(“Kallipolis”) Caria, Turkey.
It is known that Kallipolis was a city of the Rhodian
Peraea, subject to Rhodes though not incorporated in
the Rhodian state. The site is disputed. It first appears
as a stronghold occupied by Orontobates in 334 B.C.,
together with Myndos, Kaunos, and Thera (Arr. 2.5,7).
About 200 B.C. it was visited by the Delphic theori and
the name appears in three Rhodian inscriptions dating
between the 2d c. B.C. and the time of Domitian. It is
also mentioned by Stephanos Byzantios.
Kallipolis has generally been located at Gelibolu on
the coast, near the head of the gulf of Kos, the name
having survived exactly as at Gelibolu on the Dardanelles.
Here there are a number of forts of varying sizes, two
of them ancient, the others mediaeval, but no city site has
been discovered, nor are the extant remains suggestive of
urban civilization. There seem to have been one or more
amphora factories on the spot, and a dedication by a
Rhodian thiasos was unearthed in 1949. That Gelibolu
preserves the name of Kallipolis is hardly disputable,
but in other respects the site is far from satisfactory.
In 1893 an altar dedicated to Domitia by the demos
of the Kallipolitans was discovered at Duran Çiftlik,
some 16 km E of Gelibolu; the remains indicated that
a sanctuary stood there. Less than 2 km NE, above the
village of Kizilyaka and on the highest point of a range
of hills, is an ancient site now largely bare but thickly
covered with Roman sherds and loose building blocks;
the circuit wall has disappeared, but its line is clearly
traceable by a shelf in the hillside. On the summit is a
tower of inferior masonry, and close by are a rectangular
enclosure with walls well built of small blocks, a spring,
and a few simple graves. This site supports the suggestion
that Kallipolis was in the neighborhood of Duran Çiftlik; the name must have been transferred to Gelibolu
at some mediaeval date for unknown reasons.
It is likely, though not proved, that Kallipolis replaced
the ancient city of Kyllandos.
E. Hula & E. Szanto, “Reise in Karien,” SBWien
132 (1895) 34; BCH
45 (1921) 6; G. Guidi, Annuario
4-5 (1921-22) 379f; L. Robert, Études Anatoliennes
(1937) 491-500; P. M. Fraser & G. E. Bean, Rhodian Peraea
(1954) 71; Bean & J. M. Cook, BSA
52 (1957) 65-66, 75, 81-85; Bean, Turkey beyond the Maeander
G. E. BEAN