military site in the W Riding, 20.8 km NE of Manchester
and approximately midway between the auxiliary fort
there (Mamucium) and that at Slack. Set at a height of
ca. 270 m, it helped to guard the road between the legionary fortresses of York (Eboracum) and Chester
(Deva) where it crossed the Pennine hills. Excavation
has identified two successive sites.
The first was an auxiliary fort of ca. 1 ha, probably
founded by Agricola ca. A.D. 80. Defended by an earth
bank and ditches, its internal buildings were of timber;
the garrison is not known, and after a brief occupation
the site was abandoned. The second was a fortlet of ca.
0.2 ha, established within the earlier fort except on the
S where the ramparts coincided. Probably built soon
after A.D. 100, it was also defended by an earth bank
and ditch, and the internal buildings were again of timber with the exception of a small stone bath. It is thought
to have served as a small outpost of the fort at Slack,
manned by troops from there (a stamped tile of Cohors
IV of ?Breuci was recovered from the Castleshaw bath
house). Occupation ceased ca. A.D. 120 when the line of
communication was moved to an easier route over
Blackstone Edge, 8 km N.
F. A. Bruton, Excavations of the Roman Forts at Castleshaw: First Interim Report
(1908); Second Interim Report
(1911); Trans. Lancs. and Cheshire Ant. Soc
. 40 (1922-23) 154; 67 (1957) 118; 71 (1961) 163.
F. H. THOMPSON