Côte d'Or, France.
the source of the small Cave river dedicated, according
to inscriptions (CIL
XIII, 5644-46), to Apollo Vindonnus
and Apollo of the Springs.
Recent excavations have corrected earlier accounts,
and have demonstrated that the temple was not a single
building with a double cella, but consisted of two distinct
structures with no wall connecting them but similar in
plan. There are two fana, each of which contained a
rectangular cella with a gallery around it, set in a court.
The cella of the NW temple was 7.4 m on the N side, 7.6
on the S, 6.6 on the W, and 6.95 on the E; the gallery
was 2.6 m wide to the N and 3.2 m to the W. Pottery
and coins found on the site, combined with an investigation of the soil and strata, have pinpointed more precisely the histories of the buildings. A large part of the
pottery is still in the local tradition (coarse blackish
paste with scour), and with the pottery were found many
Gallic coins (25 pewter; four silver; Roman coins from
the end of the Republic or beginning of the Empire).
Apparently in the beginning there was a wooden monument to the S, a few elements of which have been found
buried beneath the first floor of the S cella (phase 1);
then about the middle of the 1st c. B.C. a stone cella was
built (phase 2) N of the first, closer to the springs.
Phase 3 is apparently represented by a second stone temple erected during the 1st c. A.D. to replace the early
wooden one, which had been destroyed in a fire of which
there are some traces. It is possible that temple II was
rebuilt after being abandoned for a time.
The abundant ex-votos link the sanctuary of Essarois
with that of the Sources of the Seine. They include thin
bronze slabs representing eyes and breasts, ex-votos of
wood, ex-votos of stone (legs, arms, torsos), proving
that Apollo Vindonnus, with the aid of the springs associated with him, had assumed the character of a healing
god. The ex-votos are frequently pathological (deformed
limbs, highly developed genitals, a head with closed
eyes). Also worthy of note are the statuettes of infants
in swaddling clothes, as well as an odd stele with five
women's heads in a group. Most of these sculptures are
in the Musée de Chatillon.
P. Mignard, Description d'un temple
dédié à Apollon au cirque de la Cave, près d'Essarois
(1851); Mémoires de la Commission des Antiquités de
la Côte d'Or
III (1847-52) 111-205; E. Espérandieu,
Recueil général des bas-reliefs
. . . (1907-66) III, 3411-39; G. Drioux, Cultes indigènes des Lingons (1934) 20-24; Grenier, Manuel IV, 2 (1960) 639-44; R. Martin,
Gallia, 22, 2 (1964) 311-13I; 24 (1966) 390-92I.