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The city, in the delta region of the Kayster, was in ancient times the most important metropolis in Ionian Asia Minor, and the most important of the seven Apocalyptic cities. It was founded on an older settlement of Carians and Leleges, which had a sanctuary to the Mother Goddess of Asia Minor. Under King Androklos immigrants from the Greek mainland built the first fortified city 1200 m W of the Artemision, on the slopes of Panayir-daği, and erected a shrine to Apollo Pythios. Under Croesus the first town on the Koressos harbor was abandoned before the mid 6th c. B.C. and a second founded inland, near the earlier Artemision. About 290 B.C., because of land subsidence, the town was moved by Lysimachos to the area between the mountains of Bülbül-daği and Panayir-daği. It was fortified with a turreted wall over 9 km long and laid out on the Hippodamian system; the only deviation was the socalled Kouretes Street, which follows an older path. Lysimachos' city, called until his death after his wife Arsinoë, remained inhabited until ca. A.D. 1000; The Byzantine-Selçuk city, which grew up on and around the Ayasouk hill (Selçuk), was captured in 1426 by the Ottoman Turks.

The Artemision. The scanty remains of this temple, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, lie today on a swampy plain NE of the city, from which the sea receded only ca. 1000 B.C. The earliest shrine, at the beginning of the 6th c. B.C., consisted of two platforms, the W one with an altar, the E one with the goddess's cult image and possibly a naos open to the W. A hoard of votive offerings, found under the limestone paving, is now in the Istanbul Museum. After its destruction by invading Kimmerians, the platforms were enlarged and surrounded by a wall; later they were united to form the podium of a small temple, and finally the building became a roofless temple in antis, possibly prostyle, around a freestanding central core. About 560 B.C., the great Artemision was built by the Cretan architects Chersiphron and Metagenes. On the stylobate, 115.14 by 55.1 m, stood the sekos, probably roofless, with the goddess's image in the center, surrounded by two rows of columns with a third across the front. In the pronaos were four pairs of columns, the lowest drums with reliefs like those of the entrance facade (some of them donated by Croesus). The columns, with superb, painted volute capitals, supported the first marble architrave in the Greek world, bridging the widest span yet mastered (the middle architrave weighed 24 T); the inner architrave, ceiling cofferings, and roof beams were of cedar. This temple is the only early Ionic building securely dated (completed ca. 500 B.C.), and almost entirely capable of reconstruction on paper.

In 356 B.C. the temple was burnt by Herostratos, and subsequently rebuilt by the Ephesians, after they had refused the help of Alexander the Great. The original dimensions were retained, new columns and walls rose upon the old, but on a base 2.68 m higher; the form of the older column bases and their sculptural decorations were also retained. Such artists as Skopas and Apelles collaborated in the work; the altar ornament was reputed to be the work of Praxiteles. The building was completed toward the middle of the 3d c. B.C., except for isolated elements. It was burnt in A.D. 263 by plundering Goths, and completely destroyed in the Christian era. Architectural remains from both temples are in the British Museum. The goddess's cult statue from the older temple was said to be the work of the Athenian Endoios, at the end of the 6th c. B.C. Surviving copies, all Roman, show an archaic type, but with richly jeweled ornament which would not have been part of the prototype. The recently discovered foundation of the altar (39.7 m wide), lying W of the temple and on its axis, is U-shaped and closed on the E. It consists of two courses of polygonal limestone blocks. Beneath the stone bedding of the altar court, which is paved with polygonal marble slabs, lie fragments of the columns of the archaic temple. There are also two separate archaic foundations within the court, approached by an open ramp of later date.

The route followed below leads from the Magnesian Gate to the State Agora. A short diversion to a N-S street W of the Agora passes in front of the Temple of Domitian. The route then proceeds NW along Kouretes Street as far as the Library of Celsus and N along Marble Street to the Theater and the Theater Baths, where it turns W past the great market or Commercial Agora, along the Arkadiane to the Harbor Baths complex. Returning to Marble Street it goes N past the Stadium and the Baths of Vedius. The theater, which is a frequent point of reference, is set against a cliff at the W side of the hill called Panayir-daği (Mt. Pion), which occupies the NE quarter of the city.

The bounds of Lysimachos' city, with ruins of Hellenistic and Roman times, are indicated by two city gates: to the W the Koressos Gate (which led to Koressos, the quarter supposedly located on the site of the old town near the Artemision; see below, Baths of Vedius), and SE of this, on the road to Magnesia, the Magnesian Gate. A stretch of the 3d c. wall constructed by Lysimachos can be seen on the slope of Panayir-daği, and a longer one on Bülbül-daği; the Magneseian Gate lies between them. According to an inscription on the E wall of the S theater entrance, the Festival procession proceeded from the Artemision to the Magnesian Gate, thence to the theater, next to the Koressos Gate and back to the Artemision. The Magnesian Gate consisted of three entrances, the central one for wheeled traffic; flanking these were two fortification towers. The superstructure of the gate, which survives in part, probably dates according to its inscription, from Vespasian. Inside the gate to the SW is the so-called Tomb of Luke, originally a round building faced with marble with 16 niches on the exterior, and later changed into a church.

The East Gymnasium lies to the N, a splendid complex open to the public with exercise rooms and halls for social gatherings. In front of the main building was a palaestra with an auditorium to the E, and another room, comparable to the so-called Imperial chamber of the Baths of Vedius (see below), with a statue of Septimius Severus in an apsidal niche. This was apparently built by the Ephesian Sophist Flavius Damianus and his wife Phaedrina, members of Vedius' family.

The State Agora was over 160 m long, bounded on S and E by marble benches and on the N by a basilica, which was 20 m wide excluding its S steps. In its central nave were columns with deeply set foundations and Ionian bull's-head capitals, between which additional support was provided in the Late Empire by Corinthian columns set directly on the stylobate. To the W was the Chalcidicum of the basilica, a rustic building. The dedication of the basilica to Artemis of Ephesos, the Demos, and Augustus and Tiberius, is recorded on a partly preserved Greek and Latin inscription in bronze letters set into the wall. Later eradication of the goddess's name testifies to the building's survival into the Christian era. Its donors were possibly C. Sextilius Pollio and his wife Offilia Bassa, builders of the aqueduct in Dervend Dere. Beneath the basilica are the remains of a Hellenistic stoa as long as the basilica, 8.60 m deep, with a single nave; older remains were also found beneath the Chalcidicum and the Bouleuterion.

Just N of the basilica is the Prytaneion, the religious and political center of the city, with the sanctuary of Hestia Boulaia and the state apartments. Here were found three statues of Artemis of Ephesos, now in the museums of Selçuk and Izmir. The sanctuary of Hestia, with the base of the hearth for the sacred flame, dates from the Augustan period, but was remodeled in the 3d c. A.D. by the addition of corner columns with Composite capitals. The Doric portico facade with six columns in antis dates from the first phase. In front of this lies a courtyard; E of it is a peristyle with Ionic stoas on three sides and a podium approached by a monumental stair. This podium, formerly known as the state altar, has now been identified as a podium with two small prostyle temples built by Augustus in 29 B.C. for Divus Iulius and Dea Roma; it was destroyed in the 4th c. A.D. Luxurious private houses with frescos and mosaics lay N of the N side of the peristyle, on both sides of the steps leading up the hill.

Adjoining the Prytaneion on the E is the Bouleuterion (formerly called an odeion), a small building ca. 46 m wide with a semicircular auditorium for 1400 persons built on two levels; its upper tier consisted of reddish granite columns. In addition to the radial stairways, two covered stairs led from the parodoi to the center corridor. Originally no skene was planned. According to the building inscription, the donors—at least of the twostoried scaenae frons—were P. Vedius Antoninus and his wife Flavia Papiana, in the mid 2d c. A.D. There were several gates leading into the Agora, and between the Bouleuterion and the basilica were an open passageway (for reasons of safety) and a channel to carry off water from the roofs of both buildings. From this were recovered heads and parts of colossal statues of Augustus and Livia, and a copy of Lysippos' Eros with the bow. Adjacent to the basilica on the E was the so-called Bath of Varius. Still standing are the S wall of the caldarium with seven heated basins, and E of that other rooms for bathing purposes. The long room on the S side was perhaps a hot room. The building was erected in the 2d c. A.D. South of the complex a mosaic floor of the 5th c. A.D., belonging to a stoa, has recently been excavated.

At the E end of the State Agora a section of the archaic necropolis lies beneath the Roman level, with sarcophagi made of stone, clay (Klazomenian), or slabs, and a burial without a sarcophagus dated by the grave gifts to the mid 6th-5th c. B.C. There is also, among the interments of the residents of the second Greek city 3.25 m below the present ground level, a section of the foundations of a street predating Lysimachos' city; it is 3.5 m wide and bordered by a dry wall. The necropolis lay on both sides of it.

On the S side of the Agora was the processional street, running W-E to the Magnesian Gate; S of that and opposite the Bouleuterion was a large fountain, sometimes called the Great E Nymphaeum, fed by water from the Mamas river in the Dervend mountains by means of an aqueduct. The original structure, enlarged in the 2d c. A.D., had a central building, wings, and projecting walls between which was a large basin with a dipping pool in front of it. It was repaired in the 4th c. under Constantius II and Constans.

The Hydrekdochion (fountain) erected ca. A.D. 80 by the proconsul C. Laecanius Bassus stood at the SW corner of the State Agora, where the processional street makes a right angle to pass E of the terrace of the Temple of Domitian. This alley is called Domitian Street. The plan of the fountain resembles that of the Fountain and Nymphaeum of Trajan (see below): a two-storied building with a collecting basin in front and, in front of that, a dipping pool, the dimensions of which were later reduced. The decorations included tritons, seahorses, and river-gods. Adjoining it to the N, near the junction of Domitian Street with Kouretes Street, is the monument in honor of C. Sextilius Pollio, erected by C. Offilius Proculus in the Augustan period and enlarged in A.D. 93 by the addition to the S of a columned apsidal nymphaeum, joined to it by a common entablature. Its late Hellenistic statuary group portraying Odysseus' encounter with Polyphemos was adapted into fountain figures by the addition of a system of pipes. Just N of this is the Chalcidicum of the basilica (see above) with rusticated walls still standing to a fair height and three doors to the W. On the N side of this the Clivus sacer, now a footpath, leads through a gate with two socles decorated with reliefs showing scenes of sacrifice (Hermes leading a ram, youth with a goat, tripod with Omphalos); the path runs from Kouretes Street directly to the precinct of the Prytaneion.

Temple of Domitian. On the opposite side of Domitian Street is the terrace of the temple, with shops in its substructure on N and E, and a monumental approach from an open square to the N. The temple, built upon ancient foundations and further transformed in post-Domitianic times, had 8 by 13 columns, and four across the front; only the foundations remain. Before it stood an altar with socle reliefs of trophies and scenes of sacrifice, now in the museum at Selçuk. The temple was originally dedicated to Domitian by the Province of Asia (the first Neokorie of Ephesos) and after his damnatio memoriae rededicated to his father Vespasian. The head and one arm of a colossal statue of Domitian, thrown down after the damnatio memoriae, were found in the cryptoporticus and are now in the museum at Izmir. In the square before the temple is the foundation of a star-shaped podium, to which perhaps belonged a cylinder with a frieze of bucrania and a conical roof. It may be compared with the more or less contemporary structure next mentioned.

Kouretes Street bends, at its junction with Domitian Street. The monument here was erected in honor of C. Memmius, grandson of Sulla, and has been partly reconstructed. It consists of a socle, surmounted by a story (?), with niches and benches on the W, S, and E sides; in front at the sides are animated female figures in relief, and the whole is surmounted by an attic ornamented with reliefs. Adjoining it is a Hydreion (fountain) of the 1st c. A.D., remodeled in the early 3d c. In front of it are four pedestals on which stood statutes of Diocletian and the Tetrarchs. Further along Kouretes Street, beyond a late antique propylaneum is the Nymphaeum of Trajan (Hydrekdochion) on the N side, dedicated before A.D. 114. The main basin is surrounded on three sides by a two-storied wall resembling a scaena with columns in the Composite order in the lower story and aediculae with Corinthian columns above. In the middle, two stories high, was a colossal statue of Trajan; its base with globe and feet has been restored. The pool was on the street side.

Next to this was the Temple of Hadrian, a little porticoed temple with two columns in antis. Its barrel vaulted cella holds the pedestal for the cult statue, and over its door is a relief of Hadrianic date with a female figure rising from acanthus rinceaux. The building was restored after earthquakes between A.D. 383 and 387, and the relief frieze in the pronaos showing the legend of the founding of the city was added at that time. This frieze, originally made for another, unidentified building (it was cut down to fit its present setting), is possibly one of the latest of antique temple friezes. According to the inscription of P. Quintilius, the temple was dedicated to the emperor during his lifetime; after the Temple of Domitian, it was the city's second Neokorie (a provincial sanctuary designated as an Imperial temple). In front of the facade stood memorial pedestals with the statues of the Tetrarchs: the Augusti in the center flanked by the Caesares (cf. the bases by the Hydreion).

Behind the Temple of Hadrian, at the SW foot of Panayir-daği, are the sprawling Baths of Scholastikia, originally of the 2d c. A.D. and rebuilt ca. 400 by a Christian, Scholastikia, whose statue, with an inscription, stands in the entrance chamber. Much reused material, especially from the Prytaneion, was employed. This bath belongs to the ring- or gallery-type and includes an apsidal apodyterium with changing-cubicles on the sides; the sockets for the curtain-rods are still in place. In its N section, accessible from Marble Street, is a Paidiskeion or brothel.

Opposite the Baths of Scholastikia are two splendid private houses still being excavated. They rise in several stories against the hillside, and while the front rooms of the lower stories are aligned with Kouretes Street, the upper ones are laid out orthogonally, parallel to a street in back which runs at an acute angle from the Square of Domitian to Kouretes Street. There were shops in the lower story, and three flights of steps led from the street to the upper levels. There is a fine peristyle court in the third story of the E house, with marble floors, wall veneer, and a pool of later date with marble revetment. Ten main periods are represented, from the Augustan age until destruction in the early 7th c. Adjoining on the S is a square chamber with three niches on the W side. In House 2 to the W there are apartment suites, each grouped around a peristyle court; the surrounding rooms have an upper story (dwelling space of 964 sq. m); several rooms are decorated with two layers of paintings representing Muses (3d c.), the figure of Socrates with an inscription (1st c.), theater scenes (the Sikyonioi and the Perikeiromene of Menander, and the Orestes of Euripides), the Combat of Hercules and Acheloos, more Muses, and Erotes. Also found here were a bronze statuette 0.38 m high of a “Sem” priest with inscribed cartouches of Psammetich II (590 B.C.), a little ivory head of the 3d c. A.D., other figures and reliefs, and even a frieze, of ivory. From the niche-vault of one of the peristyle courtyards comes a glass mosaic of the 5th or 6th c. A.D. Some of the finds are in the Selçuk museum.

To the NW on Kouretes Street are two related buildings, perhaps heroa from the 1st c. B.C. or A.D.: the Nymphaeum consists of a massive marble base with Doric half-columns on three sides surmounted by Ionic ones, and a frieze decorated with garlands. It was rebuilt as a Nymphaeum in the Christian era; the water flowed into a pool with crosses inscribed on the slabs of its brim. The Octagon is similar: a marble socle surmounted by an 8-sided structure. The massive core, with false door, is surrounded by a Corinthian colonnade; above the entablature is to be reconstructed a stepped pyramid terminating in a cone. The base encloses a tomb chamber which held a marble sarcophagus containing bones. In A.D. 371-372 decrees were inscribed on the socle slabs. Also related to these buildings is the Round Building on the SW cliff of the Panayir-daği: a square dado surmounted by a two-storied round structure, perhaps a memorial to the governor P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus, 46-44 B.C. Beside the two buildings mentioned above, the Processional Way (called Marble Street as far as the theater) turns to the N; on its S continuation across Kouretes Street, leading up to the cliff, lies a gateway with pedestals and bases of pillars in situ: a unique combination of half- and three-quarter columns and pilasters. The second story had a delicate columnar structure comparable to the nearly contemporary Gate of Hadrian in Athens. Beyond this gate lay a marble-paved square.

The Library of Celsus lies W of the square. A flight of nine marble steps 21 m wide leads up to the richly-articulated facade with indented and reentrant paired columns and aediculae. The niches held female figures, allegorical personifications of the four cardinal virtues, now in Vienna. Behind this was a large chamber, built on vaulted substructures and surrounded by an isolating passage (for dryness); the inner walls and floor were originally veneered with variegated marble slabs. Around the walls ran three superimposed rows of 10 cupboard-niches for manuscripts. Opposite the center entrance was an apse beneath which lay the tomb chamber, accessible from the N, with the sarcophagus of the Senator Tiberius Iulius Celsus Polemaeanus, Consul in A.D. 92. The Library, which thus also served as a heroon, was dedicated by his son C. Iulius Aquila, Consul in A.D. 110, and completed by his heirs. In the Christian period a pool was added in front of the facade, bearing relief plaques of a monument in honor of Emperor Lucius Verus; these are now in the Neue Hofburg in Vienna. Opposite the library stood a building, probably a lecture hall, now almost totally destroyed; and the socle of a round building (heroon?) of late Hellenistic or early Roman date. In the square in front of the library was an entrance down to the Commercial Agora, through the Gate of Mazaeus and Mithridates. The inscription on its attic identifies the donors as two freedmen of Agrippa who erected the gate in 4-3 B.C. in honor of Augustus, Livia, Agrippa, and his daughter Julia. It has three entrances between richly articulated side walls, and the attic was crowned by statues of the Imperial family.

The Agora or Lower Marketplace is a square 110 m on a side, surrounded by double-aisled stoas with shops behind them. In the center was a horologion, a water clock and sundial combined. In the 3d c. A.D. the Agora was rebuilt, and in subsequent alterations much earlier building material was reused. On the E outer wall, leading to Marble Street, lies a double-aisled Doric colonnade of the time of Nero. In front of the W side of the Agora stretches a large street-like open space, ca. 160 by 24 m with colonnades along both long sides; at the W end is a gate and on the E another entrance to the market, an exedra-like structure with projecting wings. An open stairway between the wings led up to the level of the Agora; ramps were added during later alterations.

To the W of the Agora, S of the street-like area, similar steps lead up to a square surrounded on three sides by arcades. On the S side of the square lies the Temple of Serapis, of the 2d c. A.D., set on a podium approached by a monumental stair. The porch in front of the barrel-vaulted cella is formed by eight monolithic Corinthian columns ca. 15 m high; immense blocks of marble were also used for the richly decorated entablature, gables, and door frame. A gigantic door on casters led into the cella.

Marble Street (S part, see above under Kouretes St.; farther N below). Named for the pavement given in the 5th c. A.D. by Eutropius, whose portrait is in Vienna, the street lies E of the Commercial Agora, and is reached by the Neronian arcade mentioned earlier. It runs N to the theater, past a late antique arcade on the E side, and on to the stadium.

The Theater, site of the Ephesians' protest, “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” against the Apostle Paul (Acts 19:34), is set into the W cliff of the Panayir-daği and dates in its present state from the Roman era. It was begun under Claudius, completed under Trajan, and received later additions. The auditorium seated 24,000 on three levels of 22 rows each (the lowest 6 were later removed); vaulted stairways led from outside to the upper levels. The well-preserved scenae frons had three stories; in front of it was the Roman logeion. There are also some remains of the pre-Roman stage structure. Built into the W terrace-wall is a fountain house of the 3d or 2d c. B.C.: a niche with two Ionic columns in antis, with the water flowing from three lions' heads in the back wall. To the N of the square in front of the theater was the gymnasium, dating from the Empire and today in ruins; the galleried court in front served as a palaestra.

The Arkadiane ran from the theater to the harbor, a street over 500 m long with a central lane for wheeled traffic 11 m wide, and colonnades 5 m deep on each side. The colonnades had mosaic floors, and shops in the inner walls. The remains visible today date from the time of Emperor Arcadius (A.D. 395-408). According to an inscription, the street was lighted. About halfway along it is a structure of the 6th c. A.D. consisting of four columns with Composite capitals on pedestals. The columns probably held statues of the four Evangelists. At the harbor end, the Arkadiane terminated in an early Roman Harbor Gate, with Ionic architectural features which were decorative rather than functional; its level is 0.6 m lower than that of the later street. On the parallel street to the S lay another two-storied portico of ca. 200 B.C., leading to the harbor. The wall of the Byzantine period, which still exists E of the Stadium and Theater, runs down to the harbor S of the Arkadiane.

The Great Baths (Harbor Baths, Harbor Gymnasium, or Porticos of Verulanus) lay N of the Arkadiane. The site had been set aside for this purpose in the plans for Lysimachos' city and it was originally the only bath complex. The palaestra was surrounded by the various sports facilities; to its S was the fine Marble Hall, and in front of it to the E a great square with triple colonnades. These consisted of an unroofed central lane between two narrow, roofed halls, and apparently constituted the xystus for running practice. The marble revetments of Hadrianic date were added by Pontifex Maximus Claudius Verulanus. The bath building itself and the swimming pool were rebuilt in the 2d and 4th c. A.D. The bronze statue of the Apoxyomenos in Vienna came from here.

The Council Church, also called the Church of the Virgin Mary, is N of this complex. There had previously been a building with three aisles and apsidal ends, erected over an older structure more than 260 m long. Then, in about the 4th c. A.D. a triple-aisled columnar basilica with narthex was built on the site; it had a large colonnaded atrium at the W end and a Baptistery on the N side. This was the great Church of St. Mary where in A.D. 431 the Third Ecumenical Council was held. The E section of the old building was apparently used as a Bishop's palace. Later a domed church was built on the site, and finally a triple-aisled pillared church with galleries.

The Stadium. Marble Street, E of the preceding complex, runs N from the theater to the stadium on the NW slope of the Panayir-daği, where festivals, athletic contests, and horse- and chariot-races were held. The tiers of seats on the S were partly built into the hillside, but all seats were removed in the Middle Ages. The W facade with seven entrances and the gateway in front of it to the S belong to a rebuilding in the 3d or 4th c.; the older wall still preserved on the N dates from the extensive reconstruction under Nero, according to an inscription to Artemis of Ephesos and to Nero. At its E end was a round field for gladiatorial contests and wild beast fights. Adjoining the Stadium to the N are the baths built by P. Vedius and his wife Flavia Papiana in the mid 2d c., dedicated to Artemis, Antoninus Pius, and the City of Ephesos. The plan is symmetrical. On the E is a colonnaded courtyard, and a lavatory with marble seats at its SW corner. On the W side of the court is the Imperial cult-chamber with a two-storied interior colonnade, a niche for the emperor's portrait and, in front of it, an altar. Adjoining this is a bath building, which was adorned with copies of famous statues now in the museum in Izmir. The Koressos Gate stood at the E end of the baths.

At the N foot of the Panayir-daği was the sanctuary of the Mother Goddess, with niches in the mountainside and votive reliefs showing the Mother Goddess of Asia Minor. In the N slope was the Grotto of the Seven Sleepers; a church with catacombs was built here over an older grave area, site of the legend of the resurrection of seven youths during the period of persecution of the Christians. In the valley of Dervend-Dere (Marnas) is the aqueduct built in A.D. 4-14 by C. Sextilius Pollio, a striking series of arches in two stories and one of the best examples of Roman aqueducts in Asia Minor. Recently part of the remains were carried away by a flood. The Panayīa Kapīlī (House of Mary), a shrine to the Virgin on the Aladaği S of the Bülbül-daği, is thought by some scholars to date from the Byzantine period.

In Selçuk are the ruins of the Byzantine aqueduct and of the Gate of the Persecution, probably built in the 6th c. A.D.; in front of it a grave of the Mycenaean period has been excavated. Here also is the Church of St. John, originally a mausoleum over the saint's grave, then a church with a wooden roof. The church was replaced with a domed basilica in the 6th c. A.D. by Justinian. The citadel on the summit, of the Christian-Byzantine period, has a fortification wall with 15 towers and a single gate. The Mosque of Isa Bey, SW of the Church of St. John, is the most important Islamic building in Ephesos, built in 1375 by an architect from Damascus. There are 14 other small mosques, sepulchers, and baths; there is an excellent museum in Selçuk where the finds since WW II are kept, and there are two in Izmir.


RE V (1905) 2773ff; RE Suppl. XII (1970) 248ff, 297ff, 1588ff; C. H. Picard, Ephèse et Claros (1922); F. Miltner, Ephesos, Stadt der Artemis und des Johannes (1958); W. Alzinger, Die Stadt des 7. Weltwunders (1962)MPI; id., “Augusteische Architektur in Ephesos,” Sonderschriften d. ÖAI 16 (1972)MP; (1972)MPI; id. & D. Knibee, Ephesos, Ein Rundgang durch die Ruinen (1972)PI; J. Keil, Führer durch Ephesos (5th ed. 1964)MPI; E. Akurgal, Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey (1969) 142-71PI.


J. T. Wood, Discoveries at Ephesos (1877); D. G. Hogarth, The Archaic Artemisia (1908); Österr. Arch. Inst., Forschungen in Ephesos (1906) I, 237ff; “Vorlaufige Berichte,” AnzWien 98 (1961) passim.


M. Bieber, Die Denkmäler zum Theaterwesen im Altertum (1920) 43ff; id., The History of the Greek and Roman Theater (1939) 226ff, 267, 370-71I; A. Boëthius & J. B. Ward-Perkins, Etruscan and Roman Architecture (1970) 387I (aqueduct), 399-403 (baths); G. Sotiriou, Deltion 7 (1921-22) 89ff (Church of St. John); F. Fasolo, Palladio (1956) 1ff (Council Church); G. Grüben, Griechische Tempel und Heiligtümer (1961) 243ff (Artemision); W. Alzinger, Festsch. F. Eichler (1967) 1ff (Koressos); A. Bammer, AA (1968) 400ff (altar of Artemision).


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