previous next


133.
Honorary decree
(?) IG II2 4630 Athens, NM 2407 3rd q. 4th c. Plate 71

Found in 1840 in Athens, in or near ruins of Church of Hagios Dimitrios Loumbardiaris, on saddle between Pnyx and Philopappos Monument. Preserves part of top, right edge, otherwise broken all around, back perhaps cut for reuse, bottom now encased in plaster. Relief bordered on right by 0.04 wide anta supporting 0.075 high entablature with antefixes. Architrave inscribed: [Δ]ΗΜΟΣ ΑΘΗΝΑ ΗΡΑΚΛΗΣ. Geison inscribed:[ΘΕΟ]Ι̣ (iota ? 0.115 from right edge). Surface worn, corroded, with accretions. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 0.395, p.w. 0.33, p.th. 0.125 (cut to 0.09), relief h. 0.025, h. of letters 0.01.

Nothing remains of the body on the inscription, but the apparent traces of the invocation theoi on the frame of the relief suggest that it belonged to a public document, probably an honorary decree. All three figures preserved in the relief, Athena, Herakles, and Demos, are identified by labels on the entablature above them. On the right, Herakles, probably the hero of the honorand's home (cf. nos. 72, 111, 129, i58), turns slightly toward the left and with his right hand places a crown on Athena's head. Although deities and heroes usually crown mortals in document reliefs, the figure of Athena crowning Ares in a roughly contemporary deme decree of Acharnai (no. 143) provides at least one other parallel for the crowning of a deity, and on the Athenian anti-tyranny law of 337/36 the personification of Demos is crowned by Demokratia (no. 38). Herakles' left hand rests on his club held at his hip; his lion skin is draped over his forearm. Athena is also turned toward the left. Her raised right hand held her painted spear. She wears a peplos, aegis with gorgoneion, and a helmet. Her left hand rests on the rim of her shield. Still further left is the seated figure of Demos, facing left as well; only his upper torso is preserved (cf. nos. 38, 167). He is turned forward in his chair so that his upper body is seen in three-quarter view; his left arm rests on the back of the chair. The direction of all three figures' attention indicates that there must have been at least one more figure, probably an honorand, further to the left.

The tall, slim proportions of the figures and Athena's high waistline in particular call for a date in the third quarter of the fourth century (cf. nos. 36, 40, 46).

K. S. Pittakys, ArchEph (1839) 268 no. 298, fig. 298 (drwg.); Müller and Schöll, 63 no. 44, 84; E. Curtius and T. Panofka, AZ 3 (1845) 129-30, pl. 33.1 (drwg.); L. Stephani, AZ 3 (1845) 76; F. von Duhn, AZ 35 (1877) 170 n. 5; P. Foucart, BCH 2 (1878) 40; Sybel, 63-64 no. 333; Heydemann, 174-75 no. 453; Friederichs and Wolters, 397 no. 1195; Le Bas, pl. 37 (drwg.); RE 5 (1903) 158 s.v. Demos (von Schoeffer); Kastriotis, 383 no. 2407; Svoronos, 640 no. 371, pl. 148.4; Süsserott, 96 n. 16, 113-14, pl. 18.3; Hamdorf, 94 no. 254(q); Kron, Phylenheroen, 238 n. 1158; AM 94 (1979) 49-75, pl. 7; Palagia, Euphranor, 63; SEG 29.188; LIMC I, 434-35 no. 2, s.v. Academos (U. Kron); III, 379 no. 46, pl. 274, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); R. Vollkommer, Herakles in the Art of Classical Greece (1988) 53 no. 392; Meyer, 292 A 94, pl. 28.2.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: