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AQUAE (Cioroiul Nou) Dolj, Romania.

A statio in Dacia inferior, near the sources of the Apa Cioroiului river. It comprised a civil agglomeration covering ca. 20 ha, a quadrilateral citadel (130 x 235 m) in the center, and a necropolis at its S end. The earth citadel was built by the local population after the invasion of the Carpes in 245-247. The name of this place appears in the votive inscription of a certain Germanus speculator leg. VII Claudiae, dedicated to genio stationis Aquensium; and a dedication to Hercules: pro sal. Aquensium made by M. Opellius Maximus, dec. Montanensium.

It was probably a fiscal customs statio, and was located in the center of a vast, fertile plain. The archaeological excavations uncovered a villa rustica, public baths, a temple, pottery ovens, and foundations of houses. The coins discovered go from Trajan to Heraclius. The temple, having a naos, a pronaos, and a vestibulum, covered an area of 6.6 by 17.8 m and was very likely consecrated to Hercules. In a ditch, buried as membra disiecta, were 37 fragments of statues (Minerva, Mercurius, Bacchus, Hekate, Apollo, Venus, Matres, Iupiter, Aion, etc.). They are from a ritual burial performed after the destruction of the Carpes. (At present, these remains are preserved with other pieces of the same type in the Museum of Craiova.) The statio Aquensis was also an administrative center of an important agricultural area divided among several large landowners, such as C. Ant. Iulianus, M. Cassius Herculanus.


AnÉpigr (1959) 330-31; (1963) 136; (1967) 392.

D. Tudor, “Săpăturile arheologice de la Cioroiul Nou,” MCA 8 (1962) 547-54; id., Templul şi statuetele romane de la Cioroiul Nou,” Omagiu P. Constantinescu-Iaşi (1965) 109-15; id., “Aqune en Dacie inféieure,” Latomus 25, 4 (1966) 847-54; id., “Şantierul arheologic Cioroiul Nou,” Apulum 6 (1967) 593-605; id., Oltenia romană (3d ed., 1968) 214-20; id., Oraşe (1968) 315-23; TIR, L.34 (1969) 47.


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