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Athens and Korkyra
IG II2 97 Athens, NM 1467 375/74 (?) Plate 50

Found in 1876 excavations on South Slope. Both sides, top preserved, back rough-picked. Relief bordered by tapering 0.035-0.04 wide antae supporting 0.065 wide entablature with antefixes, below by 0.04 wide moulding consisting of taenia and ovolo. Surface uniformly weathered. White, medium-grained marble. p.h. 1.01, h. of relief 0.40, w. of relief 0.445 (top), 0.46 (bottom), w. of inscription 0.435 (top), 0.445 (bottom), th. of relief 0.12 (top), 0.14 (bottom), th. of inscription 0.12, relief h. 0.01, h. of letters 0.007.

The inscription sets forth provisions of an alliance ‘for all time’ between Athens and Korkyra. The document is usually considered a version of the conditions pertaining to Korkyra resulting from the alliance concluded between Athens and Korkyra, Akarnania, and Kephallenia in the second prytany of the archonship of Hippodamas, 375/74 (Ic II2 96), but the inscription is rare and troublesome in its complete lack of dating formula.

The relief, which depicts Athena, Zeus, and Hera, appears to have had more than the usual number of details added in paint alone, and their disappearance may have contributed to the confusion over the identities of the figures of Zeus and Hera, often called Demos and Korkyra. Athena stands on the right, with her left hand raised and holding her spear, which was painted. Her right hand hangs down and slightly away from her side, the fingers separated as though holding her shield, which must also have been added in paint. She wears her himation draped diagonally from under her right arm over her left shoulder, covering most of her body. The crest of her Corinthian helmet would also have been painted, overlapping the architrave above her. On the left side of the relief Zeus and Hera turn toward each other. Zeus sits with his right hand hanging down at his side, his left hand resting on his thigh. His seat, which is now merely a projection of the smooth surface of the anta behind him, must originally have been distinguished from it with paint. He may also have held a painted attribute such as a thunderbolt (no. 24), or there may have been a painted eagle in the large empty space by his seat (cf. no.

Hera stands very close to Zeus in a somewhat awkward position probably intended to show torsion in the upper body; her legs are turned slightly toward the right, her torso is frontal, and her shoulders and head are turned toward the left. She wears a peplos and a mantle draped over her head and extended in her right hand in the bridal gesture of unveiling. Hera's identity is established by her dress, position, and gesture, which are traditional for Hera and which indicate an intimate relationship to Zeus (cf. nos. 5, 24, perhaps 41), and by her scale relative to Athena, characteristics which at the same time argue against the usual identification of the figure as Korkyra. Although place personifications are occasionally found in document reliefs (nos. 66, 120), patron deities representing their cities are much more common. The cult of Hera Akraia was the most important of Korkyra (Thuc. 1.24; 3.75, 79-81; Diod. 22.48), while the only evidence for representations of Korkyra are Pausanias' reference (Paus. 5.22.6) to her as part of a group of Zeus and Asopos with his daughters at Olympia and a rf. pyxis depicting her in the pursuit of her sister Aigina by Zeus (LIMC VI, 103 no. 7, s.v. Korkyra). The presence of Zeus on Korkyra is attested by a fourth-century votive relief dedicated to Zeus Meilichios (A. Spetsieri-Choremi, All Corfu (1988) fig. p. 16), but his role in the document relief is probably primarily as consort to Hera.

The relief is a good example of a sculptor's use of models taken from different periods. The figures of Zeus and Hera are based upon late fifth-century types (cf. no. 5). This is particularly clear in the sharp distinction of Hera's transparently draped right leg from her heavily covered left leg and in the billowing of her veil. The figure of Athena, on the other hand, has the more voluminous drapery of the figure of the alliance with Chios (no. 19) of 384/83, as well as the sturdier stance and reflective quality of the Athena Rospigliosi (Binneboeßel, 54; G. B. Waywell, BSA 66 (1971) 373-80, pls. 67, 71b); the broad, sweeping lines of her himation resemble the drapery of the latter work. Walbank attributes this inscription to the mason of no. 14, but the reliefs are not the work of the same sculptor.

S. A. Koumanoudcs, Athenaion (1876/77) 334-35 no. 2; F. von Duhn, AZ 35 (1877) 170-71 no. 101, pl. 15.2 (drwg.); IG II, Add. 49b, p. 398; A. Dumont, BCH 2 (1878) 559, 560, pl. 12; Sybel, 289 no. 3999; Friederichs and Wolters, 384-85 no. 1161; P. Gardner, JHS 9 (1888) 60; P. Foucart, BCH 13 (1889) 354-63; IG II.5 49b; Farnell I, 351, pl. 18a; BrBr, pl. 533 rt.; Kastriotis, 261 no. 1467; Matz, 57-58; SIG3 151; Diepolder, 36-37, fig. 9; Binneboeßel, 9 no. 34, 20, 24, 32, 48, 51-55, 63; H. Speier, RM 47 (1932) 56-57, 91, pl. 20.2; K. Schefold, Untersuchungen zu den Kertscher Vasen (1934) 72-77; Svoronos, 588-91 no. 240, pl. 103; Curtius, Antike Kunst, 304, 335, 395, 413, 414, 428, fig. 483; V. Müller, ArtB 20 (1938) 362-65, 366, 367, 377, 381, fig. 6; Süsserott, 47-54, 75, 78, 111-13, 141, 142 n. 56, 143, 202 n. 22, pl. 3.2; Tod II, 86-88 no. 127; Lippold, 230 n. 1, pl. 88.2; Alscher III, 31, 37, 39, 40, 43, fig. 75; Dohrn, 79; Bengtson, 218-20 no. 263; Hamdorf, 91 no. 215 (b), 94 no. 254 (e); Schefold, Classical Greece, 186-87, 188, 194, 220, 249 no. 50, app. pl. 50; Guarducci, 543-46, 607-8, fig. 170; Schmaltz, 21, 36, 37 n. 49, 39 n. 51; Hiller, 27, 52, 57, 63, 66; Brown, 25-26, 28, 73 n. 53, fig. 79; Kron, Phylenheroen, 262 K31; H. Jung, JdI 91 (1976) 113-23, fig. 4 (det.); Richter, A Handbook of Greek Art7 (1977) 154, fig. 221; Fuchs, 527-28, 533-34, fig. 619; Palagia, Euphranor, 63; J. Cargill, The Second Athenian League: Empire or Free Alliance? (1981) 68-74; G. L. Cawkwell, JHS 101 (1981) 46; SEG 31.61, 65; LIMC II, 1013 no. 609, pl. 763, s.v. Athena (P. Demargne); M. W. Walbank, Classical Views 26 (1982) 262; LIMC III, 379 no. 53, s.v. Demos (O. Alexandri-Tzachou); LIMC IV, 688 no. 256, s.v. Hera (A. Kossatz-Diessmann); Meyer, 280 A 51, pl. 16.2; LIMC VI, 103 no. 8, s.v. Korkyra (G. Dontas); 1089 no. 39, s.v. Kekrops (I. Kasper-Butz, I. Krauskopf).

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