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ATTALEIA (Antalya) Turkey.

City in Pamphylia founded by Attalos II Philadelphos, probably before 150 B.C. After the end of the Pergamene kingdom in 133 Attaleia seems to have been left free; it remained so even after the formation of the province of Cilicia, but was finally annexed to Rome by Servilius Isauricus in 77. Proof is lacking that the city had been involved with the pirates to any considerable extent. Attalein served as a base for Pompey in assembling his fleet in 67 B.C., and a visit by Hadrian in A.D. 130 was the occasion for much restoration and embellishment. At a comparatively late date Attaleia appears with the title Colonia. In Byzantine times, when much more mention is made of the city, the bishop of Attaleia came under the metropolitan of Perge-Sillyon, until in 1042 he was raised to the rank of metropolitan.

Whether Attaleia was founded on the site of an earlier town or city is disputed. Strabo's words (667) are none too clear, but certainly do not imply that Attaleia replaced a town of Korykos; and the old idea that Antalya is the site of Olbia is quite untenable. The harbor, though small, is nevertheless the best natural harbor on this coast, and it is likely enough that there was some earlier habitation. If so, however, the name is unknown.

Nothing is standing today apart from the fortifications. No theater, stadium, temple, or any public building has ever been located. The wall circuit remains virtually whole, but only a few sections in the N part have been dubiously attributed to Attalos' original foundation. The rest, as it now stands, dates from the time of Hadrian or later, with much subsequent repair and reconstruction, including many reused stones, some sculptured or inscribed. Many of the towers are well preserved and contain more ancient work. Seven gates are identifiable; the Gate of Hadrian, on the E side of the circuit, is the most impressive.

At the extreme end of the wall on the S side stands a tower quite unlike the rest; it is known today as Hidirlik Kulesi. It is thought to have always been isolated and not to have formed part of the wall circuit. It is in two stories, the lower square, the upper round, both excellently preserved. The total height is 14 m. The lower story consists of a nearly solid mass of masonry, in which a passage leads from the door on the E to a small room in the center; short passages lead off from this towards the other three sides. At ground level on the outside a door in the N wall leads to a narrow staircase ascending in the thickness of the wall to the foot of the round upper story; a second similar stairway leads to the top of the building. Here a circular wall with crenelations surrounds a platform open to the sky; in the center is a solid rectangular base 4.56 m thick, resting on a vaulted substructure. Its purpose has been disputed; it may have served as a base for a lighthouse or for artillery. A suggestion that the whole building is a mausoleum is clearly improbable.

The Gate of Hadrian has recently been cleared and reconstructed. It is a triple-arched gateway of familiar form and carried two dedications to Hadrian. One was on the architrave in letters of bronze and was evidently the dedication of the gate itself; the other, seen only by early travelers, seems to have been placed on the upper story of the gate, related perhaps to a statue of the emperor. There can hardly be a doubt that the building was erected on the occasion of Hadrian's visit in A.D. 130.

The three arches are all the same size, their undersides decorated with cassettes containing shallow-cut rosettes and flowers. In front of each of the four piers of the gate, on the inner and outer sides, stood an unfluted granite column on a high plinth; the rest of the building was of white marble. The capitals are in the Composite order, the bases Attic, and the epistyle was richly decorated with ovolo and leaf moldings. The upper story has disappeared.

The new museum in Antalya houses sarcophagi from Perge, epichoric epitaphs from Aspendos, and reliefs of the twelve gods from Lycia.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

K. Lanckoronski, Die Städte Pamphyliens (1890) 7-32.

G. E. BEAN

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