty drachmai for the publication (lines 29-31, 85 - 87), but the second decree has the unusual provision that the friends and relatives of Euphron contribute to the publication of the decrees (lines 72-73), probably because the honorand was deceased and the decrees were being published in their interest.

On the left stands Athena, wearing a chiton under a belted peplos, a mantle over her raised left and lowered right arms, a collar aegis with gorgoneion, and a helmet. Her raised left hand held her painted spear. Next to Athena is a bearded figure who turns toward the much smaller Euphron at the right. His extended right hand probably held a crown representing the 1000-drachmai gold crown awarded Euphron in the decree. The figure has often been identified as Zeus Soter because one copy of the decree was to have been set up by his statue, but the figure is slightly smaller than Athena, suggesting that he is Demos (cf. nos. 38, 49, 117, 133, 149, 150, 167, 172). Since Euphron was the leader of the democrats in Sikyon who had once before freed his city from Macedonia and established a democracy there, Demos would be an appropriate representative of the democracies he had served in Sikyon and Athens.

In an unusual instance of anecdote in a document relief, Euphron is depicted as just having arrived in Athens with his offer of alliance, the action for which he is praised in the first decree. He stands before Athena and Demos wearing a short chiton, a sword on a strap fastened diagonally across his chest, and a mantle thrown over his left shoulder. Behind him on the right are his horse, just emerging from behind the anta, and a small groom or servant actively restraining it. The horse's metal reins originally were attached to the hole near its mouth. The groom wears a chlamys. His right leg is missing; a small hole in the break at his groin may be the result of an ancient repair.

The figure of Athena in this relief is usually cited as a copy of the original of the Castra Praetoria Athena (Rome, Museo Nuovo Capitolino inv. 1829: Helbig4, 510-11 no. 1732; M. Bieber, The Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age2 (1961) figs. 210-I 2). Her pose, proportions, and the mantle worn over both shoulders resemble details of the Castra Praetoria statue, but other differences in details of her drapery, the position of her left arm, and her helmet type indicate that the relationship is not very close.

Although Euphron's relief is unusually large and elaborate for a document relief, with metal attachments and figures carved in such high relief that some of their limbs are entirely detached from the relief ground, the figures appear small within their deep frame, lacking the monumentality of the Bosporans of no. 35 and many figures in contemporary grave reliefs. The fans of roughly parallel, round, and revealing ridge-folds in the himation of Demos are typical of much earlier works, but the way that they stretch diagonally from ankle to hip is typical of the late fourth century. Athena's high-waisted proportions, with her belt beneath her breasts, are characteristic of female figures of the end of the century (no. 59).

H. Lolling, ArchDelt (1892) 56-71; IG II.5 231b; P. Arndt in BrBr, pl. 533.1; L. Mariani, BullComm 35 (1907) 20, fig. 5; L. Savignoni, Ausonia 2 (1907) 36; Kastriotis, 265 no. 1482; RE 6 (1909) 1218 s.v. Euphron 2 (H. Swoboda); SIG3 310, 317; Walter, 13; F. Studniczka, Artemis und Iphigenie (1926) 92, fig. 74; Diepolder, 56; Binneboeßel, 15 no. 68, 20, 21-23, 58, 59, 66, 67, 71, 76, 77; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 62-63, 70-71, 88, 94, pl. 29.1; L. Lerat, BCH 58 (1934) 169, 171; Svoronos, 607-16 no. 249, pl. 108; A. Billheimer, AJA 42 (1938) 475-77; Curtius, Antike Kunst, 340, 410, 416, 432, fig. 494; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 374, 377; Süsserott, 28 n. 5, 36 n. 31, 67-68, 91, 184, 188, 192, 202 n. 22, pl. 9.4; O. Walter, ÖJh 32 (1940) 15 n. 49, 21 Lippold, 275 n. 5, 276 n. 9, pl. 94.4; Wycherley, Agora III, 29 no. 42; Picard IV.2, 1266, fig. 496; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254 (o); SEG 21.297, 317; Schefold, Classical Greece, 185-86, 188-89, 222, 250 no, 58, app. pl. 58; SEG 22.95; SEG 23.59, 61; Schmaltz, 50, 58 n. 80; Rauscher, 163-64; G. B. Waywell, BSA 66 (1971) 378; Langenfaß-Vuduroglu, 42 no. 86, 45, 61, 92-93, 96; F. T. van Straten, BABesch 49 (1974) 184-87; Zagdoun, FdD IV.6, 54-55; Palagia, Euphranor, 62; SEG 26.82; Osborne, Naturalization, D 24, D 38, D 41; SEG 31.79, 271; Schwenk, 407-18 no. 83; SEG 32.90; Eschbach, 125-28, pl. 32.3 (det. Athena); LIMC II, 1013 no. 613, s.v. Athena (P. Demargne); III, 380 no. 58, pl. 275, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); SEG 35.239; Meyer, 303 A 134, pl. 39.1; SEG 36.158; SEG 37.81.

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