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8.
Accounts of the treasurers of Athena in 410/9
IG I3 375 Paris, Louvre MA 831 409/8 Plate 5

Entire opisthographic stele found in Athens in 1788, taken to Paris the next year by the Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier. Sculpted panel on obverse separated from inscription by badly chipped moulding. Back of panel smooth, with inscription beginning at level of obverse moulding. Inscription extends 0.08 beyond relief panel on either side. Mouldings, edges, hands, and heads of figures chipped. Vertical crack runs length of centre of stone. Reportedly Pentelic marble. h. 1.18, h. of relief 0.56, w. 0.62 (relief), 0.78 (inscription), th. 0.17 (top), 0.173 (bottom), h. of letters 0.007-0.008 (obverse), 0.005-0.01 (reverse). Not examined.

The stele, often referred to as the Choiseul Marble, is inscribed on both sides with accounts of the treasurers of Athena. The distribution and interpretation of the accounts are controversial, but the general sequence of the work is clear. The accounts on the obverse are for the year 410/9 and were carved at the beginning of 409/8. The relief was carved at the same time. The generally accepted date for the accounts on the reverse (IG 13 377) is 407/6, but Pritchett has argued that the accounts of 408/7 were also inscribed there. Because the accounts on the reverse were inscribed by a different mason, they must have been a later addition to the stone.

The relief depicts Athena and a bearded male figure, probably Erechtheus, standing on either side of a bare tree that probably once had painted leaves. Athena is identified only by her characteristic dress, a belted peplos, and her spear, held in her left hand and resting on her left shoulder. She turns slightly toward the male figure on the right. He wears a himation and holds a staff crutch-like under his left arm. He extends his right hand in a gesture of recognition or welcome. Unlike Athena, he is barefoot. This figure and others like him on later records of the treasurers of Athena have often been identified as Demos, but there are no certain examples of the Athenian Demos in document reliefs until well into the fourth century, and the figures on the treasurers' documents do not closely resemble the fourth-century figures, whose longer hair and fuller beards make them seem considerably older (cf. nos. 38, 49, 54, 149, 167). In general type and stance the figure is very like some of the eponymous heroes on the east frieze of the Parthenon (figures 18-28 and 43-46: Brommer, 255-56, pls. 168, 171, 183, 184; Kron, Phylenheroen, 202-13, pls. 30, 31). E. B. Harrison has identified the only barefoot hero there as Erechtheus, his bare feet emphasizing his relationship to his mother Ge (‘Eponymous Heroes’, 71, 79). The tree between the two figures in the document relief, so emphasized by the composition that it is surely Athena's sacred olive tree , also supports the identification of the figure as Erechtheus; the tree grew in the shrine shared by Athena and Erechtheus on the Akropolis (Paus. 1.27.1-2; for another representation of Erechtheus standing by a tree, see the fragmentary pelike of ca. 460 by Hermonax: Agora P 8959: ARV2 486, 34; N. Weill, BCH 86 (1962) 83-85, abb. 12, 13). As the autochthonous king of Athens reared by Athena, Erechtheus would be an especially appropriate guardian of Athena's treasury. On the inventory of the treasurers of Athena and the Other Gods of 398/97 (no. 14), a similar figure appears again with Athena, and on the inventory of the treasurers of Athena of 377/76 (no. 20), Erechtheus may have been shown with his daughters.

The transparent drapery of the relief, particularly the delicate web of folds rhythmically slung across Erechtheus' body, is closely related to the style of the Sandalbinder from the Nike Temple Parapet (Carpenter, pl. XXVII). The opposing bowed curves at Athena's bent knee also occur in the Erechtheion korai (Ridgway, 106-7, fig. 82).

F. de Clarac, Musée de sculpture . . . du Louvre (1841) II.1, 711-13 no. 265, II.2, 857-66 no. 447, Atlas II, pl. 152 (drwg.); Müller and Schöll, 74; W. Fröhner, Les inscriptions grecques . . . du Louvre (1865) 90 no. 46, drwg. opp. p. 90; Schöne, 20; IG I 188; P. Foucart, BCH 2 (1878) 37-40; Fröhner, Notice de la sculpture du Louvre I (1889) 152 no. 124; G. Geffrou, La sculpture au Louvre (1908) 42, fig. p. 42; M. Bieber, AM 35 (1910) 12, pl. 4.2; Matz, 56 n. 7; SIG3 109; Catalogue sommaire des marbres antiques du Louvre (1922) 10 no. 831; IG I2 304A; Kjellberg, 137; Diepolder, 22-24, fig. 4; Binneboeßel, 6 no. 14, 20, 29-31, 37-39, 41 H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 27-28, 38, 40, 44, 90, pl. 10.3; V. Müller, AJA 39 (1935) 251-52, fig. 1; Svoronos, 602-4, fig. 260 (drwg.); Süsserott, 27-37, 40 n. 47, 45-46, 49, 57-59, 94-99, 130-31, 198 n. 10, pl. 1.1; Picard II.2, 838; Tod I, 202-7 no. 83, 224-26 no. 92; SEG 10.232; Alscher III, 19, fig. 70; Dohrn, 18, 30, 32, 35, 39, 56-57, 62, III; Schuchhardt, Epochen, 92, fig. 68; P. Reuterswänd, Studien zu Polychromie der Plastik Griechenland und Rom (1960) 54, fig. 6; J. Charbonneaux, Sculpture grecque et romaine au Musée du Louvre (1963) 124 no. 831, fig. 831; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254(a); B. D. Meritt, TAPA 95 (1964) 204-12; SEG 21.79; Schefold, Classical Greece, 145, 151, 248 no. 31, app. pl. 31; SEG 22.49; SEG 23.36; Fuchs, 521, fig. 608; Guarducci, 609-10, fig. 202; Meiggi and Lewis, 255 - 58 no. 84; SEG 24.43; W. K. Pritchett, Choiseul Marble (1970); G. M. A. Richter, Sculptors and Sculpture of the Greeks4 (1970) 69, 255, fig. 323; Schmaltz, 22-23; Hiller, 21, 50, 54, 63, fig. 17 (det.); Robertson, 373, fig. 123a; Kron, Phylenheroen, 208-10, 259 E75, pl. 29; Mitropoulou, Corpus I, 174-75 no. 17, fig. 162; SEG 26.30; Palagia, Euphranor, 58, 62; SEG 30.22; SEG 31.25; LIMC II, 1013 no. 608, pl. 763, s.v. Athena (P. Demargne); J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: the Classical Period (1985) 186-87, fig. 179; LIMC III, 379 no. 43, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); IV, 941 n. 76, s.v. Erechtheus (U. Kron); K. Jeppesen, The Theory of the Alternative Erechtheion, Acta Jutlandica 63: I Humanities Series 60 (1987) 45-46, figs. 11-13; Meyer, 270 A 16; SEG 36.28 and 300; SEG 38.12; LIMC VI, 1089 no. 37, s.v. Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).

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