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DURAN ÇIFTLIK (“Kallipolis”) Caria, Turkey.

It is known that Kallipolis was a city of the Rhodian Peraea, subject to Rhodes though not incorporated in the Rhodian state. The site is disputed. It first appears as a stronghold occupied by Orontobates in 334 B.C., together with Myndos, Kaunos, and Thera (Arr. 2.5,7). About 200 B.C. it was visited by the Delphic theori and the name appears in three Rhodian inscriptions dating between the 2d c. B.C. and the time of Domitian. It is also mentioned by Stephanos Byzantios.

Kallipolis has generally been located at Gelibolu on the coast, near the head of the gulf of Kos, the name having survived exactly as at Gelibolu on the Dardanelles. Here there are a number of forts of varying sizes, two of them ancient, the others mediaeval, but no city site has been discovered, nor are the extant remains suggestive of urban civilization. There seem to have been one or more amphora factories on the spot, and a dedication by a Rhodian thiasos was unearthed in 1949. That Gelibolu preserves the name of Kallipolis is hardly disputable, but in other respects the site is far from satisfactory.

In 1893 an altar dedicated to Domitia by the demos of the Kallipolitans was discovered at Duran Çiftlik, some 16 km E of Gelibolu; the remains indicated that a sanctuary stood there. Less than 2 km NE, above the village of Kizilyaka and on the highest point of a range of hills, is an ancient site now largely bare but thickly covered with Roman sherds and loose building blocks; the circuit wall has disappeared, but its line is clearly traceable by a shelf in the hillside. On the summit is a tower of inferior masonry, and close by are a rectangular enclosure with walls well built of small blocks, a spring, and a few simple graves. This site supports the suggestion that Kallipolis was in the neighborhood of Duran Çiftlik; the name must have been transferred to Gelibolu at some mediaeval date for unknown reasons.

It is likely, though not proved, that Kallipolis replaced the ancient city of Kyllandos.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

E. Hula & E. Szanto, “Reise in Karien,” SBWien 132 (1895) 34; BCH 45 (1921) 6; G. Guidi, Annuario 4-5 (1921-22) 379f; L. Robert, Études Anatoliennes (1937) 491-500; P. M. Fraser & G. E. Bean, Rhodian Peraea (1954) 71; Bean & J. M. Cook, BSA 52 (1957) 65-66, 75, 81-85; Bean, Turkey beyond the Maeander (1971) 155-56.

G. E. BEAN

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