(Old Church) Cumberland, England
Site of a Roman fort 13 km NE
of Carlisle and 0.8 km S of the Stanegate, partly underlying St. Martin's Church. The fort was ca. 1.5 ha, with
turf defenses and stone internal buildings, and faced N.
It was probably of Trajanic date, and may have formed
an element in a Trajanic fortified frontier road on the
Stanegate. There is so far no evidence of later occupation.
Kilns of Trajanic date were found ca. 1.6 km to the E,
with a large quantity of ironwork. A civil site, Hawk
Hirst, ca. 0.4 km SE, was occupied in the 3d and 4th c.,
and perhaps into the post-Roman period.
E. Birley, Research on Hadrian's Wall
(1961) 138-41; id., in Studien zu den Militärgrenzen
(1967) 8-9; J. C. Bruce, Handbook to the Roman
(12 ed. by I. A. Richmond, 1966) 188. Kilns: R.
Hogg, Trans. Cumberland and Westmorland Ant. and
. 65 (1965) 133-68PI
; R. L. Bellhouse, ibid. 71
(1971) 35-44. Hoard of ironwork: W. H. Manning, ibid.
66 (1966) 1-36. Hawk Hirst: ibid. 36 (1936) 179-82.
J. C. MANN