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EPIPHANETA (Oiniandos) Cilicia Campestris, Turkey.

Mainly identified with large site 91 km SE of Adana and ca. 6 km W of Erzin on the right side of railroad track to Iskenderun. The otherwise unknown native town of Oiniandos was renamed for Antiochos IV Epiphanes at the beginning of the 2d c. B.C. After a shortlived autonomy, Epiphaneia was colonized with ex-pirates by Pompey and adopted 68/7 B.C. as its era date. A coin of A.D. 113/4 suggests that the city was honored by Trajan with his name, but Epiphaneia's history is otherwise obscure apart from its claim, with many other places, to be the birthplace of St. George.

The extensive ruins of the city, constructed almost entirely of black basalt, were enclosed by a wall 2 m thick with large square towers at intervals throughout its length. Very conspicuous is the long aqueduct of which numerous arches still remain, with a part of the watercourse still draining into a cistern with walls nearly 1.5 m thick. The theater, with a diameter of ca. 87 m, has been robbed of its seating, but retains its upper promenade of 12 m width, this upper part being strengthened by buttresses at intervals of 5.5 m. There are two ruined churches, both apparently of the 5th or 6th c.; one of these may have been originally a pagan building with walls of stone orthostats to which a concrete apse had later been added at the E end of the rectangle.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

App. Mith. 96; Plin. HN 5.93; Tab. Peut. 10.4.

R. Heberdey & A. Wilhelm, “Reisen in Kilikien,” Wien. Denkschr. 44 (1896) 23; D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor (1950) 280, 300, 397, 595, 1159; A.H.M. Jones, Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces (2d ed. 1971) 201, 203, 436.

M. GOUGH

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